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BOMBAY  :    A.     H.    WHEELER    AND    CO. 


boc  l«en  •  tfiit  Vtfion  t»U5««d  |nib» 
TAf  C01T1AJ1       I'tiJ^iUi  oj:  •pcttntAU  'imb  lAir5u  fayri 

o(^  c^otib  hc|t  be  ^djbm*  ytit^tnuijoti  cAft^tun  ^if^ 
-jt  vtUoJJ'^^tf  t)p<t  coy  jtS  jWnr«j^t  <of  pjlcumtii.  J»' 

^i^<m  Jnf  Uni^  nop  j><m  y  M|i^  **!  ]^)?<m^Hdf  t^1>ir  n^ 
hon  b|itct»f.  lya  t^  <qi  cyc^on  •  Atw  ^a.  ^syhrnT  b«om  Abcr 
don  pf^  («r'p:anitm.<mJ>a.3C|uib  ^In3tat|iotib«o^» 
kync  em  44  (m|?A.pp  he<Uf«i«  pn bcot^<m  |^  Uii5t 

4\inv  ^iCl  5e  yaz  of^  ^be|iiit<in  on  b^inxene  ^^  j^  Un 
^Cf4ttm5<el3e«)bon'^  yepiCDiid  liqiiito^a  |iw^t^ 

■ct5Ttm ynrcfiu^cc^iyiCyc qu{tr  |^  .wemicb^at  tiili 


(Vniu/f^A'.  Ox 


(Scale  «  of  the  original.) 




J.  A.  GILES    D  C.L. 



G.  BELL    AND    SONS,   LTD. 


\_ReprinUd  from  Sieve ot^jpe  'plaUs.'] 



The  work  which  is  commonly  known  as  the  Saxo!i 
or  Anglo-Saxon  Chronicle  is  a  chronological  record  of 
important  events,  chiefly  relating  to  the  English  race, 
from  the  earliest  period  of  the  Christian  era  to  the 
XII.  century.  It  is  of  a  composite  character,  and  has 
been  preserved  to  the  present  day  in  the  form  of  six 
more  or  less  complete  ancient  MSS.,  some  of  which  appear 
to  be  independent  of  each  other  though  traceable  to 
some  common  original,  whilst  others  are  apparently  more 
nearly  related  by  obvious  similarities.  Four  of  these  are 
in  the  British  Museum,  one  in  the  Bodleian  Library  at 
Oxford,  and  another  in  the  library  of  Corpus  Christi 
College,  Cambridge.  In  addition  to  these,  there  is,  in 
the  Library  of  Trinity  College,  Dublin,  a  copy  made  in 
1563—4,  by  William  Lambard,  of  a  MS.  which  now  exists 
only  in  the  shape  of  three  disfigured  leaves.  It  is  one  of  the 
Cottonian  MSS.  in  the  British  Museum,  some  of  which 
were  damaged  or  destroyed  by  a  fire  in  Little  Dean's  Yard, 
Westminster,  in  the  year  1731.  Before  its  destruction 
this  MS.  was  printed  by  Abraham  Wheloc  in  1633-4; 
and  it  is  evident  that,  as  far  as  it  goes,  it  is  a  copy 
of  the  Cambridge  MS.     These  seven  MSS.,  including  the 


one  which  is  represented  by  the  Dublin  copy  and  Wheloc'ff 
printed  edition,  have  been  distinguished  as  follows  ; — 

Ending  at 

1.  At  Cambridge     ....    1070     A 

2.  In  the  British  Museum  .  .      977     B 

3.  „            ;,            „       .          .          .  1066  G 

4.  „           „            ,       .         .          .  1079  D 

5.  „  Bodleian  Library  (imperfect)  1154  E 
b.  „  British  Museum  (imperfect)  1058  P 

.    (The  Dublin  MS.  copy  )  ^  ^    ^qq^     ^  ^^^  ^y 

(Wheloc's  printed  copy  3 

MS.  A  (CCCG  173)  is  part  of  the  bequest  of  Archbishop 
Parker  (died  1575)  to  Corpus  Christi  College,  Cambridge, 
and  is  now  generally  known  as  the  Parker  MS.  It  is 
written  in  many  different  hands,  but  as  the  entries  down 
to  891  are  all  in  one  script,  consistent  with  that  date,  it 
is  not  unreasonable  to  assume  that  this  copy  dates  from 
the  days  of  Alfred  the  Great,  to  whom  the  initiation 
of  this  national  chronicle  is  without  doubt  to  be  ascribed. 
1 1  is  also  obvious  from  the  entries  that  it  was  written 
at  his  royal  city  of  Winchester,  though  it  was  at  a  later 
date  supplemented  by  contemporary  scribes  at  Canterbury. 
There  are,  moreover,  many  interpolations  by  later  hands, 
and  notes  by  Joscelin,  Archbishop  Parker's  secretary.  It 
i-5  generally  regarded  as  the  standard  text. 

IMS.  B,  in  the  British  Museum  (Cott.  Tib.  A  vi.)  is  all 

*  In  Mr.  Charles  Plummer's  edition  of  "  Two  Sason  Chronicles 
parallel"  the  text  of  G  is  indicated  by  the  letter  A  as  being  a  copy 
\jL  the  Cambridge  MS.,  which  he  distinguishes  by  the  symbol  K. 
To  his  introduction  to  those  parallel  texts  K  and  E  (Clarendon 
Press,  18'J9)  every  student  who  requires  an  exhaustive  description, 
audlysis  and  comparison  of  all  the  existing  texts  in  referred. 

PREFACE.  vii 

in  one  hand,  and  is  supposed  to  have  been  copied  about 
the  year  1000,  which  is  not  remote  from  the  year  977,  at 
which  it  ends.  The  chronicle  from  which  it  was  directly 
or  indirectly  copied  was  associated  with  the  monastery 
of  Abingdon. 

MS.  C,  in  the  British  Museum  (Cott.  Tib.  B  i.),  is  also 
connected  with  the  same  monastery,  and  has  been  called 
the  Abingdon  Chronicle.  It  is  written  in  several  hands, 
but  from  the  regularity  of  its  pages  it  seems  to  have  been 
transcribed  as  a  whole.  It  has  many  annotations  of  the 
XVI.  century.  A  peculiarity  of  both  B  and  C,  showing 
a  close  connexion,  is  that  they  interpolate  bodily  a  number 
of  annals  (from  902  to  924)  dealing  mainly  with  the  deeds 
of  ^thelfled,  a  Lady  of  the  Mercians,  generally  designated 
as  the  Mercian  Register. 

MS.  D,  in  the  British  Museum  (Cott.  Tib.  B  iv.)  is 
written  in  several  hands,  and  brings  the  chronicle  down 
to  1079,  but  a  considerable  portion,  comprising  the  years 
262  to  693,  is  missing.  The  lacuna  has  been  filled  by 
insertions  made  by  Joscelin  from  monastic  records  in  other 
versions  of  the  Chronicle.  The  original  MS.,  though  by 
seven  or  eight  different  hands,  was  all  compiled  in  the 
latter  half  of  the  XI.  century,  with  the  exception  of  one 
late  entry  of  1130.*     It  agrees  mostly  with  MS.  C. 

MS.  E,  in  the  Bodleian  Library  (Laud  Misc.  636),  was 
formerly  in  the  possession  of  Archbishop  Laud.  It  extends 
to  the  year  1154,  though  the  last  leaf  is  missing.  The 
greater  part  of  it,  to  1121,  is  apparently  in  one  hand, 
but  the  latest  entries  are  probably  contemporary  with  the 

*  This  date,  in  the  LIS.,  is  1080.  Mr.  Plummer  has  pointed  out 
that  MLXXX.  has  been  erroneously  written  for  MCXXX. 

viii  PPwEFACE. 

events  described.  Owing  to  the  numerous  entries  relating 
to  Peterborough,  it  evidently  came  into  the  possession  of 
that  monastery.  Its  pedigree,  as  traceable  from  the  original 
chronicle,  diverges  more  than  any  other  from  that  of 
MS.  A,  with  which  it  has  therefore  a  considerable  com- 
plementary importance,  for  which  reason  Messrs.  Earle 
and  Plummer  made  these  two  texts  the  groundwork  of 
their  editions. 

MS.  F,  in  the  British  Museum  (Cott.  Dom.  A  viii.), 
extends  to  1058,  but  is  mutilated  at  the  end.  It  is  a 
compilation  from  other  transcripts,  and  has  little  original 
value,  its  most  remarkable  feature  being  that  it  is 
bi-lingual,  each  entry  being  written  in  Latin  as  well  as 

MS.  G,  the  few  remains  of  which  are  in  the  British 
Museum  (Cott.  Otho  B  xi),  is  now  only  known  by  the 
Dublin  copy  and  by  Wheloc's  printed  version.  It  is 
practically  a  copy  of  A. 

The  minute  and  exhaustive  investigation  of  the  subject 
by  Mr.  Plummer,  from  whom  some  of  these  particulars 
are  derived,  has  proved  that  the  original  chronicle  estab- 
lished by  Alfred  the  Great,  or  any  direct  copy  of  it,  is 
no  longer  extant.  MSS.  A,  B  and  C,  which  are  practically 
identical  to  the  year  892,  doubtless  represent  its  substance 
to  that  date,  but  it  will  be  noticed  by  the  student  that 
in  all  of  these,  from  the  middle  of  the  eighth  century  to 
the  middle  of  the  ninth,  the  events  are  misdated  by  two 
or  three  years.  This  has  arisen  from  the  fact  that  a  date 
left  blank  in  the  original  copy  has  occasionally  been 
inadvertently  filled  by  the  transcriber  with  the  next 
entry,  and  so  caused  a  general  ante-dating  of  the  succeeding 


annals.  Bufc  the  later  portions  of  MSS.  A,  C,  D  and  E 
may  all  be  regarded  as  contemporary  chronicles,  and  not 
open  to  suspicion  on  chronological  grounds.  A  complete 
analytical  edition  in  modern  English,  with  corrected  dates, 
is  still,  and  must  perhaps  remain,  a  desideratum. 

The  first  printed  edition  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Chronicle 
was  that  by  Abraham  Wheelock,  or  Wheloc,  Professor  of 
Arabic  in  the  University  of  Cambridge.  His  text  was 
compiled  from  MS.  G  (not  then  destroyed),  with  additions 
from  A,  and  was  accompanied  by  a  Latin  translation. 

Forty -nine  years  later  a  more  complete  edition,  with  a 
Latin  translation,  was  published  by  Edmund  Gibson,  of 
Queen's  College,  Oxford,  afterwards  Bishop  of  London. 

The  first  translation  into  modern  English,  based  on 
Gibson's  version,  was  made  by  Miss  Anna  Gurney,  and 
privately  printed  at  Norwich  in  1819.  It  was  a  work 
of  great  ability,  but  its  publication  was  prevented  by  the 
appearance  in  1823  of  a  text  and  English  translation  by 
Dr.  James  Ingram,  President  of  Trinity  College,  Oxford, 
who  had  the  advantage  of  his  predecessors  in  collating 
al!  the  extant  MSS. 

The  following  translation  by  Dr.  Giles  appeared  in 
1847.  It  was  based  on  the  materials  prepared  under  the 
superintendence  of  Henry  Petrie,  formerly  Keeper  of  the 
Records  in  the  Tower.  Dr.  Giles  also  acknowledged  his 
obligations  to  Miss  Gurney 's  translation,  which  he  used 
to  complete  the  chronicle,  and  to  Dr.  Ingram's  account 
of  the  various  MSS.  Mr.  Petrie's  materials  were,  in 
the  meantime,  used  in  the  compilation  of  the  first 
volume  of  Monumenta  Historica  Britannica,  which  was 
published    in    1848,    and    gives    a    composite    text    and 


translation  as  far  as  1066.  It  was  not  carried  further,  as 
t'le  projected  continuation  of  the  work  was  merged  in  the 
well-known  series  of  records  issued  under  the  authority 
of  the  Master  of  the  Rolls.  In  this  series  was  afterwards 
(in  1861)  included  Mr.  Thorpe's  six-text  edition  with  a 

A  good  translation,  which  was  based  on,  and  completed 
that  given  in  Monumenta  Historica  Britannica,  by  the  Rev. 
J.  Stevenson,  of  Durham  University,  appeared  in  1853. 

In  an  edition  of  the  Chronicle  there  is  no  satisfactory 
compromise  between  a  complete  collation  and  what  is 
called  a  conflation  of  the  various  texts.  Mr.  Plummer 
has,  with  the  assistance  of  Mr.  Thorpe's  six-text  edition, 
brought  the  former  plan  to  as  near  perfection  as 
possible,  and  thereby,  with  his  remarkably  discerning 
introduction  and  notes,  earned  the  gratitude  of  all 
succeeding  historians  and  workers  in  the  same  field.  For 
the  ordinary  inquirer,  a  cheap  and  handy  amalgamation 
of  the  texts  such  as  that  which  follows  may  still,  it  is 
hoped,  have  its  more  commonplace  uses.  It  appeared 
originally  in  the  same  volume  as  the  translation  of  Bede's 
Ecclesiastical  History ;  but  as  this  has  now  been  superseded 
by  Miss  A.  M.  Sellar's  version  it  has  been  found  convenient 
to  re-issue  the  Chronicle  as  an  independent  volume,  and  to 
introduce  some  improvements  in  its  form,  E.  B. 





[The  island  f  of  Britain  is  eight  hundred  miles  long  and 
two  hundred  miles  broad  :  and  here  in  this  island  are  five 
tongues  ;  English,  British,  Scottish,  Pietish,  and  Latin.  The 
first  inhabitants  of  this  land  were  Britt^ns  ;  they  came  from 
Armenia,!  and  first  settled  in  the  south  of  Britain.  Then 
befell  it  that  Picts  came  from  the  south  from  Scythia,  with 
long  sliips,  not  many,  and  first  landed  in  North  Hibernia, 
and  there  entreated  the  Scots  that  they  might  there  abide. 
But  they  would  not  permit  them,  for  tliey  said  that  they 
could  not  all  abide  there  together.  And  then  the  Scots  said, 
'  We  may  nevertheless  give  you  counsel.  V/e  know  another 
island  eastward  of  this,  where  ye  may  dwell  if  ye  will,  and 
if  any  one  withstand  you,  we  will  assist  you,  so  that  you  may 
subdue  it.'  Then  went  the  Picts  and  subdued  tliis  land 
northwards  ;  the  southern  part  the  Britons  had,  as  we  before 
have  said.  And  the  Picts  obtained  waves  for  themselves  of 
the  Scots,  on  this  condition,  that  they  should  always  choose 
tb^eir  royal  lineage  on  the  woman's  side  ;  which  they  have 
held  ever  since.     And  then  befell  it  in  the  course  of  years 

*  The  Anglo-Saxon  Chronicle  is  apparently  the  work  of  many  successive 
hands,  and  extends  in  different  copies  from  the  time  of  Csesar's  invasion  to 
the  middle  of  the  twelfth  century.  As  it  has  been  repeatedly  prmted,  it 
may  suffice  here  to  repeat,  that,  with  the  exception  of  the  insertions  placed 
within  brackets,  the  text  to  the  year  975  is  mostly  taken  from  the  MS. 
designated  by  the  letter  A.;  from  that  period  to  1079  from  MSS.  A.  C.  D. 
E.  F.  and  G.,  and  from  thence  to  the  conclusion  from  MS.  E. :  and  that  such 
portions  of  the  different  MSS.  us  are  concurrent  with  the  text,  but  will  not 
conveniently  admit  of  collation,  are  given  separately  in  a  smaller  type. 
These  variations  ■will  sometimes  convey  the  same  information  two  or  three 
times  over  :  but  it  has  been  deemed  advisable  to  retain  all  of  them 
that  the  reader  may  hdve  a  more  ample  means  of  judging  of  tlie  authority 
of  this  invaluable  national  record. 

f  This  dtscription  of  Britiiin  is  taken  from  Bede*s  Ecclesiastical 
History. — L  i  c  l  ^  ^Umorica,  g 

2  THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,     a.d.  is. 

that  some  part  of  the  Scots  departed  from  Hibernia  ^^itc 
Britain,  and  conquered  some  portion  of  the  land.  And  theu 
leader  was  called  Reoda  ;  from  whom  they  are  named 

Sixty  years  before  Clrist  was  born,  Gains  Julius,  emperor 
of  the  Romans,  with  eighty  ships,  sought  Britain.  There  he 
was  at  first  distressed  by  a  fierce  battle,  and  a  large  portion 
of  his  army  was  dispersed.  And  then  he  left  his  army  to 
abide  among  the  Scots,"]*  and  went  south  into  Gaul,  and  there 
collected  six  hundred  ships,  with  which  he  came  again  into 
Britain.  And  as  they  first  rushed  together,  the  emperor's 
*  gerrefa  'J  was  slain  :  he  was  called  Labienus.  Then  the 
Welsh  took  large  and  sharp  stakes  and  drove  them  into  the 
fording  place  of  a  certain  river  under  water  ;  this  river  was 
called  Thames.  When  the  Romans  discovered  this,  then 
would  they  not  go  over  the  ford.  Then  fled  the  Britons  to 
the  wood-wastes,  and  the  emperor  conquered  very  many  of 
their  chief  cities  after  a  great  struggle,  and  depai-ted  again 
into  Gaul. 

Before  the  incarnation  of  Christ  sixty  years,  Gains  Julius  the  emperor, 
first  of  the  Romans,  sought  the  land  of  Britain;  and  he  crushed  the  Btittjns 
in  battle,  and  overcame  them  :  and  revertheless  he  was  unable  to  gain  any 
empire  there. 

A.D.  1.  Octavianus  reigned  fifty-six  years;  and  in  the 
forty-second  year  of  his  reign  Christ  was  born. 

A.  2.  The  three  astrologers  came  from  the  eastern  parts 
in  order  that  they  might  worship  Christ.  And  the  children 
were  slain  at  Bethlehem,  in  persecution  of  Christ  by 

A.  3.  This  year  died  Herod,  having  stabbed  himself,  and 
Archelaus  his  son  succeeded  to  the  government.  And  tlie 
child  Christ  was  brought  back  again  from  Egypt. 

A,  4.  5.  § 

*  Dal  signifies  a  division  or  part. — Cf.  Bede  1.  i.  c.  1. 

f  "  This  is  an  error,  arising  from  the  inaccurately  written  MSS.  of 
Oroaius  and  Bede  ;  where  in  Hyhemia  and  in  Hibemiam  occur  fcr  in 
hiberua.     The  error  is  retained  in  Wheloc's  Bede."— Lnqrvm. 

X  "Tribune." — Ingram. 

§  These  blank  dates  are  found  in  the  MSS.  of  the  Saxon  Chronicle,  and 
are  retained  in  this  volume,  for  the  sake  of  references  which  occur  betweer 
the  MSS.  where  the  date  happeiu  to  be  blank,  and  othera  in  which  facti 
ije  asaigned  to  them. 


A.  6.  From  the  beginning  of  the  world  to  tliis  year,  fixe 
iliousand  and  two  hundi'ed  years  were  gone  by. 

A.  7.— 10. 

A.  n.  This  year  Herod  the  son  of  Antipater  obtaiue<2 
the  government  of  Jndea. 

A.  12.  Philip  and  Herod  divided  Lysia  (between  therui, 
and  Judea  they  divided  into  tetrarchies. 

A.  12.  This  year  Judea  was  divided  into  four  tetrarchie». 

A.  13.— 15. 

A.   16.  This  year  Tiberius  succeeded  to  the  empire. 

A.  17.-25. 

A.  26.  This  year  Pilate  began  to  rule  over  the  Jews. 

A.  27.-29. 

A.  30.  This  year  Christ  was  baptized  ;  and  he  converted 
Peter  and  Andrew,  and  James  and  John  and  Philip,  and  the 
twelve  apostles. 

A.  31.  32. 

A.  33.  This  year  Christ  was  crucified  ;  being  from  the 
beginning  of  the  world  about  five  thousand  two  hundred  and 
twenty-six  years. 

A.  34.  This  year  St.  Paul  was  converted,  and  St.  Stephen 

A.  35.  This  year  the  blessed  apostle  Peter  established  a 
bishop's  see  in  the  city  of  Antioch. 

A.  36.  37. 

A.  38.  This  year  Pilate  slew  himself  with  his  OAvn  hand. 

A.  39.  This  year  Caius  obtained  the  empire. 

A.  40.  Matthew,  in  Judea,  began  to  write  his  gospel. 

A.  41. — 44. 

A.  45.  This  year  the  blessed  apostle  Peter  established  a 
bishop's  see  in  Rome.  This  year  James,  the  brother  of  John, 
was  slain  by  Herod. 

A.  46.  This  year  Herod  died  ;  he  who  slew  James,  one 
year  before  his  own  death. 

A.  46.  This  year  the  emperor  Claudius  came  to  Britain,  and  subdued 
a  large  part  of  the  island  ;  and  he  also  added  the  island  of  Orkney  to  the 
dominion  of  the  Romans. 

A.  47.  This  year  Claudius,  second  of  the  Roman  kings, 
sought  the  land  of  Britain,  and  brought  under  his  power  the 
greater  part  of  the  island,  and  also  subjected  the  Orkney 
Islands   to   the   dominion   of    the   Romans.     This  war   he 

B  2 

4  THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,  a.d.  47-100. 

effected  in  the  fourth  year  of  his  reign  :  and  in  the  same 
year  was  the  great  famine  in  Syria,  which  was  foretold  in 
the  Acts  of  the  Apostles  through  Agabus  the  f^rophet.  Then 
Nero  succeeded  to  the  empire  after  ClaufUus  :  he  nearly  lost 
the  island  of  Britain  through  his  cowardice.  Mark  the 
Evangelist  begins  to  write  the  gospel  in  Egypt. 

A.  47.  This  was  in  the  fourth  year  of  his  reign,  and  in  this  same  year 
was  the  great  famine  in  Syria  which  Luke  speaks  of  in  the  book  called 
'  Actus  Apostolorum.' 

A.  47.  This  year  Claudius,  king  of  tke  Romans,  went  with  an  army  into 
Britain,  and  subdued  the  island,  and  subjected  all  the  Picts  and  Welsh  to 
the  rule  of  the  Romans. 

A.  48.  In  this  year  there  was  a  very  severe  famine. 

A.  49.   This  year  Nero  began  to  reign. 

A.  50.  This  year  Paul  was  sent  in  bonds  to  Rome, 

A.  5L— 61 

A.  62.  This  year  James,  the  brother  of  our  Lord,  suffered 

A.  63.  This  year  Mark  the  Evangelist  died. 

A.  64.-68. 

A.  69.  This  year  Peter  and  Paul  suffered  martyrdom. 

A,  69.  Thi-i  year  Peter  suffered  on  the  cross,  and  Paul  was  slain 

A.  70.  This  year  Vespasian  obtained  the  empire. 

A.  71.  This  year  Titus,  the  son  of  Vespasian,  slew  on^ 
hundred  and  eleven  thousand  Jews  in  Jerusalem. 

A.  72.— 80. 

A.  81.  This  year  Titus  succeeded  to  the  empire,  after 
Vespasian  ;  he  who  said  that  he  had  lost  the  day  on  which 
he  had  done  no  good. 

A.  82.  83. 

A.  84.  This  year  Domitian,  the  brother  of  Titus,  suc- 
ceeded to  the  empire. 

A.  84.  This  year  John  the  Apostle  wrote  the  book  which  is  called 

A.  85.  86. 

A.  87.  This  year  John  the  Evangelist  wrote  the  boos  of 
the  Apocalypse  in  tl>e  island  of  Patmos. 

A.  88.-99. 

A.  100.  This*  year  Simon  the  apostle,  the  kinsman  of 
Christ  was  crucified,  and  John  the  Evangelist  rcflt^Q  ir 
death  on  that  day  at  Ephcsus. 

A.D.  101-286.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.  5 

A.  lOL  Tills  year  pope  Clement  died. 

A.   102.— 109. 

A.   110.  This  year  Ignatius  tlie  bishop  suffered  martyrdom 

A.  111.— 115. 

A.  116.  This  year  Adrian  the  emperor  began  to  reign. 

A.  117.— 136. 

A.  137.  This  year  Antoninus  began  to  reign. 

A.  138.-144. 

A.  145.  This  year  Marcus  Antoninus  and  Aurelius  his 
brother  succeeded  to  the  empire. 

A.   146.— 166. 

A.  167.  This  year  Eleutherius  obtained  the  bishopric  of 
Rome,  and  held  it  in  great  glory  for  twelve  years.*  To  him 
Lucius,  king  of  Britain,  sent  letters  praying  that  he  might  be 
made  a  Christian  :  and  he  fulfilled  that  he  requested.  And 
they  afterwards  continued  in  the  right  faith  till  the  reign  of 

A.  167.  This  year  Eleutherius  succeeded  to  the  popedom,  and  held  it 
fifteen  years  ;  and  in  the  same  year  Lucius,  king  of  the  Britons,  sent  and 
begged  baptism  of  him.  And  he  soon  sent  it  him  ;  and  they  continued  iti 
the  true  faith  until  the  time  of  Diocletian. 

A.  168.— 187. 

A.  188.  This  year  Severus  succeeded  to  the  empire,  and 
went  with  an  army  into  Britain,  and  subdued  a  great  part  of 
the  island  by  battle  ;  and  then,  for  the  protection  of  the 
Britons,  he  built  a  rampart  of  turf,  and  a  broad  wall  thereon, 
from  sea  to  sea.  He  reigned  seventeen  years,  and  then 
ended  his  days  at  York.  His  son  Bassianus  succeeded  to  the 
empire  :  another  son  of  his  was  called  Geta  ;  he  died. 

A.   190.— 198. 

A.   199.  In  this  year  the  Holy-rood  f  was  found. 

A.  200.  Two  hundred  years. 

A.  201.— 285. 

A.  286.  This  year  St.  Alban  the  martyr  suffered. 

*  According  to  Muratori,  Eleutherius  presided  from  A.  170  to  A.  185. 

+  "  Those  writers  who  mention  this  grand  discovery  of  the  holy  cross,  by 
Helena  the  mother  of  Constantine,  disagree  so  much  hi  their  chronology, 
that  it  is  a  vain  attempt  to  reconcile  them  to  truth  or  to  each  other.  This 
and  the  other  notices  of  ecclesiastical  matters,  whether  Latin  or  Saxon, 
from  the  yeax  190  to  the  yefir  380  of  the  Laud  MS.  and  381  of  the 
printed  Chronicle,  may  be  safely  considered  as  interpolations,  probabl* 
poeterior  to  the  Norman  Conquest." — Ingram. 

r>  THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.  a.d.  287-4*3. 

A.  287.-299. 

A.  300.  Three  hundred  years. 

A.  301.— 342. 

A.  343.  This  year  S.  Nicolas  died. 

A.  344.-378. 

A.  379.  This  year  Gratian  succeeded  to  the  empire. 

A.  380. 

A.  381.  This  year  Maximus  the  emperor  obtained  the 
empire ;  he  was  born  in  the  land  of  Britain,  and  went  thence 
into  Gaul.  And  he  there  slew  the  emperor  Gratian,  and 
drove  his  brother,  who  was  called  Valentinian,  out  of  the 
country.  And  Valentinian  afterwards  gathered  an  army  and 
slew  Maximus,  and  obtained  the  empire.  In  these  days  the 
heresy  of  Pelagius  arose  throughout  the  world. 

A.  382.— 408. 

A.  409.  This  year  the  Goths  took  the  city  of  Rome  by 
storm,  and  after  this  the  Romans  never  ruled  in  Britain  ;  and 
this  was  about  eleven  hundred  and  ten  years  after  it  had  been 
built.  Altogether  they  ruled  in  Britain  four  hundred  and 
seventy  years  since  Caius  Julius  first  sought  the  land. 

A.  410.— 417. 

A.  418.  This  year  the  Romans  collected  all  the  treasures 
that  were  in  Britain,  and  some  they  hid  in  the  earth,  so  that 
no  one  has  since  been  able  to  find  them  ;  and  some  they 
carried  with  them  into  Gaul. 

A.  419.— 422. 

A.  423.  This  year  Theodosius  the  younger  succeeded  to 
tlie  empire. 

A.  424. — 429. 

A.  430.  This  year  Palladius  *  the  bishop  was  sent  to  the 
Scots  by  pope  Celestinus,  that  he  might  confirm  their  faitli. 

A.  430.  This  year  Patrick  was  sent  by  pope  Celestine  to  preach 
baptism  to  the  Scots. 

A.  431.— 442. 

A.  443.  This  year  the  Britons  sent  over  sea  to  Rome,  and 
begged  for  help  against  the  Picts  ;  but  they  had  none,  because 
they  were  themselves  warring  against  Attila,  king  of  the 

♦  "  Pallad:\!s  and  Patricius  have  been  sometimes  confoimded  together* 
<o  that  it  is  difficult  to  assign  to  each  his  respective  share  of  merit  in  ihe 
Cou version  oi  the  Scots  of  Ireland." — Lngr^m. 

A  n.  444-455.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.  7 

Huns.  And  then  they  sent  to  the  Angles,  and  entreated  th? 
like  of  the  ethelings  of  the  Angles. 

A.  444.  This  year  St.  Martin  died. 

A.  445. — 447. 

A.  448.  This  year  John  tlie  Baptist  revealed  his  head  to 
two  monks,  who  eame  from  the  east  to  offer  up  tlieir  prayers 
at  Jerusalem,  on  the  spot  which  was  formerly  Herod's 

A.  449.  This  year  Martianus  and  Valentinus  succeeded 
to  the  empire,  and  reigned  seven  years.  And  in  their  days 
Hengist  and  Horsa,  invited  by  Vortigern  king  of  the 
Britons,  landed  in  Britain  on  the  shore  which  is  called 
Wippidsfleet  ;  at  first  in  aid  of  the  Britons,  but  afterwards 
they  fought  against  them.  King  Vortigern  gave  them  land 
in  the  south-east  of  this  country,  on  condition  that  they 
should  fight  against  the  Picts.  Then  they  fought  against  the 
Picts,  and  had  the  victory  wheresoever  they  came.  They 
then  sent  to  the  Angles  ;  desired  a  larger  force  to  be  sent, 
and  caused  them  to  be  told  the  worthlessness  of  the  Britons, 
and  the  excellencies  of  the  land.  Then  they  soon  sent 
thither  a  larger  force  in  aid  of  the  others.  At  that  time 
there  came  men  from  three  tribes  in  Germany  ;  from  the 
Old- Saxons,  from  the  Angles,  from  the  Jutes.  From  the 
Jutes  came  the  Kentish-men  and  the  Wip-htwarians,  that  is, 
the  tribe  which  now  dwells  in  Wight,  and  that  race  among 
the  West- Saxons  which  is  still  called  the  race  of  Jutes. 
From  the  Old- Saxons  came  the  men  of  Essex  and  Sussex 
and  Wessex.  From  Anglia,  which  has  ever  since  remained 
waste  betwixt  the  Jutes  and  Saxons,  came  the  men  of  East 
Anglia,  Middle  Anglia,  Mercia,  and  all  North-humbria. 
Their  leaders  were  two  brothers,  Hengist  and  Horsa  :  they 
were  the  sons  of  Wihtgils  ;  Wihtgils  son  of  Witta,  Witta  of 
Wecta,  Wecta  of  Woden  :  from  this  Woden  sprang  all  our 
royal  families,  and  those  of  the  South-humbrians  also. 

A,  449.  And  in  their  days  Vortigern  invited  the  A nirles  thither,  and 
tliey  came  to  Britain  in  three  ceols,  at  the  place  caJled  Wippidsfleet: 

A.  450.— 454. 

A.  455.  This  year  Hengist  and  Horsa  fought  against  king 
Vortigena  at  the  place  which  is  called  jEgels-thre[>, 
(  Aylesford,]  and  his  brother  Horsa  was  there  slain,  and  aftei 
tlifit  Hengist  obtained  the  kingdoin   and  -/Esc  his  son. 

8  THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.   a.d.  45c-49i. 

A.  456.  This  year  Hengist  and  iE-c  slew  four  troops  of 
Batons  with  the  edge  of  the  sword,  in  the  place  which  is 
naraed  Creccanford,  [Crayford].* 

Ac  457.  This  year  Hengist  and  -^sc  his  son  fought 
against  the  Britons  at  the  place  which  is  called  Crecganford, 
fCrayford,]  and  there  slew  four  thousand  men  ;  and  the 
Britons  then  forsook  Kent,  and  in  great  terror  fled  to 

A.  458.-464. 

A.  465.  This  year  Hengist  and  ^sc  fought  against  the 
Welsh  near  Wippidsfleet,  [Ebbsfleet?]  and  there  slew  twelve 
Welsh  ealdormen,  and  one  of  their  own  thanes  was  slain 
there,  whose  name  was  Wipped. 

A.  466. — 472. 

A.  473.  This  year  Hengist  and  ^sc  fought  against  the 
Welsh,  and  took  spoils  innumerable  ;  and  the  Welsh  fled 
from  the  Angles  like  fire. 

A.  474.-476. 

A.  477.  This  year  ^EUa,  and  his  three  sons,  Cymen,  and 
Wlencing,  and  Cissa,  came  to  the  land  of  Britain  with  three 
ships,  at  a  place  which  is  named  Cymenes-ora,  and  there 
slew  many  Welsh,  and  some  they  drove  in  fliglit  into  the 
wood  that  is  named  Andreds-lea. 

A.  478.— 481. 

A.  482.  This  year  the  blessed  abbat  Benedict,  by  the 
glory  of  his  miracles,  shone  in  this  world,  as  the  blessed 
Gregory  relates  in  his  book  of  Dialogues. 

A.  483.  484. 

A.  485.  Tliis  year  iEUa  fought  against  the  Welsh  near 
the  bank  of  Mearcraedsburn. 

A.  486.  487. 

A.  488.  This  year  JE,sg  succeeded  to  the  kingdom,  and 
was  king  of  the  Kentish-men  twenty-four  years. 

A.  489.  490. 

A.  491.  This  year  iEUa  and  Cissa  besieged  Andreds- 
cester,  and  slew  ail  that  dwelt  therein,  so  that  not  a  single 
Briton  was  there  left. 

*  The  positions  usually  a8sip:ned  to  various  places  mentioned  in  the 
f<*  portion  of  the  Chronicle,  are  often  very  uncertain,  depending  chiefly 
on  a  supposed  or  real  similarity  of  names.  Where  these,  however,  appear 
sufficiently  probable,  they  are  placed  between  brackets  if  otherwiae?  a 
^UAre  IB  added. 


A  492.-494. 

A.  495.  This  year  two  ealdormen  came  to  Britain,  C.M-dic 
and  Cynric  his  son,  with  five  ships,  at  the  place  whi':h  is 
called  Cerclics-ore,  and  the  same  day  they  fbught  against  the 

A.  496.-500. 

A.  501.  This  year  Port,  and  his  two  sons  Bieda  and 
IMaBgla,  came  to  Britain  with  two  ships,  at  a  place  whicjli  is 
called  Portsmouth,  and  they  soon  effected  a  landing,  and  they 
there  slew  a  young  British  man  of  high  nobility. 

A.  502.— 507. 

A.  508.  This  year  Cerdic  and  Cynric  slew  a  British  king, 
whose  name  was  Natan-leod,  and  five  thousand  men  w'th 
him.  After  that  the  country  was  named  Natan-lea,  as  far 
Cerdicsford,  [Cliarford.] 

A.  509.  Tliis  yearf  St.  Benedict  the  abhat,  father  of  all 
monks,  went  to  heaven. 

A.  510.— 513. 

A.  514.  This  year  the  West- Saxons  came  to  Britain 
with  three  ships,  at  the  place  which  is  called  Cerdic's-ore, 
and  Stuf  and  Whitgar  fought  against  the  Britons,  and  put 
tliem  to  flight. 

A.  515.-518. 

A.  519.  This  year  Cerdic  and  Cynric  obtained  the  kin,sr- 
dom  of  the  West- Saxons  ;  and  the  same  year  they  fouglit 
against  the  Britons  where  it  is  now  named  Cerdicsford. 
And  from  that  time  forth  the  royal  offspring  of  the  West- 
Saxons  reigned. 

A.  520.-526. 

A.  527.  This  year  Cerdic  and  Cynric  fought  against  the 
Bntons  at  the  place  which  is  called  Cerdic's-lea. 

A.  528.  529. 

A.  530.  This  year  Cerdic  and  Cynric  conquered  the 
island  of  Wight,  and  slew  many  men  at  Whit-garas-byrg, 
[Carisbrooke,  in  Wight.'' 

A  531.— 533. 

A.  534.  Tliis  year  Cerdic,  the  first  king  of  the   V/est 
Saxons,  died,  and  Cynric  his  son  succeeded  to  the  kingdoni, 

*  Gibson  here  introduced  into  the  text  a  long  genealogy,  which,  as  I)f 
Ingram  observes  :  "is  not  justified  by  a  single  MS." 
f  Benedict  died,  according  to  Mabillon,  in  54'6 

10        THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.  a.d.  535^60. 

and  reigned  from  that  time  twenty-six  jears  ;  and  they  gave 
the  whole  island  of  Wight  to  their  two  nephews,  Stuf  and 

A.  535.— 537. 

A.  538.  This  year,  fourteen  days  before  the  Kalends  of 
March,  the  sun  was  eclipsed  from  early  morning  till  nine  in 
the  forenoon. 

A.  539. 

A.  540.  This  year  the  sun  was  eclipsed  on  the  twelfth 
before  the  Kalen-ds  of  July,  and  the  stars  showed  themselves 
full-nigh  half  an  hour  after  nine  in  the  forenoon. 

A.  541.— 543. 

A.  544.  This  year  Wihtgar  died,  and  they  buried  him  in 
Wibt-gara-byrg.     [Carisbrooke.] 

A.  545.  546. 

A.  547.  This  year  Ida  began  to  reign,  from  whom  arose 
the  royal  race  of  North-humbria  ;  and  he  reigned  twelve 
years,  and  built  Bambrough,  which  was  at  iSirst  enclosed  by 
a  hedge,  and  afterwards  by  a  wall.  Ida  was  the  son  of 
Eoppa,  Eoppa  of  Esa,  Esa  of  Ingwi,  Ingwi  of  Angenwit, 
Angenwit  of  Aloe,  Aloe  ot  Benoc,  Benoc  of  Brond,  Brond 
of  Beldeg,  Beldeg  of  Woden,  Woden  of  Frithowald,  Fritho- 
wald  of  Frithuwulf,  Frithuwulf  of  Finn,  Finn  of  Godwulf, 
Godwulf  of  Geat. 

A.  548.— 551. 

A.  552.  This  year  Cynric  fought  against  the  Britons  at 
the  place  which  is  called  Searo-byrig  [Old  Sarum],  and  he 
put  the  Britons  to  flight.  Cerdic  was  Cynric's  father , 
Cerdic  was  the  son  of  Elesa,  Elesa  of  Esla,  Esla  of  Gewis, 
Gewis  of  Wig,  W^ig  of  Freawin,  Freawin  of  Frithogar,  Fri- 
thogar  of  Brond,  Brond  of  Beldeg,  Beldeg  of  Woden.  And 
Ethelbert,  the  son  of  Ermenric  was  born  ;  and  in  the  thir- 
tieth year  of  his  reign  he  received  baptism,  the  first  of  the 
kings  in  Britain. 

A.  553. — 555. 

A.  556.  This  year  Cynric  and  Ceawlin  fought  against  the 
Britons  at  Berin-Byrig,  [Banbury  ?] 

A.  557.-559. 

A.  560.  This  year  Ceawlin  succeeded  to  the  kingdom  of 
the  West-Saxons,  and  Ida  being  dead,  Alia  succeeded  to  the 
Idngdom  of  North-humbria,   each  of  whom   reigned  tliirty 

A.P.501571.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.         11 

years.  Alia  was  the  son  of  Iff,  Iff  of  Usfrey,  Usfrey  of 
Wilgis,  Wilgis  of  Westerfalcon,  Westerfalcon  of  Seal'owl. 
Seafowl  of  Sebbald,  Sebbald  of  Sigeat,  Sigeat  of  Swadd, 
Swadd  of  Sygar,  Sygar  of  Waddy,  Waddy  of  Woden^ 
Woden  of  Frithuwulf. 

A.  561—564. 

A.  561).  This  year  Ethelbert*  succeeded  to  the  kingdom 
of  th3  Kentish-men,  and  held  it  fifty-three  years.  In  hig 
days  the  holy  pope  Gregory  sent  us  baptism,  that  was  in  the 
two  and  thirtieth  year  of  his  reign :  and  Columba,  a  mass- 
priest,  came  to  the  Picts,  and  converted  them  to  the  faitli  of 
Christ :  they  are  dwellers  by  the  northern  mountains.  And 
their  king  gave  liim  the  island  which  is  called  li  [lona] : 
therein  are  five  hides  of  land,  as  men  say.  There  Columba 
built  a  monastery,  and  he  was  abbat  there  thirty-seven  years, 
and  there  he  died  when  he  was  seventy-two  years  old.  His 
successors  still  have  the  place.  The  Southern  Picts  had 
been  baptized  long  before:  bishop  Ninia,  who  had  been  in- 
structed at  Rome,  had  preached  baptism  to  them,  whose 
church  and  his  monastery  is  at  Whitherne,  consecrated  in  the 
name  of  St.  Martin :  there  he  resteth,  with  many  holy  men. 
Now  in  li  there  must  ever  be  an  abbat,  and  not  a  bishop ; 
and  all  the  Scottish  bishops  ought  to  be  subject  to  him,  be- 
cause Columba  was  an  abbat  and  not  a  bishop. 

A.  565.  This  year  Columba  the  presbyter  came  from  the  Scots  among 
the  Britons,  to  instruct  the  Picts,  and  he  built  a  monastery  in  the  island  of 

A.  566.  567. 

A.  568.  This  year  Ceawlin,  and  Cutha,  Ceawlin's  brother, 
fought  against  Ethelbert,  and  drove  him  into  Kent,  and  they 
killed  two  ealdormen  at  Wibban-dune  [Wimbledon], f  Oslaf 
and  Cnebba. 

A.  569.  570. 

A.  571.  This  year  Cuthulf  fought  against  the  Britons 
at  Bedcanford  [Bedford],  and  took  four  towns,  Lygean-birg 
[Lenbury],  and  iEgeles-birg  [Aylesbury],  and  Baenesington 
[Benson],  and  Egonesham  [Eynsham] ;  and  the  same  year 
he  died.     Cutha  was  CeawHn's  brother. 

•  Bedu  [ii.  5,]  says  Ethelbert  died  on  February  23,  a.d.  616,  after  a 
rei^Ti  of  fifty-six  years.  This  would  make  it  out  that  he  succeeded  to  the 
thrane  in  a.d.  660.  f  Or  Worplesdon,  Surrey. 

12         THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.   a.d.  572-600. 

A.  572.-576. 

A.  577.  This  year  CutliAvine  and  Ceawlin  fought  against 
the  Britons,  and  they  slew  three  kings,  Comail,  and  Condi- 
dan,  and  P^arinmeail,  at  the  place  wliich  is  called  Deorham 
[Derham  ?],  and  took  three  cities  from  them,  Gloucester 
and  Cirencester,  and  Bath. 

A.  578.-582. 

A.  583.  This  year  Mauricius  succeeded  to  the  empire  of 
the  Romans. 

A.  584.  This  year  Ceawlin  and  Cutha  fought  against  the 
Britons  at  the  place  whi<;h  is  called  Fethan-lea,  [Frethern  ?] 
and  there  was  Cutha  slain  ;  and  Ceawlin  took  many  towns, 
and  spoils  innumerable  ;  and  wrathful  he  thence  returned  to 
his  own. 

A.  585.-587. 

A.  588.  This  year  King  ^lle  died,  and  Ethelric  reigr.ed 
after  him  five  years. 

A.  589. 

590.  At  this  period  Ceol  reigned  five  years. 

59 L  Tins  year  in  Britain  was  a  great  slaughter  in  battle 
at  Woddesbeorg  [Wemborow  ?],  and  Ceawlin  was  expelled. 

A.  592.  Tliis  year  Gregory  succeeded  to  the  popedom  in 

A.  593.  This  year  Ceawlin,  and  Cwichelm,  and  Crida, 
perished  ;  and  Ethelfrith  succeeded  to  the  kingdom  of  the 
North-humbrians  ;  he  was  the  son  of  JEthelric,  Ethelric  of 

A.  594.  595. 

A.  596.  This  year  Pope  Gregory  sent  Augustine  to  Britain, 
with  a  great  many  monks,  who  preached  the  word  of  God  to 
the  nation  of  the  Angles. 

A.  597.  This  year  Ceolwulf  began  to  reign  over  the 
West- Saxons  ;  and  he  fought  and  contended  incessantly 
against  either  the  Angles,  or  the  Welsh,  or  the  Picts,  or  the 
Scots.  He  was  the  son  of  Cutha,  Cutha  of  Cynric,  Cynric 
of  Cerdic,  Cerdic  of  Elesa,  Elesa  of  Esla,  Esla  of  Gewis, 
Gewis  of  Wig,  Wig  of  Frea\^'^ne,  Freawine  of  Frithogar, 
Frithogar  of  Brond,  Brond  of  Beldeg  Beldeg  of  Woden. 
Tliis  year  Augustine  and  his  companions  came  to  the  land 
of  the  Angles. 

A.  598.— €0a 

A.D.Goi-614.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON-  CHRONICLE.         13 

A.  601.  This  year  Pope  Grejrory  sent  a  pall  to  Arch- 
bij^liop  Augustine  in  Britain,  and  also  a  great  many  religioii.^ 
teaciiers  to  assist  him,  and  amongst  them  was  Paulinas  the 
bishop,  who  afterwards  converted  Edwin,  king  of  the  North- 
humbrians,  to  baptism. 

A.  602. 

A.  603.  This  year  there  was  a  battle  at  Egesanstane.* 

A.  603.  This  year  iEthan,  king  of  the  Scots,  fought  against  the 
Dalreods  and  against  Ethelfrith  king  of  the  North-humbrians,  at 
Dsegsanstane  [Dawston?],  and  they  slew  almost  all  his  army.  There 
Theodbjild,  Ethelfrith's  brother,  was  slain  with  all  his  band.  Since  then 
no  king  of  the  Scots  has  dared  to  lead  an  army  against  this  nation. 
Hering,  the  son  of  Hussa,  led  the  enemy  thither. 

A.  604.  This  year  the  East-Saxons  received  the  faith  and 
oaptism  under  King    Sebert    and  Bishop  Mellitus. 

A.  604.  This  year  Augustine  consecrated  two  bishops,  Mellitus  and 
Justus.  He  sent  Mellitus  to  preach  baptism  to  the  East-Saxons,  whose 
king  was  called  S'c  I  ejt  son  of  Ricole,  the  sister  of  Ethelljcrt,  and 
whom  Ethelbert  had  there  appointed  king.  And  .Ethelbert  gfive 
Mellitus  a  bishop's  see  in  London,  and  to  Justus  he  gave  Rochester,  which 
is  twenty- four  miles  from  Canterbury. 

A.  605. 

A.  606.  This  year  Pope  Gregory  died,  about  ten  years 
after  he  had  sent  us  baptism  ;  his  father  was  called  Gordiini, 
and  his  mother  Silvia. 

A.  607.  This  year  Ceolwulf  fought  against  the  South- 
Saxons.  And  this  year  Ethelfrith  led  his  army  to  Chester, 
and  there  slew  numberless  Welshmen  :  and  so  was  fulfilled 
the  prophecy  of  Augustine,  wherein  he  saith,  '  If  the  Welsh 
will  not  be  at  peace  with  us,  they  shall  perish  at  the  hands 
of  the  Saxons.'  There  also  were  slain  two  hundred  priests, 
who  came  to  pray  for  the  army  of  the  Welsh  :  their  ealdor 
was  called  Scromail  [Brocmaii],  who  with  some  fifty  escaped 

A,  608.— 610. 

A.  611.  This  year  Cynegife  succeeded  to  the  kingdom  of 
the  West- Saxons,  and  held  it  thirty-one  years.  Cynegils 
was  the  son  of  Ceol,  Ceol  of  Cutha,  Cutha  of  Cynric. 

A.  612.  613. 

A.  614.   This    year   Cynegils   and    Cuichelm   fought    at 

•  See  Bede'8  Eccl.  ilist.  lib.  I  c.  34. 

U        THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.   a.d.  615  cio 

Beandune*  [Bampton  ?"],  and  slew  two  thousand  and  sixty- 
live  Welshmen. 

A.  615 

A.  616.  This  year  Ethelb^rt,  king  of  the  Kentish-mer, 
died  ;  he  was  the  first  English  king  who  received  baptism., 
and  he  was  the  son  of  Eormenric  ;  he  reigned  fifty-si? 
years,  and  from  the  beginning  of  the  world  to  this  same 
year  five  thousand  eight  hundred  years  were  gone  by  ;  and 
after  him  Eadbald  his  son  succeeded  to  the  kingdom  ;  he  for- 
sook his  baptismal  vow,  and  lived  after  the  manner  of  the 
heathens,  so  that  he  had  his  father's  widow  to  wife.  Then 
Laurentius,  who  was  archbishop  of  Kent,  was  minded  that 
he  would  go  southwards  over  the  sea,  and  leave  it  entirely. 
But  the  apostle  Peter  came  to  him  by  night  and  scourged 
him  sorely,  because  he  wished  thus  to  forsake  the  flock  oi 
God,  and  commanded  him  to  go  to  the  king  and  preach  the 
true  faith  to  him  ;  and  he  did  so,  and  the  king  was  con- 
verted and  was  baptized.  Li  this  king's  days  Laurentius 
who  was  archbishop  of  Kent  after  Augustine,  died,  and  was 
buried  beside  Augustine  on  the  4th  Non.  Feb.  After  him 
Melhtus,  who  formerly  had  been  bishop  of  London,  suc- 
ceeded to  the  archbishopric  :  then  the  men  of  London,  where 
Mellitus  had  been  formerly,  became  heathens  (again).  And 
in  about  five  years,  during  the  reign  of  Eadbald,  Mellitus 
departed  to  Christ.  Then  after  him  Justus  succeeded  to  the 
archbishopric  ;  and  he  consecrated  Romanus  to  Rochester, 
where  formerly  himself  had  been  bishop. 

A.  616.  In  that  time  Laurentius  was  archbishop,  and  for  the  sorrow- 
fulness which  he  had  on  account  of  the  king's  unbelief  he  was  minded  to 
forsake  this  country  entirely,  and  go  over  sea  ;  but  St.  Peter  the  apos- 
tle scourged  him  sorely  one  night,  because  he  wished  thus  to  forsake  the 
flock  of  God,  and  commanded  him  to  teach  boldly  the  true  faith  to  tlie 
king  ;  and  he  did  so,  and  the  king  turned  to  the  right  (faith).  In  the  days 
of  this  same  king,  Eadbald,  this  Laurentius  died.  The  holy  Augustine, 
while  yet  in  sound  health,  ordained  him  bishop,  in  order  that  the  commu- 
nity of  Christ,  which  was  yet  new  in  England,  should  not  after  his  decease 
be  at  any  time  without  an  archbishop.  After  him  Mellitus,  who  had  been 
previously  bishop  of  London,  succeeded  to  the  archbishopric.  And  witli- 
in  five  years  of  the  decease  of  Laurentius,  while  Eadbald  still  reigned, 
Mellitus  depiuted  to  Christ. 

*  This  is  more  likely  to  be  Bampton  in  Oxfordshire,  than  Bampton  in 
Devonshire,  which  is  by  far  too  remote  to  admit  the  supposition  that  th« 
Ikouttie  in  queation  waa  fought  there. 

A.D.C17-627.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.         15 

A.  617.  This  year  Ethelfrid  king  of  tlie  North-hum- 
brians  was  slain  by  Redwald  king  of  the  East-Angles,  and 
Edwin  the  son  of  Alia  succeeded  to  the  kingdom,  and 
subdued  all  Britain,  the  Kentish-men  alone  excepted.  And  he 
drove  out  the  ethelings,  sons  of  Ethelfrid  ;  that  is  to  say, 
fii-st  Eanfrid,  Oswald,  and  Oswy,  Oslac,  Oswudu,  Oslai', 
and  Offa. 

A.  618. 

A.  619.  This  year  archbishop  Laurentius  died. 

A.  620.— 623. 

A.  624.  This  year  archbishop  Mellitus  died. 

A.  625.  This  year  Paulinus  was  ordained  bishop  of  the 
North-humbrians  by  archbishop  Justus  on  the  xn.  Kalends 
of  August. 

A.  625.  This  year  archbishop  Justus  consecrated  Paulinus  bishop  of 
tlie  North-humbrians. 

A.  626.  This  year  Eumer  came  from  Cuichelm  king  ot 
the  West- Saxons,  thinking  to  stab  king  Edwin.  But  he 
stabbed  Lilla  his  thane,  and  Forthhere,  and  wounded  tlie 
king.  And  on  the  same  night  a  daughter  was  born  to  Ed- 
win :  she  was  called  Eanfled.  Then  the  king  made  a  vow 
to  Paulinus  that  he  would  give  his  daughter  to  God,  if  he 
would  obtain  of  God  that  he  might  kill  his  foe  who  had  sent 
the  assassin.  And  he  then  went  with  an  army  against  the 
West- Saxons,  and  there  killed  five  kings,  and  slew  a  great 
number  of  the  people.  And  at  Pentecost  Paulinus  baptized 
his  daughter  with  twelve  others.  And  within  a  twelvemonth 
the  king  and  all  liis  court  were  baptized  at  Easter  ;  that  year 
Easter  fell  on  the  second  before  the  Ides  of  April.  This  was 
done  at  York,  where  he  first  ordered  a  church  to  be  built  of 
wood,  which  was  consecrated  in  the  name  of  St.  Peter. 
There  the  king  gave  Paulinus  a  bishop's  see,  and  there  he 
afterwards  commanded  a  larger  church  to  be  built  of  stone. 
And  this  year  Penda  succeeded  to  th(  kingdom  [Mercia],  and 
reigned  thirty  years ;  and  he  was  fifty  years  (old)  when  he  suc- 
ceeded to  the  kingdom.  Penda  was  the  son  of  Pybba,  Pybba  cf 
Creoda,  Creoda  of  Cynewald,  Cynewald  of  Cnebba,  Cnebba 
of  Icel,  Icel  of  Eomaer,  Eomaer  of  Angeltheow,  Angeltlieow 
sf  Offa,  Offa  of  Waermund,  Waermund  of  Wihtlseg,  Wihtlaeg 
of  Woden. 

A  627.  This  year   king  Edwin   was   baptized  with  hia 

16         THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,   a.d.  627-63^ 

people  by  Paulinus  at  Easter.  And  this  Paiilinus  also 
preached  baptism  in  Lindsey,  where  the  first  who  believed 
was  a  certain  great  man  called  Blecca,  with  all  liis  followers. 
And  in  this  time  Honorias,  who  sent  Paulinus  his  pall, 
succeeded  to  the  popedom  after  Boniface.  And  archbislu^p 
Justus  died  on  the  fourtli  before  the  Ides  of  November,  and 
Honorius  was  consecrated  archbishop  of  Canterbury  by 
Paulinus  at  Lincoln.  And  to  this  Honorius  the  pope  also 
sent  a  pall :  and  he  sent  a  letter  to  the  Scots,  desiring  that 
tliey  should  turn  to  the  right  Easter. 

A.  627.  This  year,  at  Easter,  Paulinus  baptized  Edwin  king  of  the 
Noith-humbrians,  with  his  jjeople :  and  earlier  within  the  same  year,  at 
Pentecost,  he  had  baptized  Eanfled  daughter  of  the  same  king. 

A.  628.  This  year  Cynegils  and  Cuichelm  fought  against 
Penda  at  Cirencester  ;  and  then  made  a  treaty. 

A.  629.— 631. 

A.  632.  Tliis  year  Eorpwald  was  baptized. 

A.  633.  This  year  king  Edwin  was  slain  by  Cadwalla  and 
Penda  at  Heathfield  [Hatfield  Chase  ?]  on  the  second  before 
the  Ides  of  October,  and  he  reigned  seventeen  years  ;  and  his 
son  Osfrid  was  also  slain  with  liim.  And  after  that  went 
Cadwalla  and  Penda  and  laid  waste  the  whole  country  of  the 
North-humbrians.  When  Paulinus  saw  that,  he  took 
Ethelberga,  Edwin's  widow,  and  departed  in  a  ship  to 
Kent.  And  Eadbald  and  Honorius  received  him  very 
honourably,  and  gave  him  a  bishop's  see  in  Rochester  ;  and 
he  dwelt  there  till  his  end. 

A.  634.  Tliis  year  Osric,  whom  Paulinus  had  formerly 
baptized,  succeeded  to  the  kingdom  of  Deira ;  he  was  the  son  of 
Elfric,  Edwin's  uncle.  And  Eanfrid  the  son  of  Ethelfrid 
Fiicceeded  to  Bernicia.  And  this  year  also  bishop  Birinus 
lirst  preached  baptism  to  the  West-Saxons  under  king 
Cynegils.  Birinus  came  thither  by  command  of  Honorius 
the  pope,  and  he  there  was  bishop  until  his  life's  end.  And 
tliis  year  also  Oswald  succeeded  to  the  kingdom  of  the 
North-humbrians,  and  he  reigned  nine  years  ;  the  ninth 
being  numbered  to  him  because  of  the  heathenism  which 
tliey  practised  who  reigned  over  them  the  one  year  between 
Lini  and  Edwin. 

A.  CZ5.  This  year  king  Cynegils  was  baptized  by  Birinus 

AD. 636-^44.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.         17 

the  bishop,  at  Dorchester,  and  Oswald  king  of  tlie   North 
hurabrians  was  his  godfixther. 

A.  6:^6.  This  year  king  Cuichelm  was  baptized  at 
Dorchest(?r,  and  the  same  year  he  died.  And  bishop 
Felix  pn^ached  the  faith  of  Christ  to  the  Epst- Angles. 

A.  637.  638 

A.  639.  This  year  Birinus  baptized  king  Cuthred  at 
Dorchester,  and  received  him  as  his  (god)  son. 

A.  640.  This  year  Eadbald,  king  of  the  Kentish-men, 
died,  and  he  reigned  twenty-five  years.  He  had  two  sons, 
l'>rme-nred  and  Earconbert,  and  Earconbert  reigned  there 
after  his  father.  He  overtlii^ew  all  idolatry  in  his  kingdom, 
and  was  the  first  of  the  English  kings  who  established  the 
Easter-fast.  His  daughter  was  called  Earcongota,  a  holy 
woman  and  a  wondrous  person,  whose  mother  was  Sexberfr:\, 
daughter  of  Anna,  king  of  the  East- Angles.  And  Ermeui-i^d 
begot  two  sons,  who  afterwards  were  martyred  by  Thunner. 

A.  641. 

A.  642.  This  year  Oswald,  king  of  the  North-humbrians, 
was  slain  by  Penda  and  the  South-humbrians  at  Maserfeld 
on  the  Nones  of  August,*  and  his  body  was  buried  at  Bardney. 
His  sanctity  and  liis  miracles  were  afterwards  manifested  in 
various  ways  beyond  this  island,  and  his  hands  are  at 
Bambrough,  uncorrupted.  And  the  same  year  that  Oswald 
was  slain,  Oswy  his  brother  succeeded  to  the  kingdom  of 
the  North-humbrians,  and  he  reigned  two  less  (than)  thirty 

A.  643.  This  year  Ken  walk  succeeded  to  the  kingdom  of 
the  West- Saxons,  and  held  it  thirty-one  years  ;  and  Kenwalk 
commanded  the  old  church  at  Winchester  to  be  built  in  the 
name  of  St.  Peter  :  and  he  was  the  son  of  Cynegils. 

A.  644.  Tills  year  Paulinus  died,  on  the  sixth  before  the 
Ides  of  October  ;  f  he  was  first  archbishop  of  York,  and  after- 
wards at  Rochester.  He  Avas  bishop  one  less  (than)  twenty 
years,  and  two  months  and  twenty-one  days.  And  this  year 
Oswin's  uncle's  son,  J  the  son  of  Osric,  succeeded  to  the 
kingdom  of  Deira,  and  reigned  seven  years. 

♦  The  5th  of  Aus^st.  t  The  10th  of  October. 

X  This  IS  a})pareiUl}'  corrupt,  au<i  should  be  read  '  Oswm,  the  *Km  (A 
Owic,  Edwin's  uncle's  son.'     See  B«de,  iii.  I,  and  above  An.  6S4, 

IS         THE  AXGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.   a.d.  615-653. 

A.  645.  This  vear  king  Kenwalk  was  driven  out  of  h'ls 

kingdom  bj  king  Penda. 

A.  646.  This  year  king  Kenwalk  was  baptized. 

A.  647. 

A.  648.  Tliis  year  Kenwalk  gave  Cuthred,  his  kinsman 
three  thousand  hides  of  land  by  Ashdown,  [Aston  ?]  Cutln>  d 
was  the  son  of  Cuichebii,  Cuichelm  of  Cynegils.     This  year 
the  minster  was  built  at  Winchester,  which  king  Kenwalk 
caused  to  be  made,  and  hallowed  in  the  name  of  8t.  Peter. 

A.  649. 

A.  6.50.  This  year  Agilbert,  a  native  of  Gaul,  obtained 
the  bishopric  of  the  West- Saxons  after  Birinus  the  Romish 

A.  650.  This  year  Birinus  the  bishop  died,  and  Agilbert  the  French- 
man was  ordained. 

A.  650.  This  year  king  Oswy  ordered  king  Oswin  to 
be  slain,  on  the  tliirteenth  before  the  Kal.  of  September  ;  and 
about  twelve  days  after  this  bishop  Aidan  died,  on  the 
second  before  the  Kal.  of  September. 

A.  651. 

A.  652.  This  year  Kenwalk  fought  at  Bradford  on  the  Avon. 

A.  653.  This  year  the  Middle-Saxons,  under  Peada  the 
ealdorman,  received  the  true  faith. 

A.  654.  This  year  king  Anna  was  slain,  and  Botolph  began 
to  build  a  minster  at  Ycean-ho  [Boston  ?].  And  this  year 
arclibishop  Honorius  died,  on  the  second  before  the  Kalends 
of  October. 

A.  655.  This  year  king  Oswy  slew  king  Penda  at 
Winwidfield,  and  tliirty  men  of  royal  race  ^\^th  him,  and 
some  of  them  were  kings,  among  whom  was  Ethelhere, 
brother  of  Anna,  king  of  the  East  Angles.  And  the 
Mercians  became  Christians.  From  the  beginning  of  the 
world  to  this  time  five  thousand  eight  hundred  and  fifty 
years  were  agone  ;  and  Peada  the  son  of  Penda  succeeded  to 
the  kingdom  of  the  Mercians. 

*In  his  time  he  and  Oswy  the  brother  of  king  Oswald  came 
together,  and  agreed  that  tliey  would  rear  a  monastery  to  the 
glory  of  Christ  and  the  honour  of  St.  Peter.  And  they  did 
so,  and  named  it  *  Medeshamstede'  [Peterborough],  because 

•  This  is  the  first  of  many  Lite  additions  to  the  Chronicle  concernin>j 
the  monastery  of  Peterborough.     They  occur  in  only  one  of  the  MSS. 

A.E.65G-G57.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON"  CHRONICLE.         19 

there  is  a  wliirpool  at  this  place,  which  is  called  MeadswelL 
And  they  began  the  foundations  and  wrought  thereon,  and 
then  committed  it  to  a  monk  who  was  called  Sexwulf.  Ha 
was  greatly  God's  friend,  and  all  the  country  loved  him,  and 
he  was  very  nobly  born,  and  rich  in  a  worldly  sense  ;  but  he 
is  now  much  richer,  being  with  Christ.  And  king  Peada 
reigned  no  long  time,  for  he  was  betrayed  by  his  own  wife 
at  Kaster. 

This  year  Ithamar  bishop  of  Rochester  consecrated  Deus- 
dedit  to  the  see  of  Canterbury  on  the  seventh  before  the  Ka- 
lends of  April. 

A.  656. 

A.  657.  This  year  Peada  died,  and  Wulfhere  the  son  of 
Penda  succeeded  to  the  kingdom  of  the  Mercians. 

In  liis  time  the  abbacy  of  Medeshamstede,  which  his 
brother  had  begun,  waxed  very  rich.  The  king  favoured  it 
much  for  the  love  of  his  brother  Peada,  and  for  the  love  of 
Oswy  his  brother  by  baptism,  and  for  the  love  of  abbat 
Sexwulf.  And  he  said  that  he  would  dignify  and  honour  it, 
and  this  by  the  counsel  of  Ethelred  and  Merwal  his 
brothers,  and  Kyneburg  and  Kyneswith  his  sisters,  and  by 
the  counsel  of  the  archbishop,  who  was  called  Deus-dedit, 
and  by  the  counsel  of  all  his  witan,  both  clergy  and  laity, 
who  were  in  his  kingdom  ;  and  he  did  so. 

Then  the  king  sent  after  the  abbat  that  he  should  come  to 
him  with  all  speed  ;  and  he  did  so.  Then  the  king  said  to 
the  abbat, '  Lo  !  I  have  sent  for  thee,  beloved  Sexwulf,  for  the 
behoof  of  my  soul,  and  I  will  plainly  tell  thee  for  why.  My 
brother  Peada  and  my  dear  friend  Oswy  began  a  monastery 
to  the  glory  of  Christ  and  St.  Peter.  But  my  brother,  as  it 
has  pleased  Christ,  is  departed  this  life,  and  lo  I  my  prayer 
to  thee  is,  beloved  friend,  that  they  work  diligently  on  the 
work,  and  I  will  find  thee  gold  and  silver,  land  and 
possessions,  and  all  that  behoveth  thereto.'  Then  the  abbat 
went  home  and  began  to  build  ;  and  he  so  sped,  by  the  grace 
of  Christ,  that  in  a  few  years  the  monastery  was  ready 
When  the  king  heard  that  said,  he  was  very  glad  :  he  bade 
send  throughout  the  nation  after  all  his  thanes,  after  the 
archbishop,  and  after  the  bishops,  and  after  his  eai-ls,  and 
after  all  who  loved  God,  that  they  should  come  to  him  :  and 
hfi  set  a  day  on  which  the  monastery  should  be  hallowed. 

c  2 


At  tlie  hallowing  of  the  monastery  king  Wulfhere  was 
present,  and  liis  brother  Etheh-ed,  and  liis  sisters  Kyneburg 
and  Kyneswith.  And  Deus-dedit  archbishop  of  Canterbury 
hallowed  the  monastery,  and  Ithamar  bishop  of  Rochester, 
and  the  bishop  of  London,  who  was  called  Wini,  and  the 
bishop  of  the  Mercians,  who  was  called  Jaruman,  and  bishop 
Tuda.  And  there  was  Wilfrid  the  priest,  who  was  afterwards 
a  bishop  :  and  all  his  thanes  who  were  witliin  his  kingdom 
were  there. 

When  the  monastery  had  been  hallowed  in  the  name  of 
St.  Peter,  St.  Paul,  and  St.  Andrew,  then  the  king  stood  up 
before  all  his  thanes,  and  said  with  a  clear  voice,  '  Thanked 
be  the  high  Almighty  God  for  the  worthy  deed  which  here 
is  done,  and  I  ^vill  tliis  day  do  honour  to  Christ  and  St. 
l^eter  ;  and  I  desire  that  ye  all  assent  to  my  words  :  I, 
Wulfhere,  do  this  day  give  to  St.  Peter  and  abbat  Sexwulf,  and 
the  monks  of  the  monastery,  these  lands,  and  these  waters, 
and  meres,  and  fens,  and  wears,  and  all  the  lands  which  lie 
thereabout,  which  are  of  my  kingdom,  freely,  so  that  none 
but  the  abbat  and  the  monks  shall  have  a^y  claim  upon 
them.  This  is  the  grant.  From  Medeshamstede  to  North- 
borough,  and  thence  to  the  place  which  is  called  Foleys,  and 
thence  all  the  fen  straight  to  Esendic,  and  from  Esendic  to 
the  place  which  is  called  Fethermouth,  and  thence  along 
the  straight  way  ten  miles  to  Ugdike,  and  thence  to 
Rag^vell,  and  from  Ragwell  five  miles  to  the  straight 
stream  which  goeth  to  Elm  and  to  Wisbeach,  and  thence 
about  three  miles  to  Trokenholt,  and  from  Trokenholt 
straight  through  all  the  fen  to  Derworth  which  is  twenty 
miles  long,  and  thence  to  Great  Cross,  and  from  Great  Cross 
through  a  clear  water  called  Bradney,  and  thence  six  miles 
to  Paxlade,  atid  thence  onward  through  all  the  meres  and 
fens  which  lie  toward  Huntingdon-port,  and  these  meres  and 
lakes,  Shelfermere  and  Wittleseymere,  and  all  the  others  whieJi 
lie  thereabout,  with  the  land  and  the  houses  which  are  on  the 
east-half  of  Shelfermere,  and  from  thence  all  the  fens  to  Medes- 
hamstede, and  from  Medeshamstede  to  Welmsford,  and  from 
Welmsibrd  to  Clive,  and  thence  to  Easton,  and  from  Easton 
to  Stamford,  and  from  Stamford  even  as  the  water  runneth 
to  the  aforesaid  North-borougli.'  These  are  the  lands  and  the 
fens  which  the  king  gave  to  St.  Peter's  monastery. 

A.1..657.        THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.         21 

Then  said  the  king,  '  Tliis  gi.'i  is  little  ;  but  it  is  my  will 

tliat  they  shall  hold  it  so  royally  and  so  freely  that  neither 
geld  nor  tribute  be  taken  from  it,  except  for  the  monks  alone. 
And  thus  free  I  will  make  this  minster,  that  it  be  sul)ject  to 
Rome  alone  ;  and  here  it  is  my  will  that  all  of  us  who  are 
unable  to  go  to  Rome  shall  visit  St.  Peter.' 

While  he  was  saying  these  Avords,  the  abbat  desired  of 
liim  that  he  would  grant  him  what  he  should  desire  of  him  : 
and  the  king  granted  it.  *I  have  here  'godefrihte'*  monks 
who  wish  to  spend  their  lives  as  anchorites,  if  they  knew 
where.  And  there  is  an  island  here,  which  is  called 
Anchorets-isle,  and  my  desire  is,  that  we  might  build  a 
,  minster  there  to  the  glory  of  St,  Mary,  so  that  those  may 
dwell  therein  who  wish  to  lead  a  life  of  peace  and  rest.' 

Then  the  king  answered,  and  said  thus  :  '  Behold,  Sexwulf, 
lo  !  not  only  that  one  which  thou  hast  desired,  but  all  things 
which  I  know  thee  to  desire  on  our  Lord's  behalf,  I  thus 
approve  and  grant.  And  I  beg  of  thee,  my  brother 
Ethelred,  and  my  sisters  Kyneburg  and  Kyneswith,  that  ye 
be  witnesses  for  your  souls'  redemption,  and  that  ye  write  it 
with  your  fingers.  And  I  beg  all  those  who  come  after  me, 
be  they  my  sons,  be  they  my  brothers,  or  kings  that  come 
after  me,  that  our  gift  may  stand,  even  as  they  would  be 
partakers  of  the  life  eternal,  and  would  escape  everlasting 
torment.  Whosoever  shall  take  from  this  our  gift,  or  the 
gifts  of  other  good  men,  may  the  heavenly  gateward  take 
from  him  in  the  kingdom  of  heaven  ;  and  whosoever  will 
increase  it,  may  the  heavenly  gateward  increase  (his  state)  in 
the  kingdom  of  heaven.' 

These  are  the  witnesses  Avho  were  there,  who  subscribed 
i<-  with  their  fingers  on  the  cross  of  Christ,  and  assented  to  it 
with  their  tongues.  King  Wulfhere  was  the  first  who 
confirmed  it  by  word,  and  afterwards  subscribed  it  with  his 
fingers  on  the  cross  of  Christ ;  and  said  thus  :  *  I,  king 
Wulfhere,  with  the  kings,  and  earls,  and  dukes,  and  thanes, 
the  witnesses  of  my  gift,  do  confirm  it  before  the  archbishop 
Deus-dedit  with  the  cross  of  Christ,  t^^  'And  I,  Oswy  king 
jf  the  North-humbrians,  the  friend  of  this  monastery  and  of 
abbat  Sexwulf,  approve  of  it  with  the  cross  of   Chri'«Jt.  »J^  * 

*  This  word  is  re:  dered  by  Lye,  "  God-fearing,"  and  by  Ingram,  siirpljr 

22         THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.        a.d.657. 

And  I,  k^ng  Sighere,  grant  it  with  the  cross  of  Christ.  »J« 

*  And  I,  king  Sibbi,  subscribe  it  with  the  cross  of  Christ.  »J«' 

*  A  jd  I,  I']thehred,  the  knig's  brother,  grant  it  with  the  cross 
of  Christ  >J<  *  '  And  we,  the  king's  sisters,  Kyneburg  and 
Kyne»with,  we  approve  it.  ►J* '  *  And  I,  Deus-dedit 
ari'hbishop  of  Canterbury,  grant  it.  ^J* '  After  that,  all  the 
others  who  were  there  assented  to  it  with  the  cross  of 
Christ.*^  They  were  by  name  Ithamar  bishop  of  Rochester, 
and  Wini  bishop  of  London,  and  Jaruman  who  was  bisliop 
of  the  Mercians,  and  bishop  Tuda,  and  Wilfrid  the  priest, 
who  was  afterwards  bishop,  and  Eappa  the  priest,  whom  king 
Wulf  here  sent  to  preach  Christianity  in  the  Isle  of  Wiglit,  and 
abbat  Sexwulf,  and  Immine  the  ealdorman,  and  Edbert  the 
ealdorman,  and  Herefrid  the  ealdorman,  and  Wilbert  the 
ealdorman,  and  Abon  the  ealdorman,  Ethelbald,  Brordan, 
Wilbert,  Elmund,  Frethegis.  These,  and  many  others 
who  were  there,  servants  of  the  king,  all  assented  to  it. 
This  writing  was  written  six  hundred  and  sixty-four  years 
after  the  birth  of  our  Lord,  (in)  the  seventh  year  of  king 
Wulf  here  ;  the  ninth  year  of  archbisliop  Deus-dedit.  They 
then  laid  the  curse  of  God,  and  the  curse  of  all  saints,  and 
of  all  Christian  people  (upon  him)  who  should  undo  any 
thing  which  there  was  done.     *  So  be  it,'  say  all,  '  Amen.' 

When  these  tilings  were  done,  the  king  sent  to  Rome  to 
Vitalian  who  then  was  pope,  and  desired  that  he  should 
grant  by  his  rescript,  and  with  his  blessing,  all  the  before- 
mentioned  things.  And  the  pope  sent  this  rescript,  thus 
saying,  '  I,  pope  Vitalian,  concede  to  thee  king  Wulf  here, 
and  archbishop  Deus-dedit,  and  abbat  Sexwulf,  all  the  things 
which  ye  desire,  and  I  forbid  tfcat  any  king  or  any  man  have 
any  claim  thereon,  except  the  abbat  alone  ;  nor  let  him  obey 
any  man  except  the  pope  of  Rome,  and  the  archbishop  of 
Canterbury.  If  any  one  break  this  in  any  thing,  may  St. 
Peter  exterminate  him  with  his  sword  :  if  any  one  observe 
it,  may  St.  Peter,  with  the  keys  of  heaven,  undo  for  him  the 
kingdom  of  heaven.'  Thus  the  monastery  at  Medeshamstede 
was  begun,  which  since  has  been  called  Burh  [Peterborough]. 

After  that,  another  archbishop  came  to  Canterbury,  wlio 
was  called  Theodore,  a  very  good  and  a  wise  mun,  and  he 
held  his  synod  with  his  bishops  and  with  tlie  clergy.  There 
was   Winfred  bishop   of   the   Mercians   deposed   from   his 

A.D.  658-667.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.         23 

bishopric,  aad  abbat  Saxulf  was  there  chosen  to  be  bi&hop, 
and  Cuthbald,  a  monk  of  the  same  monastery,  was  chosen 
abbat.  This  synod  was  held  six  hundi'cd  and  seventy -three 
years  after  the  birth  of  our  Lord. 

A.  658.  This  year  Kenwalk  fought  against  the  Welsh  at 
Peonna  [Pen]  ;  and  he  drove  them  as  far  as  Pedrida, 
[Petherton  ?]  this  was  fought  after  he  came  from  East- 
Anglia  ;  he  was  there  three  years  in  exile.  Thither  had 
Penda  driven  him.  and  deprived  liim  of  his  kingdom,  because 
he  had  forsaken  his  sister. 

A.  659. 

A.  660.  This  year  Bishop  Agilbert  departed  from  Ken- 
walk,  and  Wini  held  the  bishopric*  three  years,  and  Agil- 
bert obtained  the  bishopric  of  Paris  in  France  by  the 

A.  661.  This  year,  during  Easter,  Kenwalk  fought  at 
Pontesbury,  and  Wulfhere,  the  son  of  Penda,  laid  the  coun- 
try waste  as  far  as  Ashdown.  And  Cuthred  the  son  of 
Cuichelm  and  king  Cenbertl  died  in  one  year.  And 
Wulfhere  the  son  of  Penda  laid  waste  Wight,  and  gave  the 
people  of  Wight  to  Ethelwald  king  of  the  Sontli- Saxons, 
because  Wulfhere  had  been  his  sponsor  at  baptism.  And 
Eappa  the  mass-priest,  by  the  command  of  Wilfrid  and 
King  Wulfhere,  was  the  first  of  men  who  brought  baptism  to 
the  people  of  the  Isle  of  Wight. 

A.  662.  663. 

A.  664.  This  year  the  sim  was  eclipsed  on  the  5th  before  the 
Nones  of  May  ;  J  and  Earconbert  king  of  tlie  Kentish-men 
died,  and  Egbert  his  son  succeeded  to  the  kingdom  ;  and 
Colman,§  with  his  companions,  went  to  his  country.  The 
same  year  there  was  a  gre-at  pestilence  in  the  island  of  Bri- 
tain, and  bishop  Ij  Tuda  died  of  the  pestilence,  and  was  buried 
at  Wagele.^  And  Chad  and  Wilfrid  were  oraained  ;  and 
the  same  year  archbishop  Deus-dedit  died. 

A.  665.  666. 

A.  667.  This    year     Oswy  and    I  gbert    sent    Wi  rhard 

•  Of  Wessex,  at  Winchegter. 

t  "  Father  of  Caedwalla,  king  of  Wessex.     See  A.  t;85." — Petri^. 
X   May   3.      "This   happened   on    the   1st  of   Mav  ;    but  the   error    »« 
Bede's." — Petrie. 

I  Bishop  of  Lindisfarne.       H  Of  Lindiafarae.     *J  Cf.  Bede  1.  iii.  c.  27. 

24         THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.  a.d.  6G7-^:. 

tlie  priest  to  Rome,  that  he  might  there  be  conH<  orated  arch- 
bishop of  Canterbury  ;  but  he  died  soon  after  lie  came 

A.  667.  This  year  Wighard  went  to  Rome,  even  as  King  Oswy  and 
Egbert  had  sent  him. 

A.  668.  This  year  Theodore  was  ordained  an  archbishop, 
and  sent  to  Britain. 

A.  669.  This  year  king  Egbert  gave  Reculver  to  Bas- 
the  mass-priest,  that  he  might  build  a  minster  thereon. 

A.  670.  This  year  Oswy  king  of  the  North-humbrian. 
d\e(^^  on  the  loth  before  the  Kalends  of  ^larch  ;*  and  Egfri( 
Ilia  son  reigned  after  him  ;  and  Hlothere,|  the  nephew  oi 
bishop  Agilbert,  obtained  the  bishopric  over  the  West- 
Saxons,  and  held  it  seven  years.  Bishop  Theodore  conse- 
crated him.  And  OsWy  was  the  son  of  Ethelfrid,  Ethelfrid 
of  Ethelric,  Ethelric  of  Ida,  Ida  of  Eoppa. 

A.  67  L  This  year  was  the  great  destruction  among  the 

A.  672.  This  year  king  Kenwalk  died,  and  Sexburga  his 
queen  reigned  one  year  after  him. 

A.  673.  This  year  Egbert,  king  of  the  Kentish-men 
died  ;  and  the  same  year  tliere  was  a  Synod  at  Hertford,  and 
Saint  Etheldrida  began  the  minster  at  Ely. 

A.  674.  This  year  Escwin  succeeded  to  the  kingdom  of 
the  West- Saxons  ;  he  was  the  son  of  Cenfus,  Cenfus  of 
Cenferth,  Cenferth  of  Cuthgils,  Cuthgils  of  Ceolwulf,  Ceol- 
wulf  of  Cynric,  Cynric  of  Cerdic. 

,  A.  675.  This  year  Wulfhere,  the  son  of  Penda,  and 
Escwin,  the  son  of  Cenfus,  fought  at  Beadan-head  ;  and 
the  same  year  Wulfhere  died,  and  Ethelred  succeeded  to 
the  kingdom. 

Now  in  his  time  he  sent  bishop  Wilfrid  to  Rome  to  the 
pope  that  then  was,  he  was  called  Agatho,  and  sliowed  him 
l)y  letter  and  by  message  how  his  brothers  Peada  and  Wulf 
here,  and  Sexwulf  theabbat,  had  built  a  minster,  which  was 
called  Medeshamstede,  and  that  they  luid  freed  it  against 
king  and  against  bishop  of  all  services  ;  and  he  besought 
him  that  he  would  assent  to  it  with  his  rescript  and  with  his 
blessing.  And  then  the  pope  sent  his  rescript  to  England, 
thus  saying  : 

•  February  15th  t  Elouthenus,  oisnop  of  WuLcheater. 


"I,  Agatho,  pope  of  Rome,  greet  well  the  worsliipful 
Ethelred,  king  of  the  Mercians,  and  the  archbishop  Theo- 
dore of  Canterbury,  and  the  bishop  of  the  Mercians  Sexwulf, 
who  Avas  foimerly  abbat,  and  all  the  abbats  who  are  in  Eng- 
land, with  the  greeting  of  God  and  my  blessing.  I  have 
heard  the  desire  of  king  Ethelred,  and  of  archbishop  Theo- 
dore, and  of  bishop  Sexwulf,  and  of  abbat  Cuthbald  ;  and 
it  is  my  will  that  it  be  in  all  wise  even  as  you  liave  spoken. 
And  I  ordain,  on  behalf  of  God  and  St.  Peter,  and  of  all 
saints,  and  of  every  person  in  orders,  that  neither  king,  nor 
bishop,  nor  earl,  nor  any  man  have  any  claim,  nor  any  tribute, 
geld,  or  military  service  ;  neither  let  any  man  exact  any 
kind  of  service  from  the  abbacy  of  Medeshamstede.  I  also 
ordain  that  the  shire-bishop  be  not  so  bold  that  he  perform 
any  ordination  or  consecration  within  the  abbacy  unless  the 
abbat  beseech  it  of  him,  nor  have  any  claim  there  for 
proxies,  or  synodals,  or  for  any  kind  of  thing.  And  it  is  my  will 
that  the  abbat  be  holden  as  legate  of  Rome  over  all  the 
island,  and  that  wliatsoever  abbat  shall  be  there  chosen  by 
tlie  monks,  he  be  consecrated  by  the  archbishop  of  Canter- 
bury. I  will  and  concede  that  whatever  man  shall  have 
made  a  vow  to  go  to  Rome,  which  he  may  be  unable  to  fulfil, 
either  from  sickness  or  his  Lord's  need  (of  him),  or  from 
poverty,  or  be  unable  to  come  there  from  any  other  kind  of 
need,  be  he  of  England,  or  of  whatever  other  island  he  be,  let 
him  come  to  the  minster  at  Medeshamstede,  and  have  the  same 
forgiveness  of  Christ  and  St.  Peter,  and  of  the  abbat  and 
of  the  monks,  that  he  sliould  have  if  he  went  to  Rome. 
Now  I  beseech  tliee,  brother  Theodore,  that  thou  cause  to 
be  commanded  throughout  aD  England,  that  a  synod  be 
gathered,  and  this  decree,  be  read  and  observed.  In  like 
manner  I  command  thee  bishop  Sexwulf,  that  even  as  thou 
didst  desire  that  the  minster  be  free,  so  I  forbid  thee  and  ah 
the  bishops  that  shall  come  after  thee,  from  Christ  and  all  his 
saints,  that  ye  have  any  claim  upon  the  minster,  except  so 
far  as  ttie  abbat  shall  be  wilHng.  Now  will  I  say  in  a  word, 
that  whoso  observeth  this  rescript  and  this  decree,  let  him 
be  ever  dwelling  with  God  Almighty  in  the  kingdom  of 
heaven  ;  and  whoso  breaketh  through  it,  let  him  be  excom- 
municated, and  thrust  down  witli  Judas  and  Wi^h  all  the 
devils  in  he'l  unless  he  turn  t:  repentance.     Aikicn  I" 

26  THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,     a.d.676. 

This  rescript  Pop^  Agatho  and  one  hundred  and  twenty- 
five  bishops  sent  to  England  by  Wilfrid  archbishop  of  York. 
This  was  done  six  hundred  and  eighty  years  after  tlie  birth 
oi'  our  Lord,  and  in  the  sixth  year  of  king  Ethelred. 

The  king  then  commanded  the  archbishop  Theodore 
tliat  he  should  appoint  a  meeting  of  all  the  witan  at  the 
place  which  is  called  Heathfield.*  When  they  were  there 
assembled,  he  caused  the  rescript  to  be  read,  which  the  pope 
liad  sent  thither,  and  they  all  assented  to  and  fully  con- 
firmed it. 

Then  said  the  king  :  "  All  those  things  which  my  brother 
Peada,  and  my  brother  Wulf  here,  and  my  sisters  Kyneburg 
and  Kyneswith,  gave  and  granted  to  St.  Peter  and  the  abbat, 
it  is  my  will  shall  stand  ;  and  I  will  in  my  day  increase  it 
for  the  good  of  their  souls  and  of  my  own.  Now  to-day  I 
give  St.  Peter  at  his  minster,  Medeshamstede,  these  lands 
and  all  that  lieth  there  adjoining ;  that  is  to  say,  Bredon, 
Replugs,  Cadney,  Swineshead,  Hanbury,  Lodeshall,  Scuffan- 
hall,  Cosford,  Stratford,  Wattleburn,  Lushgard,  Ethelhun- 
island,  Bardney.  These  lands  I  give  St.  Peter  all  as  freely 
as  I  myself  possessed  them,  and  so  that  none  of  my  succes- 
sors take  anything  therefrom.  If  any  one  shall  do  so,  let 
him  have  the  curse  of  the  pope  of  Rome,  and  the  curse  of 
all  bishops,  and  of  all  those  who  are  here  witnesses,  and  this 
I  confirm  with  Christ's  token.kj^"  "I,  Theodore,  arch- 
bishop of  Canterbury,  am  witness  to  this  charter  of  Medes- 
hamstede, and  I  confirm  it  with  my  signature,  and  I  excom- 
municate all  those  who  shall  break  any  part  thereof,  and  I 
bless  all  those  who  shall  observe  It.hJ<"  "  I,  Wilfrid,  arch- 
bishop of  York,  I  am  witness  to  this  charter,  and  I  assent  to 
the  same  curse.K^"  "  I,  Sexwulf,  who  was  first  abbat  and  am 
now  bishop,  I  give  those  my  curse,  and  that  of  all  my  suc- 
cessors, who  shall  break  through  this."  "I,  Ostritha,  wife 
of  Ethelred,  grant  it."  "  I,  Adrian,  legate,  assent  to  it.'* 
*'  I,  Putta,  bishop  of  Rochester,  1  subscribe  it."  "  I,  Wald- 
here,  bishop  of  London,  confirm  it."  "  1,  Cuthbald,  abbat, 
assent  to  it.  so  that  whoso  shall  break  it,  let  him  have  the 
cursing  of  all  bishops  and  of  all  Christian  folk.     Amen  !" 

A.  676.  This  year,  in  which  Hedda  succeeded  to  his  bishop- 
nc  ;f  Escwin  died,  and  Kentwin  succeeded  to  the  kingdom 
•  Bishop's  Hatfield.  +  Of  Wcssex,  or  Winci)e<ii«ef. 

AD.  677-685.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.         27 

ot'  the  West-Saxons  :  and  Kentwin  was  the  son  of  Cynegils, 
Cynegils  of  Ceolwulf.  And  Etheh-ed,  king  of  the  Mer- 
cians, laid  waste  Kent. 

A.  677. 

A.  678.  This  year  the  star  (called)  a  comet  appeared  in 
August,  and  shone  like  a  sunbeam  every  morning  for  tliree 
months  ;  and  bishop  Wilfrid  was  driven  from  his  bishopric 
by  King  Egfrid  ;  and  two  bishops  were  consecrated  in  his 
stead  ;  Bosa  to  Deira.  and  Eata  to  Bernicia.  And  Eadlied 
was  consecrated  bishop  over  the  men  of  Lindsey  ;  he  was 
the  first  of  the  bishops  of  Lindsey. 

A.  679.  Tliis  year  Elfwin  was  slain  near  the  Trent, 
u'here  Egfrid  and  Ethelred  fought ;  and  Saint  Ethel- 
drida  died.  And  Coldingham  was  burned  by  fire  from 

A.  680.  This  year  archbishop  Theodore  appointed  a 
synod  at  Heathfield,  because  he  wished  to  set  forth  aright 
the  Christian  faith.  And  the  same  year  Hilda,  abbess  of 
Whitby,  died. 

A.  681.  This  year  Tumbert  was  consecrated  bishop  of 
Hexham,  and  Trumwine  of  the  Picts,  *  for  at  that  time  they 
were  subject  to  this  country. 

A.  682.  Li  this  year  Kentwin  drove  the  Britons  to  the 

A.  683. 

A.  684.  Here  in  this  year  Egfrid  sent  an  army  against 
the  Scots,  and  Beort  his  ealdorman  with  it,  and  miserably 
they  plundered  and  burned  the  churches  of  God. 

A.  685.  This  year  king  Egfrid  commanded  that  Cuth- 
bert  should  be  consecrated  a  bishop  ;  and  on  the  first  day  of 
Easter,  at  York,  archbishop  Theodore  consecrated  him 
bishop  of  Hexham  ;  because  Tumbert  had  been  deposed 
from  his  bishopric.  This  year  Casdwalla  began  to  contend  for 
the  kingdom.  Credwalla  was  the  son  of  Cenbert,  Cenbert 
of  Cadda,  Cadda  of  Cutha,  Cutha  of  Ceawlin,  Ceawlin  of  Cyn- 
ric,  Cynric  of  Cerdic.  And  M  ul  was  the  brother  of  Ccedwalla, 
and  he  was  afterwards  burned  in  Kent.  And  the  same  year, 
on  the  13th  before  the  Kalends  of  June,  king  Egfrid  was 
glain  near  the  North-sea,  and  a  great  army  with  him  He 
was  king  fifteen  years,  and  Alfrid  his  brotlier  succeeded  to 

*  Whithem. 

28         THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,   a.d.  685-690. 

the  kingdom  after  him.  Egfrid  was  the  son  of  Oswy, 
Oswj  of  Ethelfrid,  Ethelfrid  of  EtheMc,  Ethebic  of 
Ida,  Ida  of  Eoppa.  And  Lothere,  king  of  the  Kentish- 
men,  died  the  same  year.  And  John  was  consecrated  bishop 
of  Hexham,  and  he  was  there  until  Wilfrid  returned. 
Afterwards  John  succeeded  to  the  bishopric  of  York,  for 
bishop  Bosa  was  dead.  Then,  after  that,  Wilfrid*  his 
priest  was  consecrated  bishop  of  York,  and  John  retired  to 
his  minster  at  Derewood.f  This  year  it  rained  blood  in 
Britain,  and  milk  and  butter  were  turned  into  blood. 

A.  685.  And  in  this  same  year  Cuthbert  was  consecrated  bishop  of 
Hexham  by  archbishop  Theodore  at  York,  because  bishop  Tumbert  had 
Seen  driven  from  the  bishopric. 

A.  686.  This  year  Casdwalla  and  Mul  his  brother  laid 
waste  Kent  and  Wight.  This  Csedwalla  gave  to  St.  Peter's 
minster  at  Medeshamstede,  Hook,  which  is  in  an  island  called 
E£>borough  ;  the  then  abbat  of  the  monastery  was  called 
Egbald.  He  was  the  third  abbat  after  Sexwulf.  At  that 
time  Theodore  was  archbishop  in  Kent. 

A.  687.  This  year  Mul  was  burned  in  Kent,  and  twelve 
other  men  with  him  ;  and  the  same  year  Casdwalla  again 
laid  waste  Kent. 

A.  688.  This  year  Ina  succeeded  to  the  kingdom  of  the 
West-Saxons,  and  held  it  thirty-seven  years  ;  and  he  built 
the  minster  at  Glastonbury  ;  and  he  afterwards  went  to 
Rome,  arid  there  dwelt  to  the  end  of  his  days  :  and  the  same 
year  Casdwalla  went  to  Rome,  and  received  baptism  from 
the  pope,  J  and  the  pope  named  him  Peter  ;  and  in  about 
seven  days  he  died.  Now  Lia  was  the  son  of  Cenred,  Cen- 
red  of  Ceolwald,  Ceolwald  was  Cynegil's  brother,  and  they 
were  sons  of  Cuthwine  the  son  of  Ceawlin,  Ceawlin  of  Cyn- 
ric,  Cynric  of  Cerdic. 

A.  688.  This  year  king  Caedwalla  went  to  Rome,  and  received  baptism 
of  Pope  Sergius,  and  he  gave  him  the  name  of  l*eter,  and  in  about  seven 
days  afterwards,  on  the  twelfth  before  the  Kalends  of  May,  while  he  was  yet 
in  his  baptismal  garments,  he  died  ;  and  he  was  buried  in  St.  Peter's 
church.  And  Ina  succeeded  to  the  kingdom  of  the  West-Saxons  afte 
him,  and  he  reigned  twenty-seven  years. 

A.   689. 

A-  690.  This  year  archbishop    Theodore   died  ;    he  wrxj 

"I"  Beverley.  X  Sergius. 

A.D.  e:i-604.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.         29 

bisliop  t\v;intv-two  years,  and  he  was  buried  at  Cant('rbury  ; 
and  Bcrthvrald  succeeded  to  the  bishopric.  Before  tliis  tlie 
bi.slioy)s  had  been  Romans,  but  from  this  time  tiiey  were 

A.  69L 

A.  692.  This  year  Berthwald  was  chosen  archbishop  on 
the  Kalends  of  July  ;  he  was  before  that  abbat  of  Reculver. 
There  were  then  two  kings  in  Kent,  Withred  and  Webherd 

A.  698.  This  year  Berthwald  was  consecrated  archbishop 
by  Guodun,  bishop  of  the  Grauls,  on  the  5th  before  the  Nones 
of  July.  *  At  this  time  Gebmund,  bishop  of  Rochester,  died, 
and  archbishop  Berthwald  consecrated  Tobias  in  his  place  ; 
and  Drithelm  departed  this  life. 

A.  694.  This  year  the  Kentish-men  compounded  with 
Lia,  and  gave  him  thirty  thousand  pounds  t  for  his  friendship, 
because  tliey  had  formerly  burned  Mul.  And  Witlired  suc- 
ceeded to  the  kingdom  of  the  Kentish-men,  and  held  it 
thirty-three  years.  Withi-ed  was  the  son  of  E^jbert,  Eg- 
bert of  Earconbert,  Earconbert  of  Eadbald,  Eadbald  of 

As  soon  as  he  was  king,  he  commande<l  a  great  council  to  l>e 
assembled  at  the  place  which  is  called  Baccancelde,J  in  whicii 
sat  Withred,  king  of  the  Kentish-men,  and  Berthwald,  the 
archbishop  of  Canterbury,  and  Tobias,  bishop  of  Rochester, 
and  with  them  were  assembled  abbats  and  abbesses,  and 
many  wise  men,  all  to  consult  about  the  bettering  of  God's 
churches  in  Kent.  Now  began  the  king  to  speak,  and  said, 
"  It  is  my  will  that  all  the  minsters  and  the  churches  tliat  were 
given  and  bequeathed  to  the  glory  of  God  in  the  days  of 
faithful  kings  my  predecessors,  and  in  the  days  of  my  kins- 
men, of  King  Ethelbert  a-nd  those  who  followed  after  him, 

♦  The  29th  of  June. 

•f-  "  The  reading  of  MSS.  B  and  F,  howevsr  excessive  the  sum  may  ap- 
pear, has  been  placed  in  the  text,  because,  unlike  the  'thirty  men'  of 
A.Gt  or  the  '  thirty  thousand'  of  D.E,  it  is  intelligible  without  haviug 
recourse  to  conjecture.  The  payment,  whatever  its  amount  may  have  been, 
was  probably  the  legal  compensation  for  tli-e  death  of  Mul  ...  Of  the 
early  Latin  \vriters,  Ethelwald  says,  it  was  30,000  solidi,  *  per  singul  w 
con'^tanti  numero  sexdecim  nummis ;'  Florence,  of  Worcester,  37^1' 
pouiids  ;  and  Malmesbury,  30,000  maucuses,  which,  at  eight  to  the  pounl, 
vould  agree  with  Florence." — Fetrie.  X  Beckenham,  Kent. 

30        THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.   A.D.e95-ro5. 

do  so  remain  to  the  glory  of  God,  and  firmlj  cou^nne  co  tc 
all  etr.i  nitj  for  evermore.  For  I,  Withred,  an  earthly  king, 
instigated  by  the  King  of  heaven,  and  burning  with  the  zeal 
of  righteousness,  have  learned  from  the  institutes  of  our 
forefathers,  that  no  layman  has  a  right  to  possess  himself  of 
a  church,  nor  of  any  of  the  things  which  belong  to  a  church. 
And  hence  strictly  and  faithfully  do  we  appoint  and  decree, 
and  in  the  name  of  the  Almighty  God  and  of  all  his  saints 
we  forbid  to  all  kings  our  successors,  and  to  ealdormen,  and 
all  laymen  any  lordship  whatever  over  the  churches,  and 
over  all  their  possessions,  which  I,  or  my  elders  of  olden 
days,  have  given  as  an  everlasting  inheritance  to  the  glory  of 
Clirist  and  of  our  lady  St.  Mary,  and  of  the  holy  apostles. 
And  observe,  when  it  shall  happen  that  a  bishop,  or  an  abbat, 
or  an  abbess,  shall  depart  this  life,  let  it  be  made  known  to 
the  archbishop,  and  by  liis  counsel  and  advice,  let  such  an 
one  be  chosen  as  shall  be  worthy.  And  let  the  archbishop 
inquire  into  the  life  and  purity  of  him  who  is  chosen  to  such 
a  duty,  and  in  nowise  let  any  one  be  chosen  to  such  a  duty 
without  the  counsel  of  the  archbishop.  It  is  the  duty  of 
kings  to  appoint  earls  and  ealdormen,  shire-reeves  and 
doomsmen,  and  of  the  archbishop  to  instruct  and  advise  the 
community  of  God,  and  bishops,  and  abbats,  and  abbesses, 
priests  and  deacons,  to  choose  and  appoint,  and  consecrate  and 
stablish  them  by  good  precepts  and  example,  lest  any  of 
God's  flock  stray  and  be  lost. 

A.  695.  696. 

A.  697.  Tliis  year  the  South-humbrians  slew  Ostritha, 
Ethelred's  queen,  Egfrid's  sister. 

A.  698. 

A.  699.  This  year  tlie  Picts  slew  Beort  the  ealdorman. 

A.  700.  701. 

A.  702.  This  year  Kenred  succeeded  to  the  kingdom  of 
the  South-humbrians. 

A.  703.  This  year  bishop  Hedda  died,  and  he  held  the 
bishopric  at  Winchester  twenty-seven  years. 

A-  704.  This  year  Ethelred  the  son  of  Penda,  king  of 
the  Mercians,  became  a  monk,  and  he  had  held  the  kingdom 
twenty-nine  years  ;  then  Kenred  succeeded  to  it. 

A.  70o.  This  year  Alfrid  king  of  the  Nortli-humbrians 
died   at    Driffield  on  the  nineteauth  before  the  Kalends  of 

A.D.  706-718.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.         31 

January :    and    bishop     Sexwuli'.*     Then    Osred    Ids    son 
succeeded  to  the  kingdom. 

A.  7()6.— 708. 

A.  709.  This  year  bishop  Aldhehn  died,  he  was  bishop  j 
on  the  west  of  Selwood  ;  and  in  tlie  early  days  of  Daniel  the 
land  of  the  West-Saxons  was  divided  into  two  bishop-shires, 
and  before  that  it  had  been  one  ;  the  one  ^  Daniel  held,  the 
other  §  Aldhelm.  After  Aldhelni,  Forthhere  succeeded  to 
it.  And  king  Ceolred  succeeded  to  the  kingdom  of  the 
Mercians  ;  and  Kenred  went  to  Rome,  and  Offa  with  him. 
And  Kenred  was  there  till  the  end  of  his  life.  And  the 
same  year  bishop  Wilfrid  IJ  died  at  Oundle,  and  his  body 
was  carried  to  Ripon  ;  he  was  bishop  forty-five  years  ;  him 
king  Egfrid  had  formerly  driven  away  to  Rome. 

A.  710.  This  year  Acca,  Wilfrid's  priest,  succeeded  to 
the  bishopric  %  which  before  he  had  held ;  and  the  same  year 
Bertfrid  the  ealdorman  fought  against  the  Picts  between 
Ileugh  and  Carau.  And  Ina  and  Nun  his  kinsman  fought 
against  Gerent  king  of  the  Welsh ;  and  the  same  year 
Higbald  was  slain. 

A.  71 L— 713. 

A.  714.  This  year  Saint  Guthlac  died,  and  king  Pepin. 

A.  715.  This  year  Ina  and  Ceolred  fought  at  Wanborough. 
This  year  died  king  Dagobert. 

A.  716.  This  year  Osred  king  of  the  North-humbrians 
was  slain  on  the  southern  border ;  he  had  the  kingdom  seven 
years  after  Alfrid;  then  Kenred  succeeded  to  the  kingdom, 
and  held  it  two  years,  then  Osric,  who  held  it  eleven  years  ; 
and  the  same  year  Ceolred  king  of  the  Mercians  died,  and 
his  body  lies  at  Lichfield,  and  Ethelred's  the  son  of  Penda 
at  Bardney.  Then  Ethelbald  succeeded  to  the  kingdom  of 
the  Mercians,  and  held  it  forty-one  years.  Ethelbald  was 
the  son  of  Alwy,  Alwy  of  Eawa,  Eawa  of  Pybba,  whose 
genealogy  is  written  before.**  And  that  pious  man  Egbert 
converted  the  monks  in  the  island  of  Hiito  the  right  faith,  so 
that  they  observed  Easter  duly,  and  the  ecclesiastical  tonsure. 

A.  717. 

A.  718.  This  year  Ingild  the  brother  of  Lia  died,  and 
their  sisters  were  Cvvenburga  and  Cuthburga.  And  Cuthburga 

•  Of  Lichfield.  t  Of  Sherborne.      t  Winchr.^er. 

$  Sherborne.  fl  Of  Hexham.       ^   Hexliam.     •*A.  626. 

32         THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.   a.]>.  r 


built  the  monasierj  at  Wimburn  ;  and  she  was  given  in 
marriage  to  Alfrid  king  of  the  North -liumbriang ;  but  they 
separated  during  his  life-time. 

A.  719.  720. 

A.  72L  This  year  bishop  Daniel*  went  to  Rome;  and 
the  same  year  Ina  slew  Cynewulf  the  etheling.  And  this 
year  the  holy  bishop  Johnf  died;  he  was  bishop  tl .irty-three 
years,  eight  months,  and  thirteen  days ;  and  his  body  rests 
at  Beverley. 

A.  722.  This  year  queen  Ethelburga  razed  Taunton, 
which  Ina  had  previously  built ;  and  Ealdbert  the  exile 
departed  into  Surry  and  Sussex,  and  Ina  fought  against  the 
South- Saxons. 

A.  723.  724. 

A.  72o.  This  year  Withred  king  of  the  Kentish-men  died 
on  the  ninth  before  the  Kalends  of  May ;  he  reigned  thirty-fuur 
years  ;  his  genealogy  is  above  :  and  Egbert  succeeded  to 
the  kingdom  of  Kent ;  and  Ina  fought  against  the  South- 
Saxons,  and  there  slew  Ealdbert  the  etheling,  whom  he 
before  had  driven  into  exile. 

A.  726. 

A.  727.  This  year  Tobias  bishop  of  Roche.ster  died,  and 
in  his  place  archbishop  Berthwald  consecrated  Aldwulf  bishop. 

A.  728.  This  year  Ina  went  to  Rome,  and  there  gave  (up) 
his  life,  and  Ethelard  his  kinsman  succeeded  to  the 
kingdom  of  the  West- Saxons,  and  held  it  fourteen  years. 
And  the  same  year  Ethelard  and  Oswald  the  etheling 
fought ;  and  Oswald  was  the  son  of  Ethelbald,  Ethelbald 
of  Cynebald,  Cynebald  of  Cuthwin,  Cuthwin  of  Ceawlin. 

A.  729.  This  year  the  star  (called)  a  comet  appeared,  and 
Saint  Egbert  died  in  li. 

A.  729.  And  the  same  year  Osric  died ;  he  was  king  eleven  years  ; 
then  Ceolwulf  succeeded  to  the  kingdom,  and  held  it  eight  yeara. 

A.  730.  This  year  Oswald  the  etheling  died. 

A.  731.  This  year  Osric  king  of  the  North-humbrians 
was  slain,  and  Ceolwulf  succeed^^d  to  the  kingdom,  and  held 
It  eight  years,J  and  Ceolwulf  was  the  son  of  Cutha,  Cutha 
Df  Cuthwin,  Cutlntvin  of  Leodwald,  Leodwald  of  Egwald, 

•  Of  Winton.  +  Of  York. 

J  Osric's  death  is  rightly  placed  by  another  .MS.  in  729. 

A.D.  732-741.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.         33 

Egwald  of  Aldlielm,  Aldhelm  of  Ocga,  Ocga  of  Ida,  Ida  of 
Eoppa.  And  archbishop  Berthwald  died  on  the  Ides  of 
January  ;*  he  was  bishop  thirty-seven  years  six  months  and 
fourteen  days.  And  the  same  year  Tatwine  was  con- 
secrated archbishop  ;^  he  had  been  before  a  priest  at  Bredon 
among  the  Mercians.  Daniel  bishop  of  Winch-ester,  and 
Ingwald  bishop  of  London,  and  Aldwin  bishop  of  Lichfield, 
and  Aldwulf  bishop  of  Rochester  consecrated  him  on  thb 
tentli  of  June  :  he  had  the  archbishopric  three  years. 

A.  732. 

A.  733.  This  year  Ethelbald  conquered  Somerton  ;  and 
the  sun  was  eclipsed,  and  the  whole  disc  of  the  sun  was  like 
a  black  shield.     And  Acca  was  driven  from  his  bishopric.  J 

A.  734  This  year  the  moon  was  as  if  it  had  been 
sprinkled  with  blood  ;  and  archbishop  Tatwine  and  Bede 
died,  and  Egbert  was  consecrated  bishop.  § 

A.  735.  This  year  bishop  Egbert  received  his  pall  at 

A.  736.  This  year  archbishop  Nothelm  received  his  pall 
from  the  bishop  of  the  Romans.  || 

A.  737.  This  year  bishop  Forthere,^  and  queen  Fritho- 
githa**  went  to  Rome.  And  king  Ceolwulf  j  f  received  Peter's 
tonsure,  and  gave  his  kingdom  to  Eadbert,  his  uncle's  son  ; 
he  reigned  twenty-one  years  ;  and  bishop  Ethelwaldl|  and 
Acca  died,  and  Conwulf  was  consecrated  bishop.  §  §  And  the 
same  year  king  Ethelbald  laid  waste  the  land  of  the  North- 

A.  738.  This  year  Eadbert  the  son  of  Eata,  Eata  being 
the  son  of  Leodwald,  succeeded  to  the  kingdom  of  the  North- 
humbrians,  and  held  it  twenty-one  years.  His  brother  was 
archbishop  §  Egbert  the  son  of  Eata  ;  and  they  both  rest 
in  one  porch  in  the  city  of  York. 

A.  739.  740. 

A.  741.  This  year  king  Ethelard  died,  and  Cuthred 
his  kinsman  succeeded  to  the  kingdom  of  the  West-Saxons, 
and  held  it  sixteen  years  ;  and  he  contended  strenuously 
against  Ethelbald  king  of  the  Mercians.     And  archbishcp 

♦  The  i3th  of  Jinuary.         f  Of  Canterbury.  J  Hexham. 

$  Of  York.  II   Greg.  III.  %  Of  Wjit-fiu. 

*•  Of  Wessex.  {■+  Of  Northumbria. 

tX  Of  Lim]isia3T.e.  §  §  Of  York. 

34        THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,  a.d.  742-754. 

Nothelm*  died,  and  Cuthbert  was  consecrated  archbishop  1 
and  Dun  bishop  to  Rochester.     This  year  York  was  burnt. 

A.  742.  This  year  a  great  synod  was  held  at  Cloveshou  ; 
and  there  was  Ethelbald  king  of  the  Mercians,  and 
archbishop  Cuthbert,  and  many  other  wise  men. 

A.  743.  This  year  Ethelbald  king  of  the  Mercians,  and 
Cuthred  king  of  the  West -Saxons,  fought  against  the 

A.  744.  This  year  Daniel  gave  up  the  see  of  Winchester, 
and  Hunferth  succeeded  to  the  bishopric  :  and  stars  were 
Been  to  shoot  rapidly  :  and  Wilfrid  the  younger,  f  who  was 
bishop  of  York,  died  on  the  third  before  the  Kalends  of 
May  ;  J  he  was  bishop  thirty  years. 

A.  745.  This  year  Daniel  died  :  then  forty- three  years 
had  elapsed  since  he  obtained  the  bishopric. 

A.  746.  This  year  king  Selred  was  slain, 

A.  747. 

A.  748.  This  year  Cynric  the  etheling  of  the  West- 
Saxons  was  slain  :  and  Eadbert  king  of  the  Kentish-men 
died  ;  and  Ethelbert,  the  son  of  king  Withred,  succeeded  to 
the  kingdom. 

A.  749. 

A.  750.  This  year  Cuthred,  king  of  the  West-Saxons, 
fought  against  Ethelhun,  the  proud  ealdorman. 

A.  751. 

A.  752.  This  year  Cuthred,  king  of  the  West-Saxons,  in 
the  twelfth  year  of  his  reign,  fought  at  Burford  against 
Ethelbald  king  of  the  Mercians,  and  put  him  to  flight. 

A.  753.  This  year  Cuthred,  king  of  the  West-Saxons, 
fought  against  the  Welsh. 

A.  754.  This  year  Cuthred,  king  of  the  West- Saxons, 
died  ;  and  Kineward  obtained  the  bishopric  of  Winchester, 
after  Hunferth :  and  the  same  year  Canterbury  was  burned  : 
and  Sigebert  his  kinsman  succeeded  to  the  kingdom  of  the 
West- Saxons,  and  held  it  one  year. 

A.  755.  This  year  Cynewulf,  and  the  West-Saxon  ^witan ' 

•  Of  Canterbury. 

t  Wilfrid  the  second,  archbishop  of  York,  is  apparently  confounded 
with  the  bishop  of  Worcester  of  the  same  name.  The  former  vai 
■ucceeded  by  Egbert  in  734.    See  A.  734  and  776,  and  Bede,  p.  299. 

I  The  29th  of  April. 


deprived  his  kinsman  Sigebert  of  his  kingdom,  except 
Hampsliire,  for  his  unjust  doings  ;  and  that  lie  hckl  until  he 
slew  the  ealdorman  wlio  longest  abode  by  him.  And  then 
Cynewulf  drove  him  into  Andred,  and  he  abode  there  until 
a  swine-herd  stabbed  him  at  Privets-flood  [Frivett,  Hamp- 
sliire],  and  avenged  tlie  ealdorman  Cumbra. 

And  Cynewulf  fought  very  many  battles  against  the 
Welsh  ;  and  after  he  had  held  the  kingdom  about  one  and 
iliirty  years,  he  purposed  to  expel  an  etheling,  who  was 
named  Cyneard  :  and  Cyneard  was  Sigebert's  brother. 
And  he  then  learned  that  the  king  with  a  small  band  was 
gone  to  Merton  to  visit  a  woman  ;  and  he  there  beset  him 
and  surrounded  the  chamber  on  every  side,  before  the  men 
who  were  with  the  king  discovered  him.  And  when  the 
king  perceived  this,  he  went  to  the  door,  and  there  manfully 
defended  himself,  until  he  beheld  the  etheling,  and  then  he 
rushed  out  upon  him  and  sorely  wounded  him  ;  and  they  all 
continued  fighting  against  the  king  until  they  had  slain 

And  upon  tliis,  the  king's  thanes  having  discovered  the 
affray  by  the  woman's  cries,  each,  as  he  was  ready,  and  with 
liis  utmost  speed  ran  to  the  spot.  And  the  etheling  offered 
money  and  life  to  each  of  them,  and  not  one  of  them  would 
accept  it ;  but  they  continued  fighting  till  they  all  fell,  except 
one,  a  British  hostage,  and  he  was  sorely  wounded. 

Then  upon  the  morrow,  the  king's  thanes,  whom  he  had 
left  behind  him,  heard  that  the  king  was  slain,  then  rode  they 
thither,  and  Osric  his  ealdorman,  and  Wiferth  his  thane,  and 
the  men  whom  he  had  previously  left  behind.  And  at  the 
town  wherein  the  king  lay  slain  they  found  the  etheling,  and 
those  within  had  closed  the  gates  against  them  ;  but  they 
then  went  onward  And  he  then  offered  them  their  own 
choice  of  land  and  money  if  they  would  grant  liim  the 
kingdom,  and  showed  them  that  their  kinsman  were  with 
him,  men  who  would  not  desert  him.  And  they  then  said, 
that  no  kinsman  was  dearer  to  them  than  their  lord,  and  that 
they  never  would  follow  his  murderer.  And  they  then  bade 
their  kinsmen  tnat  they  should  go  away  from  him  in  safety ; 
but  they  said  that  the  same  had  been  bidden  their  companions 
who  before  that  had  been  with  the  king ;  then  they  said,  tliMS 
they  no  more  j^uiddd  it  'than  your  companions  who  were 

36         THE  AXGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,   a.d.  Ts.^rei. 

slain  with  the  king.'  And  then  they  continued  fifrhting 
around  the  gates  until  they  made  their  way  in,  and  slew  the 
etiieling,  and  all  the  men  who  were  whh  him,  except  one 
who  was  the  ealdorman's  godson  ;  and  he  escaped  with  life, 
though  he  was  wounded  in  several  places. 

And  Cynewulf  reigned  thirty-one  years,  and  his  body  lies 
at  Winchester,  and  thp  etheling's  at  Axminster  ;  and  their 
riglit  paternal  kin  reaches  to  Cerdic. 

And  the  same  year  Ethelbald  king  of  the  Mercians  was 
slain  at  Seckington,  and  his  body  lies  at  Repton,  and  he 
.  reigned  forty-one  years  ;  and  Bernred  obtained  the  kingdom, 
and  held  it  a  little  while  and  unhappily.  And  the  same  year 
Offa  drove  out  Bernred  and  obtained  the  kingdom,  and  held 
it  thirty-nine  years ;  and  his  son  Egfert  held  it  one  hundred 
and  forty- one  days.  OfFa  was  the  son  of  Thingferth, 
Thingferth  of  Enwulf,  Enwulf  of  Osmod,  Osmod  of 
Eawa,  Eawa  of  Pybba,  Pybba  of  Creoda.  Creoda  of 
Cynewald,  Cynewald  of  Cnebba,  Cnebba  of  Icel,  Icel  of 
Eomaer,  Eomger  of  Angeltheow,  Angel theow  of  Offa,  Oifa  of 
Weermund,  Weermund  of  Wihtlteg,  Wihtlaeg  of  Woden. 

A.  755.  This  year  C\Tiewulf  deprived  king  Sigebert  of  his  kingdom  ; 
and  Sigebert's  brother,  Cynehard  by  name,  slew  Cynewulf  at  Merton  ;  and 
he  reigned  thirty-one  years.  And  in  the  same  year  Ethelbald  king  of  the 
Mercians  was  slain  at  Re])ton.  And  Otfu  succeeded  to  the  kingdom  of  the 
Mercians,  Bernred  being  driven  out. 

A.  756. 

A.  7o7.  This  year  Eadbert  king  of  the  North-humbrians 
was  shorn,  and  his  son  Oswulph  succeeded  to  the  kingdom, 
and  reigned  one  year  ;  and  he  was  slain  by  his  household  on 
the  eighth  before  the  Kal.  of  August.* 

A.  758.  This  year  archbishop  Cuthbert  died  ;  and  he 
held  tlie  archbishopric  eighteen  years.f 

A.  759.  TMs  year  Bregowin  was  ordained  archbishop  at 
St.  Michael's-tide,  and  held  the  see  four  years.  And  Moll 
Kthelwald  succeeded  to  the  kingdom  of  the  Northhum- 
Ijrians,  and  reigned  six  years,  and  then  resigned  it. 

A.  760.  This  year  Ethelbert  king  of  the  Kentish-men 
died  ;  he  was  the  son  of  king  Withred  :  and  Ceclwulf  also 

A.  761.  This  year  was  the  severe  winter  ;  and  Moll  king 
•  The  25th  o/  July  f  Of  CaLterbxi  y. 

A.D.  762-777.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.         37 

of  the  Nortli-humbrians  slew  Oswin  at  Edwin's  Cliff  on 
the  eighth  before  the  Ides  ol'  August. 

A.  762.   This  year  archbishop  *  Bregowin  died. 

A.  763.  Tiiis  year  Lambert  was  ordained  archbishop  (in 
the  fortieth  day  after  mid-winter,|  and  held  the  see  twenty-«ix 
years.  And  Frithwald  bishop  of  Whitherne  died  on  the 
Nones  of  May. J  He  was  consecrated  at  York  on  the 
eighteenth  before  the  Kal.  of  September,  §  in  the  sixth  year  of 
Ceolwulf's  reign,  and  he  was  bishop  twenty-nine  years. 
Then  Petwin  was  consecrated  bishop  of  Whitherne  at 
Adlingfleet,  on  the  sixteenth  before  the  Kalends  of  August.] 

A.  764.  This  year  archbishop  Lambert  received  his  pall. 

A.  765.  This  year  Alcred  succeeded  to  the  kingdom  of 
the  North-humbrians,  and  reigned  nine  years. 

A.  766.  Tliis  year  died  archbishop  Egbert  at  York  on 
the  1 3th  before  the  Kalends  of  December  ;  he  was  bishop 
rhirty-seven  years ;  and  Fritlibert  at  Hexham ;  he  was 
bishop  thirty-three  years  ;  and  Ethelbert  was  consecrated 
to  York,  and  Alhmund  to  Hexham. 

A.  767. 

A.  768.  This  year  king  Eadbert  the  son  of  Eata,  died 
on  the  thirteenth  before  the  Kalends  of  September. 

A.  769.— 77L 

A.  772.  This  year  bishop  Milred  %  died. 

A.  773.  This  year  a  fiery  crucifix  appeared  in  the  heavens 
after  sunset :  and  the  same  year  the  Mercians  and  the 
Kentish-men  fought  at  Otford  ;  and  wondrous  adders  were 
seen  in  the  land  of  the  South- Saxons. 

A.  774.  This  year  at  Easter-tide,  the  North-humbrians 
drove  their  king  Alcred  from  York,  and  took  Ethelred,  the 
son  of  Moll,  .to  be  their  lord  ;  he  reigned  four  years. 

A.  775. 

A.  776.  This  year  bishop  Petwin**  died  on  the  thir- 
teenth before  the  Kalends  of  October  ;  he  was  bishop  four- 
teen years. 

A.  777.  This  year  Cynewolf  and  Offa  fought  about  Ben- 
ftington,  and  Ofia  took  the  town  ;  and  the  same  year,  oa 

•  Canterbury.  t  The  2nd  of  February. 

+  The  7th  of  Mav.  §  Tlie  15th  of  August. 

}  The  1 7th  of  Jilly.  ni  Of  Worcester. 
••  Oi  Wliitlieme. 

38         THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,   a.d.  777-730. 

the  seventeenth  before  the  Kalends  of  July,  Ethelbert  was 
consecrated  at  York  bishop  of  Whitherne. 

In  the  days  of  king  OtFa  there  was  an  abbat  of  Medesham- 
stede  called  Beonna.  The  same  Beoniia,  by  the  consent  ol 
all  the  monks  of  the  minster,  let  to  Cuthbert  the  ealdorman 
ten  copy-lands  at  Swineshead,  with  lease,  and  with  meadow, 
and  with  all  that  lay  thereto,  and  on  this  condition : 
that  Cuthbert  should  give  the  abbat  therefore  fifty  pounds, 
and  each  year  one  day's  entertainment,  or  thirty  shillings  in 
money  ;  and  furthermore,  that  after  his  decease  the  land 
should  return  to  the  minster.  The  witnesses  of  this  were 
king  OfFa,  and  king  Egfert,  and  archbishop  Higbert,*  and 
bishop  Ceolwulf,  and  bishop  Inwona,  and  abbat  Beonna,  and 
many  other  bishops  and  abbats,  and  many  other  great  men. 
In  the  days  of  this  same  OfFa  there  was  an  ealdorman  who 
was  called  Brorda.  He  desired  of  the  king  that  for  love  of 
him  he  would  free  a  minster  of  his  called  Woking,  because 
he  wished  to  give  it  to  Medeshamstede,  and  St.  Peter,  and 
the  abbat  tliat  then  was,  who  was  called  Pusa.  Pusa 
succeeded  Beonna,  and  the  king  loved  him  greatly.  And 
the  king  then  freed  the  minster  Woking,  against  king,  and 
against  bishop,  and  against  earl,  and  against  all  men,  so  that 
no  one  should  have  any  claim  there  except  St.  Peter  and  the 
abbat.  This  was  done  in  the  king's  town  called  Free- 

A.  778.  This  year  Ethelbald  and  Herbert  slew  three 
liigh-reeves  ;  Edulf,  the  son  of  Bosa,  at  Kings-cliif,  and 
Cynewolf  and  Egga  at  Helathyrn,  on  the  eleventh  before  the 
Kalends  of  April :  and  then  Alfwold  obtained  the  kingdom,  | 
and  drove  Ethelred  out  of  the  country  ;  and  he  reigned  ten 

A.  779. 

A.  780.  This  year  the  Old-Saxons  and  the  Franks  fought ; 
and  the  high-reeves  of  the  North -hunibrians  burned  Bern 
the  ealdorman  at  Silton,  on  the  eightli  before  the  Kalends  of 
January :  and  archbisliop  Ethelbert  died  at  York,  in 
whose  place  Eanbald  was  consecrated ;  and  bishop  Cynewolf 
gave  up  tlie  bishopric  of  Lindisfarne.  This  year  Alhmund, 
bishop  of  Hexham,  died  on  the  seventh  before  the  Ides  of 
beptember,  and  Tilbert  was  consecrated  in  his  place  on  the 
•  Of  Lichrield!  t  I^orthumbria. 

A.D.  781-789.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.         33 

sixth  before  the  Nones  of  October;  and  Higbald  was  ccnse- 
ci-ated  at  Sockbury  bishop  of  Lindisfarne ;  and  king  Alfwold 
sent  to  Rome  for  a  pall,  and  invested  Banbald  as  archbishop. 

A.  781. 

A.  782.  This  year  died  Werburh,  Ceolred's  queen,  and 
Cynewolf,  bishop  of  Lindisfarne  ;  and  there  was  a  synod  at 

A.  783. 

A.  784.  This  year  Cyneard  slew  king  Cynewolf,  and  was 
himself  there  slain,  and  eighty-four  men  with  him;  and 
then  Bertric  obtained  the  kingdom  of  the  West- Saxons, 
and  he  reigned  sixteen  years,  and  his  body  lies  at  Wareham  ; 
and  his  right  paternal  kin  reaches  to  Cerdic.  At  this  time 
king  Elmund  reigned  in  Kent.  This  king  Elmund  was 
the  father  of  Egbert,  and  Egbert  was  father  of  Athulf. 

A.  785.  This  year  abbat  Bothwin  died  at  Ripon  ;  and 
this  year  there  was  a  contentious  synod  at  Chalk-hythe,  and 
archbishop  Lambert  gave  up  some  portion  of  his  bishopric, 
and  Higbert  was  elected  by  king  OfFa  ;  and  Egfert  was 
consecrated  king.  And  at  this  time  messengers  were  sent 
from  Rome  by  pope  Adrian  to  England,  to  renew  the  faith 
and  the  peace  which  St.  Gregory  had  sent  us  by  Augustine 
tlie  bishop  ;  and  they  were  worshipfully  received,  and  sent 
away  in  peace. 

A.  786. 

A.  787.  This  year  king  Bertric  took  to  wife  Eadburga, 
king  OiFa's  daughter  ;  and  in  his  days  first  came  three  ships 
of  Northmen,  out  of  Hasretha-land  [Denmark].  And  then 
the  reve*  rode  to  the  place,  and  would  liave  driven  them  to 
the  king's  town,  because  he  knew  not  who  they  were  :  and 
they  there  slew  him.  These  were  the  first  ships  of  Danish- 
men  which  sought  the  land  of  the  English  nation. 

A.  788.  This  year  a  synod  was  assembled  in  the  land  of 
the  North-humbrians  at  Eingall,  on  the  4th  before  the 
Nones  of  September  ;  and  abbat  Albert  died  at  Ripon. 

A.  789.  This  year  Alfwold,  king  of  the  Northumbrians, 
was  slain  by  Siga  on  the  8th  before  the  Kalends  of  October  ; 
and  a  heavenly  light  was  frequently  seen  at  the  place  where 
he  was  slain  ;  and  he  was  buried  at  Hexham  within  the 
church ;  and  Osred,  the  son  of  Alcred  succeeded  to  the 
•  Sin:e  cidled  sheriff  ;  i.  e.  the  reve^  at  stewaxd  of  tne  shire. — Ingram. 

40         THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,   a.d.  7s»-794. 

kingdom  after  him  :  he  was  his  nephew.  And  a  synod  was 
assembled  at  Acley. 

A.  790.  This  year  archbishop  Lambert  died,  and  the 
same  year  abbat  Athelard  was  chosen  archbisliop.*  And 
Osred,  king  of  the  North-humbrians,  was  betrayed,  arnl 
driven  from  the  kingdom ;  and  Etheh'ed,  the  son  of  Ethel- 
wald,  again  obtained  the  government. 

A.  79  L  This  year  Baldulf  was  consecrated  bishop  of 
Whitherne,  on  the  16th  before  the  Kalends  of  August,  by 
archbishop  Eanbald,f  and  by  bishop  Ethelbert.  J 

A.  792.  This  year  OiFa,  king  of  the  Mercians,  commanded 
the  head  of  king  Eth-elbert  §  to  be  struck  off.  And  Osred, 
who  had  been  king  of  the  Northumbrians,  having  come 
home  after  his  exile,  was  seized  and  slain  on  the  18th  before 
the  Kalends  of  October  ;  and  his  body  lies  at  Tinemouth. 
And  king  Ethelred  took  a  nev/  wife,  who  was  called  Elfleda, 
on  the  3rd  before  the  Kalends  of  October. 

A.  793.  This  year  dire  forwarnings  came  over  the  land 
of  the  North-humbrians,  and  miserably  terrified  the  people  ; 
these  were  excessive  whirlwinds,  and  lightnings  ;  and  fiery 
dragons  were  seen  flying  in  the  air.  A  great  famine  soon 
followed  these  tokens  ;  and  a  little  after  that,  in  the  same 
year,  on  the  6th  before  the  Ides  of  January,  the  ravaging  of 
heathen  men  lamentably  destroyed  God's  church  at  Lindis- 
farne  through  rapine  and  slaughter.  And  Siga  died  on  the 
8th  before  the  Kalends  of  March. 

A.  794.  This  year  Pope  Adrian  ||  and  king  Offa  died ;  and 
Ethelred,  king  of  the  North-humbrians,  was  slain  by  his  own 
people  on  the  13th  before  the  Kalends  of  May  ;  and  bishop 
Ceolwulf  ^  and  bishop  Eadbald  went  away  from  the  land. 
And  Egfert  succeeded  to  the  kingdom  of  the  Mercians 
and  died  the  same  year.  And  Eadbert,  who  by  a  second 
name  was  named  Pren,  obtained  the  kingdom  of  Kent. 
And  Ethelherd  the  ealdorman  died  on  the  Kalends  of  Au- 
gust ;  and  the  heathens  ravaged  among  the  North-humbrians, 
and  plundered  Egfert's  monastery  at  the  mouth  of  the  Wear ; 
and  there  one  of  their  leaders  was  slain,  and  also  some  of 
their  ships  were  wrecked  by  a  tempest ;  and  many  of  them 

•  Of  Canterbury.  t  Of  York. 

t  Of  H^-xh;nn.  $  Of  East  Ang'A. 

H  Fop<i  Aiiruvji  died  Decembe   2otb,  795.         %  Of  Liudsev* 

A.D.79&-796.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.         41 

were  there  dro-vvned,  and  some  came  on  shore  alive,  and  they 
were  soon  shiin  at  the  river's  mouth. 

A.  79o.  This  year  the  moon  was  eclipsed  between  cock- 
crowing  and  dawn,  on  tlie  oth  before  the  Kalends  of  April  ; 
and  Eardulf  succeeded  to  the  kingdom  of  the  North-hum brians 
on  the  2nd  before  the  Ides  of  May  ;  and  he  was  afterwards  con- 
secrated king,  and  raised  to  his  throne  on  the  8th  before 
the  Kalends  of  June,  at  York,  by  archbishop  Eanbald,  and 
bishop  Ethelbert,*  and  Higbald,']*  and  Badulf,J  bishops. 

A.  796.  This  year  Kenulf,  king  of  the  Mercians,  laid 
waste  Kent  as  far  as  the  marshes,  and  took  Pren  their  king, 
and  led  him  bound  into  Mercia,  and  let  his  eyes  be  picked 
out  and  his  hands  be  cut  off.  And  Athelard,  archbishop 
of  Canterbury,  appointed  a  synod,  and  confirmed  and  ratified, 
by  the  command  of  Pope  Leo,  all  the  things  respecting  God's 
ministers  which  were  appointed  in  Withgar's  days,  and  in 
other  kings'  days,  and  thus  sayeth  : 

"I,  Athelard,  the  humble  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  by 
the  unanimous  counsel  of  the  whole  synod,  and  with  ...  of 
all . . .  to  the  congregation  of  all  the  ministers  to  which  in  old 
days  immunity  was  given  by  faithful  men,  in  the  name  of 
God,  and  by  his  awful  doom,  I  command,  as  I  have  com- 
mand of  Pope  Leo,  that  henceforth  none  dare  to  choose  for 
themselves  lords  over  God's  heritage  from  amongst  laymen. 
But  even  as  it  stands  in  the  rescript  which  the  pope  has 
given,  or  those  holy  men  have  appointed  who  are  our  fathers 
and  instructors  concerning  holy  minsters,  tfius  let  them  con- 
tinue inviolate,  without  any  kind  of  gainsaying.  If  there 
be  any  man  wlio  will  not  observe  this  ordinance  of  God,  and 
of  our  pope,  and  ours,  and  who  despiseth  and  holdeth  it  for 
nought,  let  him  know  that  he  shall  give  account  before  the 
judgment-seat  of  God.  And  I,  Athelard,  archbishop,  with 
twelve  bishops,  and  three  and  twenty  abbats,  do  confirm  and 
ratify  this  same  with  Christ's  rood-token." 

And  archbishop  Eanbald  died  on  the  4tli  before  the  Idea 
of  August  of  the  same  year^  and  his  body  lies  at  York ;  and 
the  same  year  died  bishop  Ceolwulf  ;§   and  a  second  Ean- 

•  Of  IlexhHUu  +  TJndisfarne. 

X  W hiU\cyfA9.  I  Of  Lind«)y. 

42         THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,   a.d.  796^02. 

bald  was  consecrated  in  the  place  of  the  other  on  the  19th 
before  the  Kalends  of  September. 

A.  796.  This  year  OfFa,  kint^  of  the  Mercians,  died  en  the  4th  before  tJie 
Kalends  of  Augxist ;  he  rei^jned  forty  years. 

A.  797.  This  year  the  Romans  cut  out  the  tongue  of  Pope 
'  ^,  and  put  out  his  eyes,  and  drove  him  from  his  see  ;  and 
fton  afterwards,  God  helping,  he  was  able  to  see  and  speak, 
«nd  again  was  pope  as  he  before  was.  And  Eanbald  re- 
ceived his  pall  on  the  6th  before  the  Ides  of  September  ;  and 
bishop  Ethelbert*  died  on  the  17th  before  the  Kalends  of  No- 
vember ;  and  Heandred  was  consecrated  bishop  in  his  place 
on  the  3rd  before  the  Kalends  of  November  ;  and  bishop 
Alfun  died  at  Sudbury,  and  he  was  buried  in  Dunwich,  and 
Tidfrith  was  chosen  after  him  ;  and  Siric,  king  of  the  East 
Saxons,  went  to  Rome.  In  this  same  year  the  body  of  Wit- 
burga  was  found  at  Dereham,  all  whole  and  uncorrupted,  five 
and  fifty  years  after  she  had  departed  from  this  life. 

A.  798.  This  year  there  was  a  great  fight  at  Whalley 
in  the  land  of  the  North-humbrians,  during  Lent,  on  the  4th 
before  the  Nones  of  April,  and  there  Alric,  the  son  of  Her- 
bert, was  slain,  and  many  others  with  him. 

A.  799.  This  year  archbishop  Athelardf  and  Kenebert 
bishop  of  the  West-Saxons,J  went  to  Rome. 

A.  800.  This  year,  on  the  17th  before  the  Kalends  of 
February,  the  moon  was  eclipsed  at  the  second  hour  of  the 
night.  And  king  Bertric  and  Worr  the  ealdorman  died,  and 
Egbert  succeeded  to  the  kingdom  of  the  West- Saxons. 
And  the  same  day  Ethelmund,  ealdorman,  rode  over  from 
the  Wiccians,  at  Cynemaeresford  [Kempsford].  Then  Wox- 
tan  the  ealdorman  with  the  men  of  Wiltshire  met  him. 
There  was  a  great  fight,  and  both  the  ealdormen  were  slain,, 
and  the  men  of  Wiltshire  got  the  victory. 

A.  801. 

A.  801.  This  year  Beommod  was  ordained  bishop  of  Rochester. 

A.  802.  This  year  on  the  13th  before  the  Kalends  of 
January  the  moon  was  eclipsed  at  dawn  ;  and  Beornraod  was 
ordained  bishop  of  Rochester.  § 

•  Of  Hexham.  f  Of  CHiiterbury  $  Winchester. 

4  Placed  in  801  by  another  Mo« 

A.D.  803-819.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.         4o 

A.  803.  This  year  died  Higbald  bishop  of  Lindisfarne  on 

the  8th  before  the  Kulends  of  Jul/,  and  Egbert  U.  was  con- 
iiccrated  in  his  stead  on  the  3d  before  the  Ides  of  June ;  and 
this  year  archbishop  Athehird  died  in  Kent,  and  Wulfred 
was  ordained  archbishop  ;  and  abbat  Forthred  died. 

A.  804.  This  year  archbishop  Wulfred  received  his  pall. 

A.  805.  This  year  king  Cuthred  died  among  the  Kentish- 
men,  and  Colburga  abbess,*  and  Herbert  the  ealdorman. 

A.  806.  This  year  the  moon  was  eclipsed  on  the  Kalends 
of  September  :  and  Eardulf  king  of  the  North-humbrians 
was  driven  from  his  kingdom  ;  and  Eanbert  bishop  of  Hex- 
ham died.  Also  in  the  same  year,  on  the  2d  before  the  Nones 
of  June,  a  cross  appeared  in  the  moon  on  a  Wednesday  at 
dawn  ;  and  afterwards  in  this  year,  on  the  third  before  the 
Kalends  of  September,  a  wonderful  circle  was  seen  about  the. 

A.  807.  808. 

A.  809.  This  year  the  sun  was  eclipsed  At  the  beginning 
of  tlie  fifth  hour  of  the  day  on  the  17th  before  the  Kalends  of 
Auixust,  the  2d  day  of  the  week,  the  29th  of  the  moon. 

A.  810.  8U. 

A.  812.  This  year  king  Charlemagne  died,  and  he  reigned 
five  and  forty  years  ;  and  archbishop  Wulfred  and  Wigbert 
bishop  of  the  West-Saxons  f  both  went  to  Rome. 

A.  813.  This  year  archbishop  Wulfred,  with  the  blessing 
of  pope  Leo,  returned  to  his  own  bishopric  ;  and  the  same 
yoar  king  Egbert  laid  waste  West- Wales  from  eastward  to 

A.  814.  This  year  the  noble  and  holy  pope  J  Leo  died, 
and  after  him  Stephen  succeeded  to  the  popedom. 

A.  815. 

A.  816.  This  year  pope  Stephen  died,  and  after  him 
I^aschal  was  ordained  pope  ;  and  the  same  year  the  English 
school  at  Rome§  was  burned. 

A.  817.  818. 

A.  819.  This  year  Kenulf  king  of  the    Mercians   died, 

•  Of  Berkeley.  f  Sherborne. 

}  Leo  111.  died  11th  June  816.  Eginhard,  Arm.  Stephen  IV.  was  con- 
tiecrated  on  the  '22d  of  the  same  month. 

$  The  An;^^Ie-Scho()l  was  a  quarter  near  St.  Peter's,  where  the  English 
pili^rims  at  Rome  resided.  According  to  Anastasius,  they  called  it  their 
Borough,'  (burgus).      V.  Anastas.  Bihliothecar.  de  Vita  Stephani  i  *'. 

44         THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.   a.d.  820-S27. 

and  Ceolwiilf  succeeded  to  the  kingdom  ;  and  Eadbert  the 
ealdorman  died. 

A.  820. 

A.  82 L  This  year  Ceolwulf  was  deprived  of  his  king- 

A.  822.  This  year  two  ealdormen,  Burhelm  and  Mucca, 
were  slain  ;  and  there  was  a  synod  at  Cloveshoo. 

A.  823.  Tliis  year  there  was  a  battle  between  the  Welsh 
and  the  men  of  Devon  at  Camelford  :'\  and  the  same  year  Eg- 
bert king  of  the  West- Saxons  and  Bernulf  king  of  the 
Mercians  fought  at  Wilton,  and  Egbert  got  the  victory, 
and  there  was  great  slaughter  made.  He  then  sent  from 
the  army  his  son  Ethelwulf,  and  Ealstan  his  bishop,^  and 
Wulf  iierd  his  ealdorman,  into  Kent  with  a  large  force,  and 
they  drove  Baldred  the  king  northwards  over  tlie  Thames. 
And  the  men  of  Kent,  and  the  men  of  Surrey,  and  tlie  South- 
Saxons,  and  the  East- Saxons,  submitted  to  him  ;  for  for- 
merly they  had  been  unjustly  forced  from  his  kin.  And  the 
same  year  the  king  of  the  East- Angles  and  the  people  sought 
tlie  alliance  and  protection  of  king  Egbert  for  dread  of  the 
Mercians  ;  and  the  same  year  the  East- Angles  slew  Bernulf 
king  of  Mercia. 

A.  824. 

A.  825.  This  year  Ludecan  king  of  the  Mercians  was  slain, 
and  his  five  ealdormen  with  hmi  ;  and  Withlaf  succeeded  tc 
the  kinofdom. 

A.  826. 

A.  827.  This  year  the  moon  was  eclipsed  §  on  the  mass- 
night  of  midwinter.  And  the  same  year  king  Egbert 
conquered  the  kingdom  of  the  Mercians,  and  all  that  was 
south  of  the  Humber  ;  and  he  was  the  eighth  king  who  was 
Bretwalda.  ^Ua  king  of  the  South- Saxons  was  the  first 
who  had  thus  much  dominion ;  the  second  was  Ceawlin  king 
of  the  West- Saxons  ;  the  third  was  Ethelbert  king  cf  the 
Kentish-men  ;  the  fourth  was  Redwald  king  of  tlie  East- 
Ajigles  ;  the  fifth  was  Edwin  king  of  the  North-liumbrians ; 
tiie  sixth  was  Oswald  who  reigned  after  liim  ;  the  seventh 
v/as  Oswy,  Oswald's  brother  ;  the  eighth  was  Egbert  king 
cf  the  West- Saxons.     And   Egbert  led  an  army  to    l>ore 

•  Mercia.  +  In  Cornwall.  I^  Sherborne. 

$  The  eclipse  happened  on  tJie  'loth  of  D<»oember,  ii2ii. 

A.D.  823-836.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.         45 

against  the  North-humbn'ans,  and  they  there  offered    him 
obedience  and  allegiance,  and  with  that  tliey  separated. 

A.  828.  This  year  Withhif  again  obtained  the  kingdom  of 
the  Mercians,  and  bisliop  Ethehvald*  died  ;  and  the  same 
year  king  Egbert  led  an  army  against  the  North-Welsh, 
and  he  forced  them  to  obedient  subjection. 

A.  829.  Thiff^,  year  archbishop  Wult'red  died,  and  after 
him  abbat  Theologild  was  chosen  to  the  archbishopric.f  on 
the  7th  before  the  Kalends  of  May  ;  and  he  was  consecrated 
upon  a  Sunday,  the  oth  before  the  Ides  of  June  :  and  he 
died  on  the  3rd  before  the  Kalends  of  September. 

A.  830.  This  year  Ceolnoth  was  chosen  bishop, J  and  or* 
dained  ;  and  abbat  Theologild  died. 

A.  83  L  This  year  archbishop  Ceolnoth  received  his  pall. 

A.  832.  This  year  the  heathen  men  ravaged  Sheppey. 

A.  833.  This  year  king  Egbert  fought  against  the  men  (A 
thirty-five  ships  at  Charmouth,  and  there  was  great  slaughter 
made,  and  the  Danish-men  maintained  possession  of  the  field. 
And  Herefrith§  and  Wigthun,  ||  two  bishops,  died ;  and  Dudda 
and  Osmod,  two  ealdormen,  died. 

A.  834. 

A.  835.  This  year  a  great  hostile  fleet  came  to  the  West- 
Welsh,^  and  tliey  united  together,  and  made  w^ar  upon  Eg 
bert  king  of  the  ^Vest-Saxons.  As  soon  as  he  heard  of  it 
he  went  thither  with  an  army,  and  fought  against  them  at 
Hengeston,  and  there  he  put  to  flight  both  the  Welsh  and 
the  Danish-men. 

A.  836.  This  year  king  Egbert  died  ;  before  he  was 
king,  Offa  king  of  the  Mercians,  and  Bertric,  king  of  the 
West-Saxons,  drove  him  out  of  England  into  France  for 
thi'ee  years  ;  and  Bertric  assisted  Offa,  because  he  had  his 
daughter  for  his  queen.  And  Egbert  reigned  thirty-seven 
years  and  seven  months  :  and  Ethelwulf  the  son  of  Eg- 
bert succeeded  to  the  kingdom  of  the  West-Saxons  ;  and 
he  gave  his  son  Athelstan  the  kingdoms  of  the  Kentish-men, 
and  of  the  East- Saxons,  and  of  the  men  of  Surrey,  and  of  the 
South- Saxons. 

A.  836.  And  Ethelstan  his  other  son  succeeded  to  the  kingdom  of 
the  Kentish-men,  and  to  Surrey,  and  to  the  kingdom  of  the  South-Saxons. 

•  Of  Lichfield,  f  Of  Canterbury.  J  Of  Canterlury 

§  Of  Seleey.  U  Of  WiEchester.  -^  Corn  wall. 

46         THE  AXGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,   a.d.  837-851. 

A.  837.  This  year  Wulfherd  the  ealdorman  fought  at 
Ilamtun  [Southampton],  against  the  forces  of  thirty-five 
si  lips,  and  there  made  great  slaughter,  and  got  the  victory  : 
and  the  same  year  Wulfherd  died.  And  the  same  year 
Ethelhehn  the  ealdorman  fought  against  the  Danish  army 
at  Portland-isle  vrith  the  men  of  Dorset,  and  for  a  good 
while  he  put  the  enemy  to  flight  ;  but  the  Danish-men  had 
possession  of  the  field,  and  slew  the  ealdorman. 

A.  838.  This  year  Herebert  the  ealdorman  was  slain  "by 
the  heathen  men,  and  many  with  him  among  the  Marsh- 
men  ;  and  afterwards,  the  same  year,  in  Lindsey,  and  in 
East-Anglia,  and  in  Kent,  many  men  were  slain  by  the 

A.  839.  This  year  there  was  great  slaughter  at  London, 
and  at  Canterbury,  and  at  Rochester. 

A.  840.  This  year  king  Ethelwulf  fought  at  Charmouth 
against  the  crews  of  thirty-five  ships,  and  the  Danish-men 
maintained  possession  of  the  field.  And  Louis  the  emperor 

A.  841.— 844. 

A.  845.  This  year  Eanwulf  the  ealdorman,  with  the  men 
of  Somerset,  and  bishop  Ealstan,*  and  Osric  the  ealdor- 
man, with  the  men  of  Dorset,  fought  at  the  mouth  of  the 
Parret  against  the  Danish  army,  and  there  made  great 
slaughter,  and  got  the  victory. 

A.  846.— 850. 

A.  851.  This  year  Ceorl  the  ealdoniian,  with  the  men  of 
Devonshire,  fought  against  the  heathen  men  at  Wembury,t 
and  there  made  great  slaughter  and  got  the  victory.  And 
the  same  year  king  Athelstan  and  Elchere  the  ealdormen 
fought  on  shipboard,  and  slew  a  great  number  of  the  enemy 
at  Sandwich  in  Kent,  and  took  nine  ships,  and  put  the  others 
to  flight ;  and  the  heathen  men,  for  the  first  time,  remained 
over  winter  in  Thanet.  And  the  same  year  came  three 
hundred  and  fifty  ships  to  the  mouth  of  the  Thames,  and  the 
crews  landed  and  took  Canterbury  and  London  by  storm, 
and  put  to  flight  BerthAvulf,  king  of  the  Mercians,  with 
his  army,  and  then  went  south  over  the  Thames  into  Surrey  ; 
mid  there  king  Ethelwulf  and  his  son  Ethelbald,  with  the 
oniiy  of  the  West- Saxons,  fought  against  them  at  Ockley, 
•  Of  Sherborne.  t  Near  Plvmouth. 

A.D.852  855.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.         47 

ond  there  made  the  greatest  slaughter  among  the  heathen 
army  that  we  have  heard  reported  to  the  present  day,  and 
there  got  the  victory. 

A.  852.  At  this  time  Ceolred,  abbat  of  Medeshamstede 
and  the  monks  let  to  Wulfred  tlie  land  of  Sempringham,  on 
this  condition,  that  after  his  decease  the  laiKl  should  return 
to  the  minster,  and  that  Wulfred  should  give  the  land  of 
Sleaford  to  Medeehamstede,  and  each  year  should  deliver 
into  the  minster  sixty  loads  of  wood,  and  twelve  of  coal 
and  six  of  faggots,  and  two  tuns  full  of  pure  ale,  and 
two  beasts  fit  for  slaughter,  and  six  hundred  loav(>s,  and 
ten  measures  of  Welsh  ale,  and  each  year  a  horse,  and  thirty 
shillings,  and  one  day's  entertainment.  At  this  agreement  were 
present  king  Burhred,  and  archbishop  Ceolred,  and  bishop 
Tunbert,  and  bishop  Cenred,  and  bishop  Aldhun,  and 
abbat  AVitred,  and  abbat  Werthcrd,  and  Ethelherd, 
the  ealdorman,  and  Hunbert,  the  ealdorman,  and  many 

A.  853.  This  year  Burhred,  king  of  the  Mercians,  and 
his  council,  begged  of  king  Ethelwulf  tliat  he  would  assist 
liim  so  that  he  might  make  the  North-Welsh  obedient  to 
him.  He  then  did  so  ;  and  went  with  an  army  across  ]\ler- 
cia  among  the  North- Welsh,  and  made  them  all  obedient  to 
him.  And  the  same  year  king  Ethelwulf  sent  his  son 
Alfred  to  Rome.  Leo  [IV.]  was  then  pope  of  Rome  ;  and 
he  consecrated  him  king,  and  took  him  for  his  son  at  confir- 
mation. Then,  in  the  same  year,  Ealhere,  with  the  men  of 
Kent,  and  Huda,  with  the  men  of  Surry,  fought  in  Tlianet, 
against  the  heathen  army  ;  and  at  first  they  were  victorious  ; 
and  many  there  were  slain,  and  drowned  on  either  hand,  and 
both  the  ealdormen  were  killed.  And  upon  this  after  Easter 
Ethelwulf,  king  of  the  West-Saxons,  gave  his  daughter  to 
Burhred  king  of  the  Mercians. 

A.  854. 

A.  855.  This  year  the  heathen  men,  for  the  first  time, 
remained  over  winter  in  Sheppey  :  and  the  same  year  king 
Ethelwulf  gave  by  charter  the  tenth  part  of  his  land 
throughout  -his  realm  for  the  glory  of  God  and  his  own 
eternal  salvation.  And  the  same  year  he  went  to  Rome  in 
great  state,  and  dwelt  there  twelve  months,  and  then  r»*- 
tumed  homewards.     And  then  Charles,  king  of  the  Frani;:^ 

48         THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.   a.d.  85s-m. 

gave  him  his  daughter  to  w4fe  ;  and  after  that  he  came  to 
his  people,  and  they  were  glad  of  it.  And  about  two  years 
after  he  came  from  France  he  died,  and  his  body  lies  at  Win- 
chester. And  he  reigned  eighteen  years  and  a  half.  And 
Ethelwulf  was  tlie  son  of  Egbert,  Egbert  of  Elmund, 
Elmund  of  Eafa,  Eafa  of  Eoppa,  Eoppa  of  Ingild  ;  Ii  gild 
was  Ina's  brother,  king  of  the  West- Saxons,  he  who  held  the 
kingdom  tliirty-seven  years,  and  afterwards  went  to  St. 
Peter,  and  there  resigned  his  life  ;  and  they  were  the  sons  of 
Kenred,  Kenred  of  Ceolwald,  Ceolwald  of  Cutha,  Cutha  of 
Cuthwin,  Cuthwin  of  Ceawlin,  Ceawlin  of  Cynric,  Cynric 
of  Cerdic,  Cerdicof  Elesa,  Elesa  of  Esla,  Eslaof  Gewis,  Gewis 
of  Wig,  Wig  of  Freawin,  Freawin  of  Frithogar,  Frithogar 
of  Brond,  Brond  of  Beldeg,  Beldeg  of  Woden,  Woden  of 
Fritliowald,  Frithowald  of  Frealaf,  Frealaf  of  Frithuwulf. 
Frithuwulf  of  Finn,  Finn  of  Godwulf,  Godwulf  of  Geat, 
Geat  of  Tcetwa,  Tcetwa  of  Beaw,  Beaw  of  Sceldi,  Sceldi 
of  Heremod,  Heremod  of  Itermon,  Itermon  of  Hatlira, 
Hathra  of  Guala,  Guala  of  Bedwig,  Bedwig  of  Sceaf,  that 
is,  the  son  oi  Noah,  he  was  born  in  Noah's  ark  ;  Lamech, 
Methusidem,  Enoh,  Jared,  Malalahel,  Cainion,  Enos,  Seth, 
Adam  the  first  man,- and  our  Father,  that  is,  Christ.  Amen. 
Then  Ethelwulf's  two  sons  succeeded  to  the  kingdom  ; 
Ethelbald  succeeded  to  the  kingdom  of  the  West-Saxons  ; 
and  Ethelbert  to  the  kingdom  of  the  Kentish-men,  and  to 
the  kingdom  of  the  East-Saxons,  and  to  Surry,  and  to  the 
kingdom  of  the  South-Saxons  ;  and  then  Ethelbald  reigned 
five  years.  Alfred  nis  tliird  son  he  had  sent  to  Rome  :  and 
when  Pope  Leo  f^^-J  heard  say  that  Ethelwulf  was  dead, 
he  consecrated  Alfred  king,  and  held  him  as  his  spiritual  son 
at  confirmation,  even  as  his  father  Ethelwulf  had  requested 
on  sending  him  thither. 

A.  853.  And  on  his  return  homewards  he  took  to  (wife)  the  daughter 
of  Charles,  king  of  the  French,  whose  name  was  Judith,  and  he  came 
home  safe.  And  then  in  about  two  years  he  died,  and  his  body  lies  at 
Winchester  ;  and  he  reigned  eighteen  years  and  a  half,  and  he  was  the  son 
of  Egbert.  And  then  his  two  sons  succeeded  to  the  kingdom  ;  Ethel- 
bald to  the  kingdom  of  the  West-Saxons,  and  Ethelbert  to  the  kingdom 
of  the  Kentish-men,  and  of  the  East-Saxons,  and  of  Surry,  and  of  the 
South-Saxons.     And  he  reigned  tive  years. 

A.  So6.— 869. 

A.  H60.  This  year  died  king  Etlielbald,  and  his  body  lies 

A.D.881-S68.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.         49 

at  Sherborne  ;  and  Ethelbert  si»cceeded  to  all  the  realm 
of  his  brother,  and  he  held  it  in  goodly  concord  and  in  great 
tranquillity.  And  in  his  days  a  large  fleet  came  to  land,  and 
tlie  crews  stornied  Winchester.  And  Osric  the  ealdorman, 
with  the  men  of  Hampshire,  Ethelwulf  the  ealdorman,  with 
the  men  of  Berkshire,  fought  against  the  army,  and  put 
them  to  flight,  and  had  possession  of  the  place  of  carnage. 
And  Ethelbert  reigned  five  years,  and  his  body  lies  at 

A.  861.  This  year  died  St.  Swithun  the  bishop.* 

A.  862.-864. 

A.  865.  This  year  the  heathen  army  sat  down  in  Thanet, 
and  made  peace  with  the  men  of  Kent,  and  the  men  of  Kent 
promised  them  money  for  the  peace ;  and  during  the  peace 
and  the  promise  of  money  the  army  stole  away  by  night, 
and  ravaged  all  Kent  to  the  eastward. 

A.  866.  This  year  Ethelred,  Ethelbert's  brother,  suc- 
ceeded to  the  kingdom  of  the  West- Saxons  :  and  the  same 
year  a  great  heathen  army  came  to  the  land  of  the  English 
nation,  and  took  up  their  winter  quarters  among  the  East- 
Angles,  and  there  they  were  horsed ;  and  the  East- Angles 
made  peace  with  them. 

A.  867.  This  year  the  army  went  from  East-Anglia  over 
the  mouth  of  the  Humber  to  York  in  North-humbria.  And 
there  was  much  dissension  among  that  people,  and  they  had 
cast  out  their  king  Osbext,  and  had  taken  to  themselves  a 
king,  ^lla,  not  of  royal  blood ;  but  late  in  the  year  they  re- 
solved that  they  would  fight  against  the  army ;  and  therefore 
they  gathered  a  large  force,  and  sought  the  army  at  the  town 
of  York,  and  stormed  the  town,  and  some  of  them  got  within, 
and  there  was  an  excessive  slaughter  made  of  the  North- 
humbrians,  some  within,  some  without,  and  the  kings  were 
both  slain :  and  the  remainder  made  peace  with  the  army. 
And  the  same  year  bishop  Ealstan  died;  and  he  had  the 
bishopric  of  Sherborne  fifty  years,  and  his  body  lies  in  the 

A.  868.  This  year  the  same  army  went  into  Mercia  to 

Nottingham,  and  there  took  up  their  winter  quarters.     And 

Burhred  king  of  the  Mercians,  and  his  'witan,' begged  of 

Ethelred  king  of  the  West- Saxons,  and  of  Alfred  his  brother, 

•  Winchester.  „ 

50        THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,  a.d.  m 


that  they  would  help  them,  that  they  might  fight  against  the 
army.  And  then  they  went  with  the  West- Saxon  power 
into  Mercia  as  far  as  Nottingham,  and  there  met  with  the 
army  within  the  fortress ;  and  besieged  them  therein :  but 
there  was  no  great  battle;  and  the  Mercians  made  peace 
with  the  army. 

A.  869.  This  year  the  army  again  went  to  York,  and  sat 
there  one  year. 

A.  870.  This  year  the  army  rode  across  Mercia  into  East- 
Anglia,  and  took  up  their  winter  quarters  at  Thetford :  and 
tlie  same  winter  king  Edmund  fought  against  them,  and  the 
Danes  got  the  victory,  and  slew  the  king,  and  subdued  all 
the  land,  and  destroyed  all  the  minsters  which  they  came  to. 
The  names  of  their  chiefs  who  slew  the  king  were  Ilingwar 
and  Hubba.  At  that  same  time  they  came  to  Medesham- 
stede,  and  burned  and  beat  it  down,  slew  abbat  and  monks,  and 
all  that  they  found  there.  And  that  place,  which  before  was 
full  rich,  they  reduced  to  nothing.  And  the  same  year  died 
archbishop  Ceolnoth.  Then  went  Ethelred  and  Alfred  his 
brother,  and  took  Athelred  bishop  of  Wiltshire,  and  appomted 
him  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  because  formerly  he  had  been 
a  monk  of  the  same  minster  of  Canterbury.  As  soon  as 
he  came  to  Canterbury,  and  he  was  stablished  in  hi^  arch- 
bishopric, he  then  thought  how  he  might  expol  the  clerks  who 
(were)  there  within,  whom  archbishop  the  Ceolnoth  had  (be- 
fore) placed  there  for  such  need  ...  as  we  shall  relate.  The 
first  year  that  he  was  made  archbishop  there  was  so  great  a 
mortality,  that  of  all  the  monks  whom  he  found  there  within, 
no  more  than  five  monks  surv'ved.  Then  for  the  ....  he 
(commanded)  his  chaplains,  and  also  some  priests  of  his  vills, 
that  they  should  help  the  few  monks  who  there  survived  to 
do  Christ's  service,  because  he  could  not  so  readily  find 
monks  who  might  of  themselves  do  the  service;  and  for  this 
reason  he  commanded  that  the  priests,  the  while,  until  God 
should  give  peace  in  this  land,  should  help  the  monks.  In 
that  same  time  was  this  land  much  distressed  by  frequent 
battles,  and  hence  the  archbishop  could  not  there  effect  it, 
for  there  was  warfare  and  sorrow  all  his  time  over  England ; 
and  hence  the  clerks  remained  with  tlie  monks.  Nor  was 
there  ever  a  time  that  monks  were  not  tliere  witliin,  and  they 
ever  had  lordship  over  the  priests.     Again  the  archbishop 


Ceolnoth  thought,  and  also  said  to  those  who  were  with  liim, 
•  As  soon  as  God  sliall  give  peace  in  this  land,  either 
these  priests  shall  be  monks,  or  from  elsewhere  I  will  place 
within  the  minister  as  many  monks  as  may  do  the  service  ot 

tliemselves  :  tor  God  knows  that  I )* 

A.  871.  This  yt^ar  the  army  came  to  Reading  in  Wessex  ; 
and  three  days  after  this,  two  of  their  earls  rode  forth 
Then  Ethelwulf  the  ealdorman  met  them  at  Englefield,  an  ■ 
there  fought  against  them,  and  got  the  victory :  and  there 
one  of  them,  whose  name  was  Sidrac,  was  slain.  About 
three  days  after  this,  king  Ethelrod  and  Alfred  his  brother 
led  a  large  force  to  Reading,  and  fought  against  the  army, 
and  there  was  great  slaughter  made  on  either  hand.  And 
Ethelwulf  the  ealdorman  was  slain,  and  the  Danish-men  had 
possession  of  the  place  of  carnage.  And  about  four  days 
after  tliis,  king  Ethelred  and  Alfred  his  brother  fought 
against  the  whole  army  at  Ashdown  ;  and  they  were  in  two 
bodies  :  in  the  one  were  Bagsac  and  Halfdene  tlie  heatlu-n 
kings,  and  in  the  otlier  were  the  earls.  And  then  king 
Ethelred  fought  against  the  division  under  the  kings,  and 
Chere  king  Bagsac  was  slain ;  and  Alfred  his  brother 
Mgainst  the  division  under  the  earls,  and  there  earl  Sidrac 
ihe  elder  was  slain,  earl  Sidrac  the  younger,  and  eai^  Osbern, 
and  earl  Frene,  and  earl  Harold  ;  and  both  divisions  of  the 
^rmy  were  put  to  flight,  and  many  thousands  slain  :  and  they 
continued  fighting  until  night.  And  about  fourteen  days 
after  this,  king    Ethelred  and  Alfred   his   brother   fought 

•  As  this  portion  of  the  text  is  slightly  defective,  the  Latin  narrative  is 
subjoined  :  Cum  autem  venisset  Cantuariam,  statini  cogitare  coepit  quo- 
niodo  possit  ejicere  clericos  de  ecclesia  Christi,  quos  Ceolnothus  pro  tali  ne- 
cessitaie  compulsus  ibi  posuit.  Primo  igitur  anno  ordinationis  suie  tanta 
mortalitas  facta  est  in  ecclesia  Christi,  ut  de  tota  congTegatione  moiiacho- 
rum  non  remanerent  nisi  quinque.  Qua  de  causa  quia  ita  subito  non  potuit 
in  venire  tot  monachos  qui  ibi  servitium  Dei  facere  possent,  ex  simplicitate 
cordis  praecepit  ca])ellanis  clericis  suis,  ut  essent  cum  eis  usque  quod  Deus 
pacificaret  terram,  quae  tunc  nimis  erat  turbata  propter  nimias  tempestates 
bellorum.  Accepit  etiam  de  villis  suis  presbyteros,  ut  essent  cum  monachis, 
ita  tamen  ut  monachi  semper  haberent  dominatum  super  clericos.  Cogita- 
vit  idem  archiepiscopus  et  saepe  suis  dixit,  quia  statim  cum  Deu3  pacem 
no])is  dederit,  aut  isti  clerici  monachi  fier.t,  aut  ego  ubicumque  monachos 
inveniam  quos  reponam.  Scit  enim  Deus,  inquit  quod  aliter  facero  nnu 
possum.  Sed  nunquam  temporibus  suis  pax  fuit  in  Anglia,  et  ideo  remar*- 
serunt  clerici  ciun  monachis,  nee  ullo  tempore  fuit  ecclesia  sine  mona<'iu& 
Sed  reo  iste  iEtheiredus  archicDLscopus  potixit  laceie. 

E    2 

52        THE  ANCLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,  a. d.  871^74. 

aj»alnst  the  army  at  Basing,  and  there  the  Danes  cbtained 
the  victory.  And  about  two  months  aft3r  this,  king  Ethelre»i 
and  Alfred  his  brother  fought  against  the  army  at  Harden ; 
and  they  were  in  two  bodies,  and  they  put  both  to  flight, 
and  during  a  great  part  of  the  day  were  victorious ;  and  there 
was  great  slaughter  on  either  hand ;  but  the  Danes  had  pos- 
session of  the  place  of  carnage:  and  there  bishop  Heah- 
raund*  was  slain,  and  many  good  men  :  and  after  this  battle 
there  came  a  great  army  in  the  summer  to  Reading.  And 
after  this,  over  Easter,  king  Ethelred  died ;  and  he  reigned 
five  years  and  his  body  Hes  at  Winburn-minster. 

Then  Alfred  the  son  of  Ethelwulf,  his  brother,  succeeded 
to  the  kingdom  of  the  West- Saxons.  And  about  one  month 
after  this,  king  Alfred  with  a  small  band  fought  against  the 
whole  army  at  Wilton,  and  put  them  to  flight  for  a  good  part 
of  the  day  ;  but  the  Danes  had  possession  of  the  place  of 
carnage.  And  this  year  nine  general  battles  were  fought 
against  the  army  in  the  kingdom  south  of  the  Thames, 
besides  which,  Alfred  the  king's  brother,  and  single 
ealdormen,  and  king's  thanes,  oftentimes  made  incursions  on 
them,  which  were  not  counted  :  and  within  the  year  nine 
earls  and  one  king  were  slain.  And  that  year  the  West- 
Saxons  made  peace  with  the  army. 

A.  871.  And  the  Danish-men  were  overcome  :  and  they  had  two 
heathen  kings,  Bagsac  and  Halfdene,  and  many  earls  ;  and  there  waa 
king  Bagsac  slain,  and  these  earls  ;  Sidrac  the  elder,  and  also  Sidrac  the 
younger,  Osbern,  Frene,  and  Harold  ;  and  the  army  was  put  to  flight. 

A.  872.  This  year  the  army  went  from  Reading  to 
London,  and  there  took  up  their  ^vinter-quarters  :  and  then 
the  Mercians  made  peace  with  the  army. 

A.  873.  This  year  the  army  went  into  North-humbria, 
and  took  up  their  winter-quarters  at  Torksey  in  Lindsey : 
and  then  the  Mercians  made  peace  with  the  army. 

A.  874.  This  year  the  army  went  from  Lindsey  to  Repton, 
and  there  took  up  their  winter-quarters,  and  drove  king 
Burhred  over  sea  abcat  twenty-two  years  after  he  had 
obtained  the  kingdom  ;  and  subdued  the  whole  country :  and 
Burhred  went  to  Rome,  and  there  remained  ;  and  his  body 
li*»^  in  St.  Mary's  church  at  the  English  school.  And  that 
erjne  year  they  committed  the  kingdom  of  the  Mercians  to 
•  Of  SheiHorue. 

A.D.  87^877.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.         53 

the  keeping  of  Ceolwulf,  an  unwise  king's-thane  ;  and  he 
swore  oaths  to  them,  and  delivered  hostages  that  it  should  be 
re-Adj  for  them  on  wliatever  day  they  would  have  it,  and  that 
he  would  be  ready  l)oth  in  liis  own  person  and  with  all  wiio 
would  follow  him,  for  the  behoof  of  the  army. 

A.  875.  This  year  the  army  went  from  Repton  :  and 
Halfdene  went  with  some  of  the  army  into  North-humbria, 
and  took  up  winter-quarters  by  the  river  Tyne.  And  tlie 
army  subdued  the  land,  and  oft-times  spoiled  the  Picts,  and 
the  Strathclyde  Britons.  And  the  three  kings,  Gothrun,  and 
Oskytel,  and  Anwind,  went  with  a  large  army  from  Repton 
to  Cambridge,  and  sat  down  there  one  year.  And  that 
summer  king  Alfred  went  out  to  sea  with  a  fleet,  and  fought 
against  the  forces  of  seven  ships,  and  one  of  them  he  took, 
and  put  the  rest  to  flight. 

A.  876.  This  year  the  army  stole  away  to  "VVareham,  a 
fortress  of  the  West- Saxons.  And  afterwards  the  king  made 
peace  with  the  army ;  and  they  delivered  to  the  king  hostages 
from  among  the  most  distinguished  men  of  the  army  ;  and 
then  they  swore  oaths  to  him  on  the  holy  ring,  which  they 
never  before  would  do  to  any  nation,  that  they  would 
speedily  depart  his  kingdom.  And  notwithstanding  this, 
that  part  of  the  army  which  was  horsed  stole  away  by  night 
from  the  fortress  to  Exeter.  And  that  year  Halfdene 
apportioned  the  lands  of  North-humbria  :  and  they  thence- 
forth continued  ploughing  and  tilling  them.  This  year  Rolla 
overran  Normandy  with  his  army,  and  he  reigned  fifty 

A.  876.  And  in  this  same  year  the  army  of  the  Danes  in  England  swore 
oaths  to  king  Alfred  upon  the  holy  ring,  which  before  they  would  not  do  to 
any  nation  ;  and  they  delivered  to  the  king  hostages  from  among  the 
most  distinguished  men  of  the  army,  that  they  would  speedily  depart  from 
his  kingdom ;  and  that  by  night  they  broke. 

A.  877.  This  year  the  army  came  to  Exeter  from 
Wareham  ;  and  the  fleet  sailed  round  westwards  :  and  then 
a  great  storm  overtook  them  at  sea,  and  there  one  hundred 
and  twenty  ships  were  wrecked  at  Swanwich.  And  king 
Alfred  with  his  forces  rode  after  the  army  which  was 
mounted,  as  far  as  Exeter ;  and  they  were  unable  to  overtake 
them  before  they  were  within  the  fortress,  where  tliey  could 
not  be  come  at.     And  they  there  delivered  to  him  hostages 

5  i        THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,  a.d.  878-879. 

!vs  many  as  lie  would  have,  and  swore  many  oaths  :  and  then 
they  observed  the  peace  well.  And  at'terwards,  during 
harvest,  the  army  went  into  Mercia,  and  some  part  of  it  they 
apportioned,  and  some  they  delivered  to  Ceolwulf. 

A.  878.  This  year,  during  midwinter,  after  twelfth  night, 
tlie  army  stole  aAvay  to  Chippenham,  and  overran  the  land  of 
the  West- Saxons,   and  sat  down  there  ;   and  many  of  the 
people  they  drove  beyond  sea,  and  of  the  remainder  the 
greater  part  they  subdued  and  forced  to  obey  them,  except 
king  Alfred  :    and  he,  with  a  small   band,  with    difficulty 
retreated  to  the  woods  and  to  the  fastnesses  of  the  moors. 
And  the  same  winter  the  brother  of  Hingwar  and  of  Halfdene 
came  with  twenty-three  ships  to  Devonshire  in  Wessex ;  and 
he  was  there  slain,  and  with  him  eight  hundred  and  forty 
men  of  his  army  :  and  there  was  taken  the  war-flag  which 
they  called  the  Raven.     After  this,  at  Easter  king  Alfred 
with  a  small  band  constructed  a  fortress  at  Athelney  ;  and 
from  this  fortress,  with  that  pait  of  the  men  of  Somerset 
which  was  nearest   to  it,  from  time  to  time  they  fought 
against  the  army.   Then  in  the  seventh  week  after  Easter  he 
rode  to  Brixton,  on  the  east  side  of  Selwood  ;   and  there 
came  to  meet  him  all  the  men  of  Somerset,  and  the  men  of 
Wiltshire,  and  that  portion  of  the  men  of  Hampshire  which 
was  on  this  side  of  the  sea  ;  and  they  were  joyful  at  his 
presence.     On  tlie  following  day  lie  went  from  tliat  station 
to  Iglea  [Hey],  and  on  the  day  after  this  to  Heddington, 
and  there  fought  against  the  whole  army,  put  them  to  flight, 
and  pursued  them  as  far  as  their  fortress  :  and  there  he  sat 
down  fourteen  days.     And  then  the  army  delivered  to  him 
hostages,    with   many   oaths,    that    they    would    leave    his 
kingdom,    and    also    promised    him   that  their   king    should 
receive  bnptism  :  and  this  they  accordinu^ly  fullilled.     And 
about  three  weeks   after   this   king  Gothrun   came  to  him, 
v/ith  some  thirty  men  who  were  of  the  most  distinguislied  in 
the  army,  at  Aller,  wliich  is  near  Athehiey  :  and  the  king 
was  his  godfather  at  baptism  ;  and  his  chrism-loosing*  was  at 
Wedmore  :    and  he  was  twelve  days  with  tlie  king;  and  he 
greatly  honoured  him  and  his  comjtanions  with  gifts. 

A.  879.  This  year  the  army  went  to  Cirencester  froni 

•  Apparently  the  removal  of  the  fillet  which,  covering  the  chrism   on 
the  forehead.  uiu-»  bound  round  the  head  at  cnufirmatiou. 

A.B.830  885.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.         55 

Chippenham,  and  sat  there  one  year.  And  that  year  a 
lx)dy  of  pirates  drew  together,  and  sat  down  at  Fulham  on 
the  Thames.  And  that  same  year  the  sun  was  eclipsed 
during  one  hour  of  the  day.* 

A.  880.  Tliis  year  the  army  went  from  Cirencester  to 
East  Anglia,  and  settled  in  the  land,  and  apportioned  it. 
And  that  same  year  the  army,  which  previously  had  sat 
down  at  Fulham,  went  over  sea  to  Ghent  in  France,  and 
sat  there  one  year. 

A.  881.  This  year  tlie  anny  went  further  into  France, 
and  the  French  fought  against  them:  and  then  was  the 
army  there  horsed  after  the  battle. 

A.  882.  This  year  the  army  went  up  along  the  banks  of 
the  Maese  far  into  France,  and  there  sat  one  year.  And 
that  same  year  king  Alfred  went  out  to  sea  with  his  ships, 
and  fought  against  the  forces  of  four  ships  of  Danish  men, 
and  took  two  of  the  ships,  and  the  men  were  slain  that  were 
in  them ;  and  the  forces  of  two  ships  surrendered  to  him, 
and  they  were  sorely  distressed  and  wounded  before  they 
surrendered  to  him. 

A.  883.  This  year  the  army  went  up  the  Scheldt  to 
Conde,  and  sat  there  one  year.  And  Marinus  the  pope 
then  sent  'lignum  Domini'  to  king  Alfred  ;  and  that  same 
year  Sighelm  and  Athelstan  carried  to  Rome  the  alms 
which  the  king  had  vowed  to  send  thither,  and  also  to 
Lidia,  to  St.  Thomas  and  to  St.  Bartholomew,  when  they 
sat  down  against  the  army  at  London ;  and  there,  thanks  be 
to  God,  they  largely  obtained  the  object  of  their  prayer  after 
the  vow. 

A.   884.   This   year   the   army  went   up  the   Somme  to 
Amiens,  and  there  sat  one  year.     This  yearj  the  benevo 
lent  bishop  Ethelwold  died. 

A.  885.  JThis  year  the  fore-mentioned  army  divided  it- 
self into  two;  the  one  part  went  eastward,  the  other  part 

•  The  eclipse  happened  on  the  14th  of  March,  880. 

t  The  account  of  the  death  of  Ethelwold  bishop  of  Winchester,  here 
inserted  in  MS.  F.,  is  anticipated  a  century  by  the  carelessness  of  the 
scribe :  the  name  of  his  successor  in  the  Latin  puts  this  bevond  all  doubt. 
See  A.  984- 

I  Aaser  omits  tne  erents  of  A.  884  of  the  Chronitee,  and  places  those  of 
885  under  that  year.     At  auy  rate  the  foreign  tranaactiona  are  rightly  w 

56  THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,     a.d.888. 

to  Rochester,  and  besieged  the  city,  and  wrought  another 
fortress  about  themselves.  And,  notwitlistanding  tliis,  the 
townsmen  defended  the  city  till  king  Alfred  came  out  with 
his  forces.  Then  went  the  army  to  their  ships,  and  aban- 
doned their  fortress ;  and  they  were  there  deprived  of  tlieir 
horses,  and  soon  after,  in  that  same  manner,  departed  over 
sea.  And  that  same  year  king  Alfred  sent  a  fleet  from 
Kent  to  East-Anglia.  So  soon  as  they  came  to  the  mouth 
of  the  SiDur,  there  met  them  sixteen  ships  of  pirates;  and 
they  fought  against  them,  and  captured  all  the  ships  and 
killed  the  men.  As  they  afterwards  return  (id  homeward 
with  the  booty,  a  large  fleet  of  pirates  met  tliem,  and  then 
fought  against  them  that  same  day,  and  the  Danish-men  had 
the  victory.  That  same  year,  before  mid-winter,  *  Charles  king 
of  the  French  died ;  he  was  killed  by  a  wild  boar ;  and  one 
year  before  this,  his  brother f  died:  he  too  had  the  western 
kingdom :  and  they  were  both  sons  of  Louis,  who  likewise 
had  the  western  kingdom,  and  died  that  year  wlien  the  sun 
was  eclipsed :  he  was  son  of  Charles |  whose  daughter 
Ethelwulf,  king  of  the  West- Saxons,  had  for  his  queen. 
And  that  same  year  a  large  fleet  drew  together  against  the 
Old  Saxons ;  and  there  was  a  great  battle  twice  in  that  year, 
and  the  Saxons  had  the  victory,  and  the  Frisians  were  there 
with  them.  That  same  year  Charles  §  succeeded  to  the  wes- 
tern kingdom,  and  to  all  the  kingdom  on  this  side  the  Wen- 
ilel-sea  [Tuscan  Sea],  and  beyond  this  sea,  in  like  manner 
as  his  great-grandfather  had  it,  with  the  exception  of  the 
Lid-wiccas  [Bretons].  Charles  was  Louis's  son ;  Louis  was 
Charles's  brother,  who  was  father  of  Judith,  whom  king 
Ethelwulf  had ;  and  they  were  sons  of  Louis,  Louis  was 
son  of  the  elder  Charles,  Charles  was  Pepin's  son.  And 
that  same  year  died  the  good  Pope  Marinus,  who,  at  the 
prayer  of  Alfred  king  of  the  West- Saxons,  freed  the  Eng- 
lish school;  and  he  sent  him  great  gifts,  and  part  of  the 
rood  on  which  Christ  suffered.  And  that  same  year  the 
army  in  East-Anglia  broke  the  peace  with  king  Alfred. 

A.  8S6.  This  year  the  army  which  before  had  drawn 
eastward,  went  westward  again,  and  thence  up  the  Seine, 
and  there  took  up  their  winter  quarters  near  the  town  of 
Faris.     That  same  year  king  Alfred  repaired  London ;  and 

*  Curlomau.  t  Luuis    U.  %  The  Bald  §  The  FaU 

A.D.  887-890.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.         57 

all  the  English  submitted  to  him,  except  those  who  were 
under  the  bondage  of  the  Danish-men ;  and  then  he  com- 
mitted the  town  to  the  keeping  of  Ethered  the  ealdorman. 

A.  887.  This  year  the  army  went  up  through  the  bcidge 
at  Paris,  and  thence  up  along  the  Seine  as  far  as  the  Marne, 
and  thence  up  the  Marne  to  Chezy,  and  then  sat  down,  there, 
and  on  the  Yonne,  two  winters  in  the  two  places.  And  that 
same  year  Charles*  king  of  the  French  died  ;  and  six  weekt 
before  he  died,  Arnulf  his  brother's  son  bereaved  him  of  the 
kingdom.  And  then  was  that  kingdom  divided  into  five, 
and  five  kings  were  consecrated  thereto.  This,  however, 
was  done  by  permission  of  Arnulf :  and  they  said  that  they 
would  hold  it  from  his  hand,  because  none  of  them  on  the 
father's  side  was  born  thereto  except  him  alone.  Arnulf 
then  dwelt  in  the  land  east  of  the  Rhine  :  and  Rodulf  then 
succeeded  to  the  middle  kingdom,f  and  Oda  to  the  western 
part,  and  Beorngar  and  WithaJ  to  the  land  of  the  Lombards 
and  to  the  lands  on  that  side  of  the  mountain  :  and  that  they 
held  in  great  discord,  and  fought  two  general  battles,  and  oft 
and  many  times  laid  waste  the  land,  and  each  repeatedly 
drove  out  the  other.  And  that  same  year  that  the  army 
went  up  beyond  the  bridge  at  Paris,  Ethelhelm  the  ealdor- 
man §  carried  the  alms  of  the  West-Saxons  and  of  king 
Alfred  to  Rome. 

A.  888.  This  year  Beeke  the  ealdorman  carried  the  alms 
of  the  West- Saxons  and  of  king  Alfred  to  Rome  ;  and  queen 
Ethelswith,  who  was  king  Alfred's  sister,  died  on  the  way 
to  Rome,  and  her  body  lies  at  Pavia.  And  that  same  year 
Athelred  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  and  Ethelwold  the  eal- 
dorman died  in  the  same  month. 

A.  889.  In  this  year  there  was  no  journey  to  Rome,  ex- 
cept that  king  Alfred  sent  two  couriers  with  letters. 

A.  890.  This  year  abbat  Bernhelm  carried  the  alms  of 
the  West- Saxons  and  of  king  Alfred  to  Rome.  And  Goth- 
run  the  Northern  king  died,  whose  baptismal  name  was 
Athelstan  ;  he  was  king  Alfred's  godson,  and  he  abode  in 
Kast-Anglia,  and  first  settled  that  country.  And  that  same 
year  the  army  went  from  the  Seine  to  St.  Lo,  which  is  be 
t'veen  Brittany  and  France  ;  and  the  Bretons  fought  against 
tlipm.  and  had  the  victory,  and  drove  them  out  into  a  river, 

•  Tne  Fat,  Burgundv  J  Guido.  §  Of  Wilu. 

58         THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,   a.d.soi-sm. 

and  drowned  many  of  them.  This  year  Plegmund  waa 
chosen  of  God  and  of  all  the  people  to  be  archbishop  of 

A.  89 L  This  year  the  army  went  eastward  ;  and  Idng 
Arnulf,  with  the  East-Franks  and  Saxons  and  Bavarians, 
fou{;lit  against  that  part  which  was  mounted  before  the  ships 
came  up,  and  put  them  to  flight.  And  three  Scots  came  to 
king  Alfred  in  a  boat  without  any  oars  from  Ireland,  whence 
tliey  had  stolen  away,  because  they  desired  for  the  love  of 
God  to  be  in  a  state  of  pilgrimage,  they  recked  not  where. 
The  boat  in  which  they  came  was  made  of  two  hides  and  a 
half ;  and  they  took  with  them  provisions  sufficient  for  seven 
days  ;  and  then  about  the  seventh  day  they  came  on  shore  in 
Cornwall,  and  soon  after  went  to  king  Alfred.  Thus  thej 
were  named :  Dubslane,  and  Macbeth,  and  Maelinmun. 
And  Swinney,  the  best  teacher  among  the  Scots,  died. 

A.  892.  And  that  same  year  after  Easter,  about  Rogation 
week  or  before,  the  star  appeared  which  in  Latin  is  called 
conieta;  some  men  say  in  English  that  it  is  a  hairy  star, 
because  a  long  radiance  streams  from  it,  sometimes  on  the 
one  side,  and  sometimes  on  each  side. 

A.  893.  In  this  year  the  great  army,  about  wliich  we  for- 
merly spoke,*  came  again  from  the  eastern  kingdom  westward 
to  Boulogne,  and  there  was  shipped  ;  so  that  they  came  over 
in  one  passage,  horses  and  all ;  and  they  came  to  land  at 
Lirane-mouth  with  two  hundred  and  fifty  ships.  This  port 
is  in  the  eastern  part  of  Kent,  at  the  east  end  of  the  great 
wood  which  we  call  Andred  ;  the  wood  is  in  length  from 
east  to  west  one  hundred  and  twenty  miles,  or  longer,  and 
thirty  miles  broad  :  the  river  of  which  we  before  spoke  flows 
out  of  the  weald.  On  this  river  they  toAved  up  their  shipa 
as  far  as  the  weald,  four  miles  from  the  outward  harbour, 
and  there  stormed  a  fortress  :  within  the  fortress  a  few 
churls  were  stationed,  and  it  was  in  part  only  constructe(L 
Then  soon  after  that  Hasten  with  eighty  8hi})y  landed  at  the 
moutli  of  the  Thames,  and  wrought  himself  a  fortress  at 
Mihon  ;  and  the  other  army  did  the  like  at  Appledore. 

A.  894.  In  this  year,  that  was  about  a  twelve-month  after 
these  had  wrought  the  fortress  in  the  eastern  district,  the 
Nor^h-humbrians  and  the  East- Angles  had  given  oathj  to 
•  See  back  at  a.d.  891. 


king  Alfred,  and  the  East-Angles  six  hostages  ;  and  never- 
theless, contrary  to  their  plighted  trotii,  as  oft  as  the  other 
armies  went  out  with  all  their  force,  they  also  went  out, 
either  with  tliem  or  on  tiieir  own  part.  On  this  king  Alfred 
gathered  together  his  forces,  and  proceeded  until  he  en- 
camped between  the  two  armies,  as  near  as  he  could  for  the 
wood  fastnesses,  and  for  the  water  fastnesses,  so  that  lie 
might  be  able  to  reach  either  of  them  in  case  they  should 
seek  any  open  country.  From  this  time  the  enemy  always 
went  out  along  the  weald  in  bands  and  troops,  by  whichever 
border  was  at  the  time  without  forces  :  and  they  also  were 
sought  out  by  other  bands,  almost  every  day,  either  by  day 
or  night,  as  well  from  the  king's  force  as  also  from  the  towns. 
The  king  had  divided  his  forces  into  two,  so  that  one  half 
was  constantly  at  home,  the  other  half  in  the  field  ;  besides 
those  men  whose  duty  it  was  to  defend  the  towns.  The  army 
did  not  come  out  of  their  stations  with  their  whole  force 
oftener  than  twice  :  once  when  they  first  came  to  land,  be- 
fore the  forces  were  assembled  ;  a  second  time  when  they 
would  go  away  from  their  stations.  Then  had  they  takei^ 
much  booty,  and  would  at  that  time  go  northward  over  tlie 
Thames  into  Essex  towards  their  ships.  Then  the  king's 
forces  outrode  and  got  before  them,  and  fought  against  them 
at  Farnham,  and  put  the  array  to  flight,  and  retook  the 
booty  ;  and  they  fled  over  the  Thames,  where  there  was  no 
ford  ;  then  up  along  the  Colne  into  an  island.  Then  the 
forces  there  beset  them  about  so  long  as  they  there  had  any 
provisions  :  but  at  length  they  had  stayed  their  term  of  ser- 
vice, and  had  consumed  their  provisions  ;  and  the  king  was 
then  on  his  way  thitherwards  with  the  division  which 
warred  under  him.  While  he  was  on  his  way  thither,  and 
the  other  force  was  gone  homewards,  and  the  Danish-men 
remained  there  behind,  because  their  king  had  been  wounded 
in  the  battle,  so  that  they  could  not  carry  him  away,  then 
those  who  dwell  among  tlie  North-humbrians  and  among  the 
East-Anglians  gathered  some  hundred  ships  and  went  about 
south  ;  and  some  forty  siiij)S  about  to  the  north,  and  be- 
sieged a  fortress  in  Devonshire  by  the  north  sea  ;  and  those 
who  went  about  to  the  south  besieged  Exeter.  When  the 
king  heard  that,  then  turned  he  westward  towards  Exeter 
with  all  his  force,  except  a  very  sciall  body  of  the  peopk 

60  THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,     a.d.  894. 

eastwaru.  These  went  onwards  until  thej  came  to  London ; 
and  then  with  the  townsmen,  and  the  aid  wMch  came  to 
them  from  the  west,  they  went  east  to  Bamfleet.  Hasten 
was  then  come  there  with  his  band  which  before  sat  at 
!Milton  ;  and  the  great  army  was  also  come  thereto,  which 
before  sat  at  Appledore  near  Limne-mouth.  The  fortress  at 
Bamfleet  had  been  ere  this  constructed  by  Hasten,  and  he 
was  at  that  time  gone  out  to  plunder  ;  and  the  great  armv 
was  therein.  Then  came  they  thereto,  and  put  the  army  to 
flight,  and  stormed  the  fortress,  and  took  all  that  was  within 
it,  as  well  the  property,  as  the  women,  and  the  children  also, 
and  brought  the  whole  to  London  ;  and  all  the  ships  they 
either  broke  in  pieces  or  burned,  or  brought  to  London  or  to 
Rochester  ;  and  they  brought  the  wife  of  Hasten  and  his 
two  sons  to  the  king  :  and  he  afterwards  gave  them  up  to 
him  again,  because  one  of  them  was  his  godson,  and  the 
other  Ethered,  the  ealdorman's.  They  had  become  their 
godfathers  before  Hasten  came  to  Bamfleet,  and  at  that 
time  Hasten  had  delivered  to  him  hostages  and  taken  oaths : 
and  the  king  had  also  given  him  many  gifts  ;  and  so  like- 
wise when  he  gave  up  the  youth  and  the  woman.  But  as 
soon  as  they  came  to  Bamfleet,  and  the  fortress  was  con- 
structed, then  plundered  he  that  very  part  of  the  king's  realm 
wliich  was  in  the  keeping  of  Ethered  his  compeer  ;  and 
again,  this  second  time,  he  had  gone  out  to  plunder  that  very 
same  district  when  his  fortress  was  stormed.  Now  the  king 
with  his  forces  had  turned  westward  towards  Exeter,  as  I 
said  before,  and  the  army  had  beset  the  city  ;  but  wlien 
he  arrived  there,  then  went  they  to  their  ships.  While  the 
king  was  thus  busied  with  the  array  there,  in  the  west,  and! 
both  the  other  armies  had  drawn  together  at  Shoebury  in 
Essex,  and  there  had  constructed  a  fortress,  then  both  to- 
gether went  up  along  the  Thames,  and  a  great  addition 
came  to  them,  as  well  from  the  East-Anglians  as  from  tho 
North-humbrians.  They  then  went  up  along  the  Thames 
till  they  reached  the  Severn  ;  then  up  along  the  Severn. 
Then  Ethered  the  ealdorman,  and  Ethelm  tlie  ealdorman, 
and  Ethelnoth  the  ealdorman,  and  the  king's  thanes  who 
were  then  at  home  in  the  fortified  places,  gathered  forces 
from  every  town  east  of  the  Parret,  and  as  well  west  as  east 
of  iStjlwood,  and  also  north  of  the  Thamci-  and  west  of  the 


Severn,  and  also  some  part  of  the  North-Welsh  people. 
When  they  had  all  drawn  together,  then  they  came  up  with 
the  army  at  Buttington  on  the  banks  of  the  Severn,  and  there 
beset  them  about,  on  either  side,  in  a  fastness.  When  thej 
had  now  sat  there  many  weeks  on  both  sides  of  the  river, 
and  the  king  was  in  the  west  in  Devon,  against  the  fleet, 
then  were  the  enemy  distressed  for  want  of  food  ;  and  hav- 
ing eaten  a  great  part  of  their  horses,  the  others  being 
starved  with  hunger,  then  went  they  out  against  the  men 
who  were  encamped  on  the  east  bank  of  the  river,  and  fought 
against  them  :  and  the  Christians  had  the  victory.  And 
Ordhelm  a  king's  thane  was  there  slain,  and  also  many  other 
king's  thanes  were  slain  ;  and  of  the  Danish-men  there  was 
very  great  slaughter  made  ;  and  that  part  which  got  away 
thence  was  saved  by  fliglit.  When  they  had  come  into 
Essex  to  their  fortress  and  to  their  ships,  then  the  survivors 
again  gathered  a  great  army  from  among  the  East-Angl^^s 
and  the  North-humbrians  before  winter,  and  committed  their 
wives  and  their  ships  and  their  wealth  to  the  East- Angles, 
and  went  at  one  stretch,  day  and  night,  until  they  arrived  at 
a  western  city  in  Wirall,  which  is  called  Lega-ceaster 
[Chester].  Then  were  the  forces  unable  to  come  up  with 
them  before  they  were  within  the  fortress  :  nevertheless 
they  beset  the  fortress  about  for  some  two  days,  and  took  all 
the  cattle  that  was  there  without,  and  slew  the  men  whom 
they  were  able  to  overtake  without  the  fortress,  and  burned 
all  the  corn,  and  with  their  horses  ate  it  every  evening. 
And  this  was  about  a  twelve-month  after  they  first  came 
hither  over  sea. 

A.  895.  And  then  soon  after  that,  in  this  year,  the  army 
from  Wirall  went  among  the  North- Welsh,  for  they  were 
unable  to  stay  there  :  this  was  because  they  had  been  de- 
prived both  of  the  cattle  and  of  the  corn  which  they  had 
plundered.  When  they  had  turned  again  out  of  North- 
Wales,  with  the  booty  which  they  had  there  taken,  then 
went  they  over  Nortliuraberland  and  East-Anglia,  in 
such  wise  that  the  forces  could  not  overtake  them  before 
they  cam^  to  the  eastern  parts  of  the  land  of  Essex,  to  an 
island  that  is  out  on  the  sea,  which  is  called  Mersey.  And 
a,^  the  army  which  had  beset  Exeter  again  turned  homewar'JU, 
theu  spoil<^  they  the  South-Saxons  ntar  Chichester  ',  and 

C2        THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.  a.d.898-s97. 

the  townsmen  put  them  to  flight,  and  slew  many  hundreds 
of  tliem,  and  took  some  of  their  ships.  Then  that  same 
year,  before  winter,  the  Danish-men  who  had  sat  down  in 
iNIersey,  towed  their  ships  up  the  Thames,  and  thence  up  the 
Lea.  Tliis  was  about  two  years  after  they  had  come  hither 
over  sea. 

A.  896.  In  that  same  year  tlie  fore-mentioned  army  con- 
structed a  fortress  on  the  Lea,  twenty  miles  above  London. 
After  this,  in  summer,  a  great  body  of  the  townsmen,  and 
also  of  other  people,  went  onwards  until  they  arrived  at  the 
Danish  fortress  ;  and  there  they  were  put  to  flight,  and 
some  four  king's  thanes  were  slain.  Then  after  this,  during 
harvest,  the  king  encamped  near  to  the  town,  while  the 
people  reaped  the  corn,  so  that  the  Danish-men  might  not 
deprive  them  of  the  crop.  Then  on  a  certain  day  the  king 
ix)de  up  alor^  the  river,  and  observed  where  the  river  might 
be  obstructed,  so  tiiat  they  would  be  unable  to  bring  out 
their  ships.  And  they  then  did  thus  :  they  constructed  two 
fortresses  on  the  two  sides  of  the  river.  When  they  had 
already  begun  the  work,  and  had  encamped  before  it, 
then  perceived  the  army  that  they  should  not  be  able  to 
bring  out  their  ships.  They  then  abandoned  them,  and 
went  across  the  country  till  tliey  arrived  at  Bridgenorth  by 
the  Severn  ;  and  there  they  constructed  a  fortress.  Then 
the  forces  rode  westwards  after  the  army  :  and  the  men  of 
London  took  possession  of  the  ships  ;  but  all  which  they 
could  not  bring  away,  they  broke  up,  and  those  which  were 
worthy  of  capture  they  brought  to  London  :  moreover  the 
Danish-men  had  committed  their  wives  to  the  keeping  of  the 
Etxst- Angles  before  they  went  out  from  their  fortress.  Then 
sat  they  down  for  the  winter  at  Bridgenorth.  This  was 
about  three  years  after  they  had  come  lather  over  sea  to 

A.  897.  After  this,  in  the  summer  of  this  year,  the  army 
broke  up,  some  for  East-Anglia,  some  for  North-humbria  ; 
and  they  who  were  moneyless  procured  themselves  ships 
there,  and  went  southwards  over  sea  to  the  Seine.  Thanks 
be  to  God,  the  army  had  not  utterly  broken  down  the  Eng- 
lish nation  ;  but  during  tlie  three  years  it  was  much  mor»3 
broken  down  by  the  mortality  among  cattle  and  among  mei\, 
aiiv    liiodt  of  aU  by  tliis,   that  many  of  the  most  eniiuoat 


king's  thanes  in  the  land  died  during  the  three  years  ;  some 
of  whom  were,  iswitlmlf,  bishop  of  Rochester,  and  Ceol- 
ifluud,  ealdorman  of  Kent,  and  Bertulf,  ealdorman  o/ 
Essex,  and  Wulfred,  ealdorman  of  Hampshire,  and  Eat- 
hard,  bishop  of  Dorchester,  and  Eadulf,  the  king's  thane  in 
Sussex,  and  Bernwulf,  the  governor  of  Winchester,  and 
Eadulf,  the  king's  horse-thane,  and  many  also  besides  these, 
though  I  have  named  the  most  distinguished.  That  same 
year  the  armies  from  among  the  East-Anglians  and  from 
among  the  North-humbrians  harassed  the  land  of  the  West- 
Saxons,  chiefly  on  the  south  coast,  by  praedatory  bands  ; 
most  of  all  by  their  esks,  which  they  had  built  many 
years  before.  Then  king  Alfred  commanded  long  ships  to 
be  built  to  oppose  the  esks  ;  they  were  full-nigh  twice  as 
long  as  the  others  ;  some  had  sixty  oars,  and  some  had  more; 
they  were  both  swifter  and  steadier,  and  also  higher  than  the 
others.  Tliey  were  shapen  neither  like  the  Frisian  nor  the 
Danish,  but  so  as  it  seemed  to  him  they  would  be  most  efficient. 
Then  some  time  in  the  same  year,  there  came  six  ships  to  the 
Isle  of  Wight,  and  there  did  much  harm,  as  well  as  in  Devon, 
and  elsewhere  on  the  sea-coast.  Then  the  king  commanded 
nine  of  the  new  ships  to  go  thither,  and  they  obstructed  their 
passage  from  the  port  towards  tlie  outer  sea.  Then  went 
tliey  with  three  ef  their  ships  out  against  them  ;  and  three 
lay  in  the  upper  paTt  of  the  port  in  the  dry  ;  for  the  men 
were  gone  ashore.  Then  took  they  two  of  the  tliree 
ships  at  the  outer  part  of  the  port,  and  killed  the  men,  and 
the  other  ship  escaped  j  in  that  also  the  men  were  killed  ex- 
cept five :  they  got  away  because  the  other  ships  were 
aground.  They  also  were  aground  very  disadvantageously  : 
three  lay  aground  on  that  side  of  the  deep  on  which  the 
Danish  ships  were  aground,  and  all  the  rest  upon  the  other 
side,  so  that  no  one  of  them  could  get  to  the  others.  But 
when  the  water  had  ebbed  many  furlongs  from  the  ships, 
then  the  Danish-men  went  from  their  three  ships  to  the 
other  three  which  were  left  by  the  tide  on  their  side,  antl 
then  they  there  fought  against  them.  There  was  slain  Lu- 
cumon,  the  king's  reeve,  and  Wulfheard,  the  Frisian,  and 
Ebb,  the  Frisian,  and  Ethelere,  the  Frisian,  and  Ethelfertli, 
the  king's  neat-herd,  and  of  all  the  men,  Frisians  and  Eng- 
lish, seventy-two  ;  and  of  the  Danish-men,  one  hundi'cd  and 

64         THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.   a.d.898-9oi. 

twenty.  Then,  however,  the  flood-tide  came  to  the  Danish 
6hip3  before  the  Christians  could  shove  theirs  off,  and  they 
therefore  rowed  them  out  :  nevertheless,  they  were  damaged 
to  such  a  degree  that  they  could  not  row  round  the  Sussex 
land  ;  and  there  the  sea  cast  two  of  them  on  shore,  and  the 
men  were  led  to  the  king  at  Winchester  ;  and  he  commanded 
them  to  be  there  hanged  :  and  the  men  who  were  in  the 
single  ship  came  to  East-Anglia,  sorely  wounded.  That 
same  summer  no  less  than  twenty  ships,  with  their  crews, 
wholly  perished  upon  the  south  coast.  That  same  year  died 
Wulfric,  the  king's  horse-thane ;  he  was  also  "  Wealh- 

A.  898.  In  this  year  died  Ethelm,  ealdorman  of  Wiltshire, 
nine  days  before  midsummer ;  and  tliis  year  died  Elstan, 
who  was  bishop  of  London. 

A.  899.  900. 

A.  90L  This  year  died  Alfred,  the  son  of  Ethelwulf,  six 
days  before  the  mass  of  All  Saints.  He  was  king  over  the  whole 
English  nation,  except  that  part  which  was  under  the  do- 
minion of  the  Danes  ;  and  he  held  the  kingdom  one  year 
and  a  half  less  than  thirty  years.  And  then  Edward  his 
son  succeeded  to  the  kingdom.  Then  Ethelwald,  the  ethe- 
ling,  his  uncle's  son,  seized  the  castle  at  Wimborne*  and  that  at 
Twineham,t  without  leave  of  the  king  and  of  his  "  witan." 
Then  rode  the  king  with  his  forces  until  he  encamped  at 
Badbury,  near  Wimborne  ;  and  Ethelwald  sat  within  the 
vill,  with  the  men  who  had  submitted  to  him  ;  and  he  had 
obstructed  all  the  approaches  towards  him,  and  said  that  he 
would  do  one  of  two  things — or  there  live,  or  there  lie. 
But  notwithstanding  that,  he  stole  away  by  night,  and 
sought  the  army  in  North-humbria  ;  and  they  received  him 
for  their  king,  and  became  obedient  to  him.  And  the  king 
commanded  that  he  should  be  ridden  after  ;  but  they  were 
unable  to  overtake  him.  They  then  beset  the  woman  whom 
he  had  before  taken,  without  the  king's  leave,  and  against 
the  bishop's  command  ;  for  she  had  previously  been  conse- 
crated a  nun.  And  in  this  same  year  Ethelred,  who  was 
eaidormun  of  Devonshire,  died,  tcur  weeks  before  king 

•  Dorsetshire. 

t  Chrij^church,  New  Forest  aivision  of  Southampton. 

A.D.002  906.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.         G5 

A.  902.  And  that  samo  year  was  the  battle  at  the  Holme, 
between  the  Kentish-men  and  the  Danish-men. 

A.  902.  This  year  Elswitha  died. 

A.  903.  This  year  died  Athulf,  the  ealdorman,  brother  of 
Els"v^'^tha,  king  Edward's  mother  ;  and  Virgilius,  abbat  of 
tlie  Scots  ;  and  Grimbald,the  mass-priest,  on  the  8th  before  the 
Ides  of  July.  And  this  same  year  was  t]w  consecration  of 
the  New-minster  at  Winchester,  and  vSt.  Judoc's  advent. 

A.  904.  This  year  Ethelwald  came  hither  over  sea  with 
the  ships  that  he  was  able  to  get,  and  he  was  submitted  to  in 
Essex.     This  year  the  moon  was  eclipsed. 

A.  905.  This  year  Ethelwald  enticed  the  army  in  East- 
Anglia  to  break  the  peace,  so  that  they  ravaged  over  all  the 
land  of  Mercia  until  they  came  to  Cricklade,  and  there  they 
went  over  the  Thames,  and  took,  as  well  in  Bradon  as 
thereabout,  all  that  they  could  lay  hands  on,  and  then  turned 
homewards  again.  Then  king  Edward  went  after  them,  as 
speedily  as  he  could  gather  his  forces,  and  overran  all  their 
land  between  the  dikes  and  the  Ouse,  all  as  far  north  as  the 
fens.  When,  after  this,  he  would  return  thence,  then 
commanded  he  it  to  be  proclaimed  through  his  whole  force, 
that  they  should  all  return  together.  Then  the  Kentish-men 
remained  there  behind,  notwithstanding  his  orders,  and 
seven  messengers  whom  he  had  sent  to  them.  Then  the 
army  there  came  up  to  them,  and  there  fought  them  :  and 
there  Siwulf  the  ealdorman,  and  Sigelm  the  ealdorman,  and 
Eadwold  the  king's  thane,  and  Kenwulf  the  abbat,  and 
Sigebright  son  of  Siwulf,  and  Eadwold  son  of  Acca,  were 
slain,  and  like^vise  many  with  them,  though  I  have  named 
the  most  distinguished.  And  on  the  Danish  side  were  slain 
Eohric  their  king,  and  Ethelwald  tlie  etheling,  who  liad 
enticed  him  to  break  the  peace,  and  Byrtsige  son  of  Brith- 
noth  the  etheling,  and  Ysopk  the  'hold'  [governor?],  and  Os- 
kytel  the  hold,  and  very  many  with  them,  whom  we  are  no\J^ 
unable  to  name.  And  there  was  great  slaughter  made  on 
either  hand  ;  and  of  the  Danish-men  there  were  more  slain, 
though  they  had  possession  of  the  place  of  carnage.  A  nd 
Elhswitha  died  that  same  year.  This  year  a  comet  appeared 
on  the  thirteenth  before  the  Kalends  of  Novembei. 

A-  906.  In  this  year  died  Alfred,  who  was  governor  of 

GQ        THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.   a.d.906-9ii. 

Bath.  And  in  the  same  year  peace  was  conclui'.fcd  at  Ilitch- 
inirford,  even  as  king  Edward  ordained,  as  -well  with  the 
East- Angles  as  with  the  North-humbrians. 

A.   906.  This  year  king  Edward,  from  necessity,  concluded  a  peace  both 
s'itli  the  army  of  East-Anglia  and  of  North-humbria. 

A.  907.  This  year  Chester  was  repaired. 

A.  908.  This  year  died  Denewulf,  who  was  bishop  at 

A.  909.  This  year  St.  Oswald's  body  was  removed  from 
Eardney  into  Mercia.  In  this  year  the  Angles  and  the 
Danes  fought  at  Tootenhall  on  the  eighth  before  the  Ides 
of  August,  and  the  Angles  obtained  the  victory.  And  that 
same  year  Ethelfled  built  the  fortress  at  Bramsbury. 

A.  910.  This  year  Frithstan  succeeded  to  the  bishopric 
at  Winchester ;  and,  after  that,  bishop  Asser  died  ;  he  was 
bishop  at  Sherborne.  And  that  same  year  king  Edward 
sent  out  a  force  both  of  West-Saxons  and  of  Mercians,  and 
they  greatly  spoiled  the  army  of  the  north,  as  well  of  men 
as  of  every  kind  of  cattle,  and  slew  many  of  the  Danish- 
men  :  and  they  were  therein  five  weeks. 

A..  910.  This  year  the  army  of  the  Angles  and  of  the  Danes  fought  at 
Tootenhall.  And  Ethelred  ealdorof  the  Mercians  died  ;  and  king  Edward 
t0(jk  possession  of  London,  and  of  Oxford,  and  of  all  the  lands  which 
owed  obedience  thereto.  And  a  great  fleet  came  hither  from  the  ^outh, 
from  the  Lidwiccas^  [Brittany,]  and  greatly  ravaged  by  the  Severn  ;  but 
tliey  there,  afterwards,  almost  all  perished. 

A.  9n.  This  year  the  army  among  the  North-humbrians 
broke  the  peace,  and  despised  whatever  peace  king  Edward 
and  his  'witan' offered  them,  and  overran  the  land  of  Mercia. 
And  the  king  had  gathered  too:ether  some  hundred  ships,  and 
was  then  in  Kent,  and  the  ships  went  south-east  along  the 
sea-coast  towards  him.  Then  thought  the  army  that  the 
greatest  part  of  his  force  was  in  the  ships,  and  that  they 
should  be  able  to  go,  unfought,  wheresoever  they  chose 
AV^hen  the  king  learned  that,  that  they  were  gone  out  to 
plunder,  then  sent  he  his  forces  after  them,  both  of  the  West- 
Saxons  and  of  the  Mercians  ;  and  they  overtook  the  army  as 
they  were  on  their  way  homewards,  and  then  fought  against 
tl»em,  and  put  them  to  flight,  and  slew  many  thousands  ot 
them  ;  and  there  were  slain  king  Ecwils,  and  king  Halfdene 
end  Ohter  the  earl,  and  Scurf  the  earl,  and  OtliuU*  th'i  hold, 

A.D.pii-916.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.         G7 

an<l  Benesing  tlie  hold,  and  Aiilaf  the  black,  an«l  Thurff  rth 
the  hold,  and  Osferth  the  collector  and  Guthferth  the  hold,  and 
A^gmund  the  hold,  and  Guthferth, 

A.  911.  Then  the  next  year  after  this  died  Ethelred  lord  of  the 

A.  912.  This  year  died  Ethered  ealdorman  of  tlie 
IMcrcians  ;  and  king  Edward  took  possession  of  London  and 
of  Oxford,  and  of  all  the  lands  which  owed  obedience  thereto. 
This  year  Ethelfled  lady  of  tlie  Mercians  came  to  Scaergate 
on  the  holy  eve,  '  Livention  of  the  Holy  Cross,'  and  tiiere 
built  the  fortress  ;  and  the  same  year,  that  at  Bridgenorth. 

A.  913.  In  this  year,  about  Martinmas,*  king  Edward 
commanded  the  northern  fortress  to  be  built  at  Hertford, 
between  the  Memer,  the  Benewic,  and  the  Lea.  And  then 
after  that,  during  tlie  summer,  between  Rogation-days  and 
midsummer,  king  Edward  went  with  some  of  his  forces  to 
Maldon  in  Essex,  and  there  encamped,  whilst  the  fortress  at 
Witham  was  wrought  and  built  ;  and  a  good  part  of  the 
people  who  were  before  under  the  dominion  of  the  Danish- 
men  submitted  to  him  :  and  in  the  meanwhile  some  part  of 
his  force  constructed  the  fortress  at  Hertford,  on  the  south  side 
of  the  Lea.  This  year,  by  the  help  of  God,  Ethelfled  lady 
of  the  Mercians  went  with  all  the  Mercians  to  Tamworth, 
and  there  built  the  fortress  early  in  the  summer ;  and  after 
this  before  Lammas,  tliat  at  Stafford. 

A.  914.  Then  after  this,  in  the  next  year,  that  at 
Eddesbury,  early  in  the  summer  ;  and  afterwards,  in  the 
same  year,  late  in  harvest,  that  at  Warwick. 

A.  915.  Then  after  this,  in  the  next  year,  after  mid- 
winter, that  at  Chirk,  and  that  at  Warburton  ;  and 
that  same  year,  before  mid-winter,  that  at  Runcorn. 

A.  9)5.  This  year  was  Warwick  built. 

A.  916.  This  year  abbat  Egbert  was  guiltlessly  slain,  be- 
fore midsummer,  on  the  sixteenth  before  the  Kalends  of  July  : 
the  same  day  was  the  feast  of  the  martyr  St.  Ciricius  and 
his  fellows.  And  about  three  days  after  this,  Ethelfled  sent 
her    forces    among    the    Welsh,   and    stormed    Brecknock, 

*  Florence  of  Worcester  seems  to  understand  this  as  relating  to  the 
festival  of  St.  Martin  of  Tours,  11  Nov.  and  places  Maldon,  ficc.  48  \wii  dM 
tke  events  of  917  of  the  text,  under  the  vear  914 


68         THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.   a.d.  on-ois. 

and  there  took  the  king's  wife,  and  eorae  four  and  thirty 

A.  917.  In  tliia  year,  after  Easter,  the  army  rode  forth 
from  Northampton  and  Leicester,  and  broke  the  peace,  and 
slew  many  men  at  Hockerton,  and  there  about.  And  then  very 
speedily  after  that,  when  the  one  came  home,  then  they  ^rot 
ready  another  troop  which  rode  out  against  Leighton :  and  then 
the  inhabitants  were  aware  of  them,  and  fought  against  them, 
and  put  them  to  full  flight,  and  retook  all  which  they  had 
seized,  and  also  a  great  portion  of  their  horses  and  of  thei? 
weapons.  This  year,  before  Lammas,  Ethelfled,  lady  of  tlie 
^Mercians,  God  helping  her,  got  possession  of  the  fortress  which 
is  called  Derby,  witli  all  that  owed  obedience  thereto  ;  and 
there  also  were  slain,  within  the  gates,  four  of  her  thanes, 
which  to  her  was  a  cause  of  sorrow. 

A.  918.  This  year,  in  the  early  part  of  the  year,  by  God's 
help,  she  got  into  her  power,  by  treaty,  the  fortress  at  Leicester, 
and  the  greater  part  of  the  army  which  owed  obedience 
thereto  became  subject  to  her;  and  the  people  of  York  had 
also  covenanted  with  her,  some  having  given  a  pledge,  and 
some  having  bound  themselves  by  oath,  that  they  would  be 
at  her  command.  In  this  year  a  great  fleet  came  over  hither 
from  the  south,  from  the  Lidwiccas,  [Brittany,]  and  with  it 
two  earls,  Ohtor  and  Rhoald :  and  they  went  west  about  till 
they  arrived  within  the  mouth  of  the  Severn,  and  they 
spoiled  the  North- Welsh  every^vhere  by  the  sea-coast  where 
they  then  pleased.  And  in  Ai'chenfield  they  took  bishop* 
Cameleac,  and  led  him  with  them  to  their  ships ;  and  tlien 
king  Edward  ransomed  him  afterwards  with  forty  pounds. 
Then  after  that,  the  whole  army  landed,  and  would  have  gone 
once  more  to  plunder  about  Archenfield.  Then  met  them  the 
men  of  Hereford  and  of  Gloucester,  and  of  the  nearest  towns, 
and  fought  against  them  and  put  them  to  flight,  and  slew  the 
earl  Rhoald,  and  a  brother  of  Ohter  the  other  earl,  and  many 
of  tlie  army,  and  drove  them  into  an  inclosure,  and  there 
beset  them  about,  until  they  delivered  hostages  to  them  tliat 
they  would  depart  from  king  Edward's  dominion.  And  the 
king  had  so  ordered  it  that  his  forces  sat  down  against  them 
on  the  iouth  side  of  Ibevern-moutli,  from  tlie  Welsh  coast 
Tijestwai'd,  to  the  mouth  of  the  Avon  eastward;  so  that  on 
•  Of  Llandaff. 

A.D.91S-921.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.         CO 

that  side  tliey  durst  not  anpvliere  attempt  the  hmd.  Tlion, 
nevertheless,  they  stole  away  by  night  on  some  two  occasion.^  ; 
cnce,  to  the  east  of  Watchet,  and  another  time  to  Porlock. 
But  they  were  beaten  on  either  occasion,  so  that  few  of  tlu-m 
got  away,  except  those  alone  who  there  swam  out  to  tlie 
ships.  And  then  they  sat  down,  out  on  the  island  of  Bradan- 
reUce,  [Flat-holms,]  until  such  time  as  they  were  quite  desti- 
tute of  food ;  and  many  men  died  of  hunger,  because  they 
could  not  obtain  any  food.  Then  they  went  thence  to  Deo- 
mod,  [S.  Wales,]  and  then  out  to  Ireland  :  and  this  was 
during  harvest.  And  then  after  that,  in  the  same  year, 
before  Martinmas,  king  Edward  went  with  his  forces  to 
Buckingham,  and  there  sat  down  four  weeks ;  and,  ere  he 
went  thence,  he  erected  both  the  forts  on  either  side  of  the 
river.  And  Thurkytel  the  earl  sought  to  him  to  be  his  lord, 
and  all  the  captains,  and  almost  all  the  chief  men  who  owed 
obedience  to  Bedford,  and  also  many  of  those  who  owed 
obedience  to  Northampton. 

A.  918.  But  very  shortly  after  they  had  become  so,  she  died  at  Tarn- 
worth,  twelve  days  before  midsummer,  the  eighth  year  of  her  having  rule 
and  right  lordship  over  the  Mercians  ;  and  her  body  lies  at  Gloucester, 
witliin  the  east  porch  of  St.  Peter's  church.     [See  end  of  a.d,  922.] 

A.  918.  This  year  died  Ethelfled  the  lady  of  the  Mercians. 

A.  919.  In  this  year,  before  Martinmas,  king  Edward 
went  with  Ms  forces  to  Bedford,  and  gained  the  town  ;  and 
almost  all  the  townsmen  who  formerly  dwelt  there  submitted 
to  him:  and  he  sat  down  there  four  weeks,  and  commanded 
the  town  to  be  built  on  the  south  side  of  the  river  before  he 
went  thence. 

A.  919.  This  year  also  the  daughter  of  Ethelred,  lord  of  the  Mercians, 
was  deprived  of  all  dominion  over  the  Mercians,  and  carried  into  Wessex, 
three  weeks  before  mid-Avinter  :  she  was  called  Elfwina. 

A.  920.  In  this  year,  before  midsummer,  king  Edward 
went  to  Maldon,  and  built  the  town,  and  fortified  it  before  he 
departed  thence.  And  that  same  year  Thurkytel  the  earl 
went  over  sea  into  France,  together  with  such  men  as  would 
Collow  him,  with  the  peace  and  aid  of  king  Edward. 

A.  921.  In  this  year,  before  Easter,  king  Edward  gavo 
orders  to  take  possession  of  the  town  at  Towcester,  and  to 
fortify  it.  And  again,  after  that,  in  the  same  year,  durinj^ 
Rogation   days,    he   commanded  the  town   at   Wiijmore    to 

70  THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.     a.i>.  921. 

be  built.  That  same  summer,  between  Lammas  and  mid- 
summer, the  army  from  Northampton  and  from  Leicester, 
and  thence  north,  broke  the  peace,  and  went  to  Towcester, 
and  fought  against  tlie  town  the  whole  day ;  and  they  thought 
that  they  should  be  able  to  take  it  by  storm.  But,  neverthe- 
less, the  people  who  were  within  defended  it  until  a  larger 
force  came  to  them  :  and  then  they  departed  from  the  town 
and  went  away.  Then,  again  very  soon  after  that,  they  went 
out  once  more  by  night  with  a  predatory  band,  and  came 
upon  men  who  were  unprepared,  and  took  no  small  number 
as  well  of  men  as  of  cattle  between  Burnham  wood  and  Ayles- 
bury. At  that  same  time  went  out  the  army  from  Hunting- 
don and  from  the  East- Angles,  and  constructed  the  fortress 
at  Tempsford,  and  abode,  and  built  there ;  and  forsook  the 
other  at  Huntingdon,  and  thought  that  from  thence  they 
could,  by  warfare  and  hostility,  get  more  of  the  land  again. 
And  tliey  went  forth  until  they  arrived  at  Bedford :  and 
tlien  the  men  who  were  there  within  went  out  against  them, 
and  fought  with  them  and  put  them  to  flight,  and  slew  a 
good  part  of  them.  Then  again,  after  that,  a  large  army 
once  more  drew  together  from  East-Anglia  and  from  Mercia, 
and  went  to  the  town  at  Wigmore,  and  beset  it  round 
about,  and  fought  against  it  the  greater  part  of  the  day, 
and  took  the  cattle  thereabout.  And  nevertheless,  the 
men  who  were  within  the  town  defended  it ;  and  then  the 
army  left  the  town  and  went  away.  Then,  after  that,  in 
tlie  same  summer,  much  people,  within  king  Edward's 
dominion,  drew  together  out  of  the  nearest  towns,  who  could 
go  tliither,  and  went  to  Tempsford,  and  beset  the  town,  and 
fought  against  it  till  they  took  it  by  storm,  and  slew  the  king, 
and  Toglos  the  earl,  and  Mann  the  earl,  his  son,  and  his 
brother,  and  all  those  who  Avere  there  within  and  would  de- 
f<;nd  themselves;  and  took  the  others,  and  all  that  was 
therein.  Then,  very  soon  after  this,  much  people  drew 
together  during  harvest,  as  well  from  Kent  as  from  Surrey 
and  from  Essex,  and  from  each  of  the  nearest  towns,  and 
went  to  Colchester,  and  beset  the  town,  and  fought  against 
it  until  they  mastered  it,  and  slew  all  the  people  there  within, 
and  took  all  that  was  there,  except  the  men  who  fled  away 
over  the  wall.  Then  after  that,  once  again  during  the 
«!a.»ne  harvest,  a  large  army  drew  together  out  of  Eust-Anglia, 


AS  well  of  the  land-force  as  of  the  pirates  whom  they  liad  en- 
ticed to  their  aid :  and  they  thought  that  they  shoukl  be  able 
to  avenge  their  wrongs.  And  they  went  to  Maldon,  and 
beset  the  town,  and  fought  against  it  until  more  aid  came  to 
the  help  of  the  townsmen  from  without ;  and  then  the  army 
left  the  town  and  went  away.  And  then  the  men  from  the 
town  went  out  after  them,  and  those  also  who  came  from 
without  to  their  aid  ;  and  they  put  the  army  to  flight,  and 
slew  many  hundreds  of  them,  as  well  of  the  pirates  as  of 
the  others.  Then,  very  shortly  after,  during  the  same 
harvest,  king  Edward  went  with  the  forces  of  the  West- 
Saxons  to  Passoham,  and  sat  down  there  while  they  encom- 
passed the  town  at  Towcester  with  a  stone  wall.  And  Thur- 
ferth  the  earl,  and  the  captains,  and  all  the  army  which  owed 
obedience  to  Northampton,  as  far  north  as  the  Welland,  sub- 
mitted to  him,  and  sought  to  him  to  be  their  lord  and  pro- 
tector. And  when  one  division  of  the  forces  went  home, 
tlien  another  went  out,  and  took  possession  of  the  town  of 
Huntingdon,  and  repaired  and  rebuilt  it,  by  command  of 
king  Edward,  where  it  had  been  previously  demolished  ;  and 
all  who  were  left  of  the  inhabitants  of  that  country  submitted 
to  king  Edward,  and  sought  his  peace  and  his  protection. 
And  after  this,  still  in  the  same  year,  before  Martinmas,  king 
Edward  went  with  the  forces  of  the  West- Saxons  to  Col- 
chester, and  repaired  the  town,  and  rebuilt  it  where  it  had 
been  before  broken  down;  and  much  people  submitted  to 
him,  as  well  among  the  East-Anglians  as  among  the  East 
Saxons,  who  before  were  under  the  dominion  of  the  Danes. 
And  all  the  army  among  the  East-Anglians  swore  union 
with  him,  that  they  would  all  that  he  would,  and  would 
observe  peace  towards  all  to  which  the  king  should  grant  his 
peace,  both  by  sea  and  by  land.  And  the  army  which  owed 
obedience  to  Cambridge  chose  him  specially  to  be  their 
lord  and  protector ;  and  confirmed  it  with  oaths,  even  as  he 
then  decreed  it.  This  year  king  Edward  built  the  town  at 
Gladmouth.     This  year  king  Sihtric  slew  Neil  his  brother. 

A.  922.  In  this  year,  between  Rogation  days  and  mid- 
summer, king  Edward  went  with  liis  forces  to  Stamford, 
and  commanded  the  town  to  be  built  upon  the  south  side  of 
tlie  river:  and  all  the  people  which  owed  obedience  to  the 
Qorthera  town  submitted  to  him,  and  sought  to  him  to  be 

72         THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,  a.d.  923-925. 

their  lord.  And  then,  during  the  sojourn  which  he  there 
made,  Ethelfled  his  sister  died  there,  at  Tamworth,  twelve 
days  before  midsummer.  And  then  he  took  possession  of 
the  town  at  Tamworth ;  and  all  the  people  of  the  land  of 
Mercia,  who  before  vv^ere  subject  to  Ethelfled,  submitted  to 
him ;  and  the  kings  of  the  North- Welsh,  Howel,  and  Cle- 
dauc,  and  Jothwel,  and  all  the  North- Welsh  race,  sought  to 
him  to  be  their  lord.  Then  went  he  thence  to  Nottingham 
and  took  possession  of  the  town,  and  commanded  it  to  be 
repaired  and  occupied  as  well  by  English  as  by  Danes. 
And  all  the  people  who  were  settled  in  Mercia,  as  well  Dan- 
ish as  English,  submitted  to  him. 

A.  923.  In  this  year,  after  harvest,  king  Edward  went 
with  his  forces  to  Thelwall,  and  commanded  the  town  to  be 
built,  and  occupied,  and  manned;  and  commanded  another 
force  also  of  Mercians,  the  while  that  he  sat  there,  to  take 
possession  of  Manchester  in  North-humbria,  and  repair  and 
man  it.  This  year  died  archbishop  Plegmund.  This  year 
king  Reginald  won  York. 

A.  924.  In  this  year,  before  midsummer,  king  Edward 
went  with  his  forces  to  Nottingham,  and  commanded  the 
town  to  be  built  on  the  south  side  of  the  river,  over  against 
the  other,  and  the  bridge  over  the  Trent,  between  the  two 
towns:  and  then  he  went  thence  into  Peakland,  to  Bake- 
well,  and  commanded  a  town  to  be  built  nigh  thereunto, 
and  manned.  And  then  chose  him  for  father  and  for  lord, 
the  king  of  the  Scots  and  the  whole  nation  of  the  Scots,  and 
Reginald  and  the  son  of  Eadulf  and  all  those  who  dwell  in 
North-humbria,  as  well  English  as  Danes,  and  North-men 
and  others,  and  also  the  king  of  the  Strath-clyde  Britons, 
and  all  the  Strath-clyde  Britons. 

A.  924.  This  year  Edward  was  chosen  for  father  and  for  lord  by  the 
king  of  the  Scots,  and  by  the  Scots,  and  king  Reginald,  and  by  all  the 
Nuith-humbrians,  and  also  the  king  of  the  Strath-clyde  Britons,  and  by 
aJ  the  Strath-clyde  Britons. 

A.  924.  This  year  king  Edward  died  among  the  Mercians  at  Famdon ; 
and  very  shortly,  about  sixteen  days  after  this,  Elward  his  son  died  at 
Oxford;  and  their  bodies  lie  at  Winchester.  And  Athelstan  was  chosen 
king  by  the  Mercians,  and  consecrated  at  Kingston.  And  he  gave  his  sister 
to  Ofsae  [OthoJ,  son  of  the  king  of  the  Old-Saxona. 

A.  925.  This  year  king  Edward  died,  and  Athelstan  his 
son  suc^'eeded  to  the  kingdom.     And  St.  Dunstan  waa  bora 

A.D.  C2r>  937.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.         73 

and  Wulfhelm  succeeded  to  tlie  archbishopric  of  Canterbury 
■"i'liis  year  king  Athelstan  and  Sihtric  king  of  the  Nortii- 
humbrians  came  together  at  Tamworth,  on  the  3d  before  the 
Kalends  of  February ;  and  Athelstan  gave  him  his  sister. 

A.  925.  This  year  Bishop  Wulflielm  was  consecrated.  And  that  same 
yeai-  king  Edward  died. 

A.  926.  This  year  fiery  lights  appeared  in  the  north  part 
of  the  heavens.  And  Sihtric  perished :  and  king  Athel- 
stan obtained  the  kingdom  of  the  North-liumbrians.  And 
he  ruled  all  the  kings  who  were  in  this  island :  first,  Howel 
king  of  the  West- Welsh  ;  and  Constantine  king  of  the  Scots  ; 
and  Owen  king  of  the  Monmouth  people ;  and  Aldred,  son  of 
Ealdulf,  of  Bambrough:  and  they  confirmed  the  peace  by 
pledge,  and  by  oaths,  at  the  place  which  is  called  Eamot, 
on  the  4tli  before  the  Ides  of  July ;  and  they  renounced  all 
idolatry,  and  after  that  submitted  to  him  in  peace. 

A.  927.  This  year  king  Athelstan  expelled  king  Gutli- 
frith.     And  this  year  Archbishop  Wulfhelm  went  to  Rome. 

A.  928.  William  succeeded  to  Normandy,  and  held  it 
fifteen  years. 

A.  929.  930. 

A.  93 L  Tins  year  Brinstan  was  ordained  bishop  of  Win- 
chester on  the  4th  before  the  Kalends  of  June ;  and  he  held 
the  bishopric  two  years  and  a  half. 

A.  931.  This  year  died  Frithstan  bishop  of  Winchester,  and  Brinstan 
was  blessed  in  his  place. 

A.  932.  This  year  died  bishop  Frithstan. 

A.  933.  This  year  Edwin  the  etlieling  was  drowned  at 
sea.  This  year  king  Athelstan  went  into  Scotland,  as  well 
with  a  land  army  as  with  a  fleet,  and  ravaged  a  great  part 
of  it.  And  bishop  Brinstan  died  at  Winchester  on  liie 
feast  of  A 11- Hallows. 

A.  934.  This  year  bishop  Elphege  succeeded  to  th«j 
bishopric  of  Winchester. 

A.  935.  936. 

A.  937. 
Here  Athelstan,  kins:. 

ot'  earls  the  lord, 

(tf  heroes  the  bracelet -giver, 

and  his  brother  eke, 

Edmund  etheling, 


THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,     a.b.  937. 

in  battle  won 

with  edges  of  swords 

near  Brumby. 

The  board-walls  they  clove, 

they  hewed  the  war-lindens, 

Haraora  lafan' 
offspring  of  Edward, 
such  was  their  noble  nature 
from  their  ancestors, 
that  they  in  battle  oft 
'gainst  every  foe 
the  land  defended, 
boards  and  homes. 
The  foe  they  crushed, 
the  Scottish  people 
and  the  shipmen 
fated  feU. 

The  field  Mseniede' 
with  warriors'  blood, 
since  the  sun  up 
at  morning-tide, 
mighty  planet, 
glided  o'er  grounds, 
God's  candle  bright, 
the  eternal  Lord's, 
till  the  noble  creature 
sank  to  her  settle. 
There  lay  many  a  warrior 
by  javelins  strewed, 
northern  man 
over  shield  shot ; 
so  the  Scots  eke, 
weary,  war-sad. 
West- Saxons  onwards 
throughout  the  day, 
in  bands, 

pursued  the  footsteps 
of  the  loathed  nations. 
They  hewed  the  fugitives 
behind,  amain, 
with  swords  mill-sharp. 

Mercians  refused  not 
the  hard  hand-play 
to  any  heroes 
who  with  Anlaf, 
over  the  ocean, 
in  the  ship's  bosom, 
this  land  sought 
felted  to  the  fight. 
Five  lay 

on  the  battle-stead, 
youthful  kings, 
by  swords  in  slumber  laid: 
so  seven  eke 
of  Anlaf 's  earls  ; 
of  tlie  army  countless, 
shipmen  and  Scots. 
There  was  made  flee 
the  North-men's  chieftain, 
by  need  constrained, 
to  the  ship's  prow 
with  a  little  band. 
The  bark  drove  afloat : 
the  king  dejiarted 
on  the  fallow  flood, 
his  life  preserved. 
So  there  eke  the  sage 
came  by  flight 
to  his  country  north, 
hoary  warrior . 
He  had  no  cause  to  exult 
I  in  the  communion  of  swords. 
Here  was  his  kindred  baud 
of  friends  o'erthrown 
on  the  folk-stead, 
in  battle  slain ; 
and  his  son  he  left 
on  the  slaughter-place, 
mangled  with  wounds, 
young  in  the  fight : 
he  had  no  cause  to  boast. 



hero  grizzly-haired, 

of  the  bill-cLishing, 

the  okl  deceiver ; 

nor  Aidat"  the  moor,      {^mies ; 

with  the  remnant  of  their  ar- 

they  had  no  cause  to  laugh 

that  they  in  war's  works 

the  better  men  were 

in  the  battle-stead, 

at  the  conflict  of  banners, 

meeting  of  spears, 

concourse  of  men, 

trailic  of  weapons  ;  [field 

that  they  on   the  slaughter- 

with  Edward's 

oir>pring  played. 

The  North-men  departed 
in  their  nailed  barks ; 
bloody  relic  of  darts, 
on  roaring  ocean 
o'er  the  deep  water 
Dublin  to  seek, 
again  Ireland, 
shamed  in  mind. 

So  too  the  brothers, 
both  together, 
king  and  etheling, 
their  country  sought. 
West- Saxons'  land, 

in  the  war  exulting. 

They  left  behind  them, 

the  corse  to  devour, 

the  sallowy  kite 

and  the  swarthy  raven 

with  horned  nib, 

and  the  dusky  '  pada,* 

erne  white-tailed, 

the  corse  to  enjoy, 

greedy  war-hawk, 

and  the  grey  beast, 

wolf  of  the  wood. 

Carnage  greater  has  not  betsn 

in  this  island 

ever  yet 

of  people  slain, 

before  this, 

by  edges  of  swords, 

as  books  us  say, 

old  writers, 

since  from  the  east  hither, 

Angles  and  Saxons 

came  to  land, 

o'er  the  broad  seas 

Britain  sought, 

mighty  war-smiths, 

the  Welsh  o'ercame, 

earls  most  bold, 

this  earth  obtained. 

A.  937.  This  year  king  Athelstan  and  Edmund  his  brother  led  a  forcf 
to  Brumby,  and  mere  fouglit  a,ii;ainst  Anlaf ;  and,  Christ  helping,  ha^ 
the  victory:  and  they  there  slew  five  kings  and  seven  earls, 

A.  938.  939. 

A.  940.  This  year  king  Athelstan  died  at  Gloucester  on 
the  6th  before  the  Kalends  of  November,  about  forty-one  years, 
except  one  day,  after  king  Alfred  died.  And  Edmund  the 
etheling,  his  brother,  succeeded  to  the  kingdom,  and  he  was 
then  eighteen  years  of  age  ;  and  king  Athelstan  reigne-d 
♦burteen  years  and  ten  weeks.  Then  was  Wulfhelra  arch- 
biniiop  in  Kent. 

A.  941,  This  year  the  North-humbrians  were  faLw  to 

76         THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,   a. i>.  942-945. 

their  plighted  troth,  and  chose  Anlaf  of  Lreland  to  be  tliei! 


Here  Edmund  king, 
ruler  of  Angles, 
protector  of  men, 
^Nlercia  ol>tained, 
dear  deed-doer, 
as  the  Dor  flows, 
course  of  the  white-well, 
and  Huraber's  river, 
broad  sea-stream. 
Five  towns, 
and  Lincoln, 
and  Nottingham, 

so  Stamford  eke, 

and  Derby, 

to  Danes  were  erew^hiie, 

under  North-men, 

by  need  constrained, 

of  heathen  men 

in  captive  chains, 

a  long  time  ; 

until  again  redeemed  them, 

for  his  worthiness, 

the  bulwark  of  warriors, 

offspring  of  Edward, 

Edmund  king. 

A.  941.  This  year  kins:  Edmund  received  king  at  baptism  ;  and 
that  same  year,  a  good  long  space  after,  he  received  king  Reginald  at  the 
bishop's  hands. 

A.  942.  This  year  king  *Anlaf  died. 

A.  943.  This  year  Anlaf  stormed  Tamworth,  and  great 
carnage  -was  on  either  hand  ;  and  the  Danes  had  the  victory, 
and  much  booty  they  led  away  with  them  :  there  during  the 
pillage  was  Wulfrun  taken.  This  year  king  Edmund  be- 
sieged king  Anlaf  and  archbishop  Wulfstan  in  Leicester  ; 
and  he  would  have  taken  them,  were  it  not  that  they  broke 
out  by  night  from  the  town.  And,  after  that,  Anlaf  acquired 
king  Edmund's  friendship  ;  and  king  Edmund  then  re- 
ceived king  Anlaf  at  baptism,  and  he  royally  gifted  him. 
And  that  same  year,  after  a  good  long  time,  he  received  king 
Reginald  at  the  bishop's  hands.  This  year  king  l-^dmund 
delivered  Glastonbury  to  St.  Dunstan,  where  he  afterwards 
became  the  first  abbat. 

A.  944.  This  year  king  Edmund  subdued  all  Noi-thnm- 
berland  under  his  power,  and  expelled  two  kings,  Anlaf. 
gon  of  Sihtric,  and  Reginald,  son  of  Guthferth. 

A.  945.  This  year  king  Edmund  ravaged  all  Cumber- 
land, and  granted  it  all  to  Malcolm  king  of  the  Scots,  on  the 

*  See  Hen.  Huntingdon  and  Simeon  of  llurhnm.  A.  f'41  There  were 
lev.Tii!  chiefs  of  that  name  at  this  period  :  Anlaf  the  son  of  (jiutlUerthj 
Afvl^  the  ion  of  Siliiricj  uud  Anlaf  Cuirau,  mentioned  A.  948. 

A.D.94G-954.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.         77 

condition,  that  lie  should  be  his  fellow-worker  as  well  by  sea 
as  bj  land. 

A.  946.  This  year  kinc^  Edmund  died  on  St.  Augustine's 
mass-day.  That  was  widely  known  how  he  his  days  ended  : 
that  Leofa  stabbed  him  at  Puckle-church.  And  Aeltieda 
at  Damerham,  Elgar's  daughter,  the  ealdorman,  was  then 
liis  queen  :  and  he  had  the  kingdom  six  years  and  a  hali". 
And  then  after  him  his  brother  Edred  the  etheling  suc- 
ceeded to  the  kingdom,  and  subdued  all  Northumberland 
under  his  power  :  and  the  Scots  gave  him  oaths,  that  they 
would  all  that  he  would. 

A.  947.  This  year  king  Edred  came  to  Tadden's-clifF, 
and  there  Wulfstan  the  archbishop  and  all  the  North-hum- 
brian  "  witan  "  plighted  their  troth  to  the  king  :  and  within 
a  little  while  they  belied  it  all,  both  pledge  and  also  oaths. 

A.  948.  This  year  king  Edred  ravaged  all  Northum- 
berland, because  they  had  taken  Eric  to  be  their  king  :  and 
then,  during  the  pillage,  was  the  great  minster  burned  at 
Ripon  that  St.  Wilfrid  built.  And  as  the  king  went 
homewards,  then  the  army  of  York  overtook  him  :  the  rear 
of  the  king's  forces  was  at  Chesterford  ;  and  there  they 
made  great  slaughter.  Then  was  the  king  so  wroth  that  he 
would  have  marched  his  forces  in  again  and  wholly  destroyed 
the  land.  When  the  North-humbrian  "witan"  understood 
that,  then  forsook  they  Eric,  and  made  compensation  for 
the  deed  with  king  Edred. 

A.  949.  This  year  Anlaf  Curran  came  to  Northumber- 

A.  950. 

A.  95 L  This  year  died  Elphege  bishop  of  Winchester,  on 
St.  Gregory's  mass-day.     This  same  blessed  St.  Dunstan.  .  .  . 

A.  952.  In  this  year  king  Edred  commanded  archbishop 
Wulfstan  to  be  brought  into  the  fastness  at  Jedburgh, 
because  he  had  been  oft  accused  to  the  king  :  and  in  this 
year  also  the  king  commanded  great  slaughter  fo  be  made  in 
the  town  of  Thetford,  in  revenge  of  the  abbat  Edelm,  whom 
they  had  before  slain.  This  year  the  North-humbrians  ex- 
pelled king  Anlaf,  and  received  Eric,  Harold's  son. 

A.  953. 

A.  954.  This  year  the  North-humbrians  expelled  Eric, 
and  Edi-ed  obtained  the  kingdom  of  the  North-humbriaii!i, 


THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CIIPwONICLE.   a. d.  955-953. 

Thh  year  archbishop  Wulfstan  again  obtained  a  bishoprio 
at  Dorchester. 

A.  955.  This  3^ear  died  king  Edred  on  St.  Clement's 
mass-day,  at  Frorae,  and  he  rests  in  the  Old-minster  [Win- 
chester] ;  and  he  reigned  nine  years  and  a  half.  And  then 
Kd\vy  succeeded  to  the  kingdom,  king  Edmund's  and  St. 
Elfgiva'a  son.  And  he  banished  St.  Dunstan  out  of  the 

A.  955.  And  Edwy  succeeded  to  the  kingdom  of  the  West-Saxons,  and 
Ed„Mr  his  brother  succeeded  to  the  kingdom  of  the  Mercians  :  and  they 
were  the  sons  of  King  Edmund  and  of  S.  Elfj;iva. 

A.  956. 

A.  957.  This  year  died  Wulfstan  archbishop  of  York,  on 
the  1 7th  before  the  Kalends  of  January,  and  he  was  buried  at 
Oundle.  And  in  the  same  year  abbat  Dunstan  was  driven 
away  over  sea.  This  year  Edgar  the  etheling  succeeded  to 
the  kingdom  of  the  Mercians. 

A.  958.  In  this  year  arclibishop  Odo*  separated  king 
Edwy  and  Elfgiva,  because  they  were  too  nearly  rehited. 
This  year  died  king  Edwy  on  tlie  Kalends  of  October  ;  and 
Edgar  his  brother  succeeded  to  the  kingdom,  as  well  of  tlie 
West-Saxons  as  of  the  Mercians,  and  of  the  North-hum- 
brians  ;  and  he  was  then  sixteen  years  of  age. 

In  his  days 

it  prospered  well, 

and  God  him  granted 

that  he  dwelt  in  peace 

the  while  that  he  lived  ; 

and  he  did  as  behoved  him, 

diligently  he  earned  it. 

lie  upreared  God's  glory  wide, 

and  loved  God's  law, 

and  bettered  the  public  peace, 

mo.^t  of  the  kings 

who  were  before  him 

in  man's  memory. 

And  God  him  eke  so  helped, 

that  kings  and  earls 

gladly  to  him  bowed, 

taid  were  submissive 

to  that  that  he  willed  ; 

and  without  war 

he  ruled  all 

that  himself  would. 

He  was  wide 

tiiroughout  nations 

greatly  honoured, 

because  he  honoured 

God's  name  earnestly, 

and  God's  law  pondered 

much  and  oft, 

and  God's  glory  reared 

wide  and  far, 

and  wisely  counselled, 

most  oft,  and  ever, 

for  God  and  for  tlu:  world, 

of  all  Ids  people. 

Of  Canterbury. 

A.D.  959-963.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.         79 

One  misdeed  he  did 

and  harmful  people 

allured  to  this  land. 
But  God  grant  him 
that  his  good  deeds 
be  more  availing 
than  his  misdeeds, 
for  his  soul's  protection 
on  the  lono;some  course. 


all  too  much 
that  he  foreign 
vices  loved, 
and  heathen  customs 
within  this  land 
brought  too  oft, 
and  outlandish  men 
liither  enticed, 

A.  959.  This  year  Edgar  sent  after  St.  Dunstan,  and 
gave  him  the  bishopric  at  Worcester  ;  and  afterwards  the 
bishopric  at  London. 

A.  960. 

A.  961.  This  year  departed  Odo  the  Good,  archbishop  ; 
and  St.  Dunstan  succeeded  to  the  archbishopric. 

A.  962.  This  year  died  Elfgar,  the  king's  kinsman,  in 
I^evonshire,  and  his  body  rests  at  Wilton.  And  king  Sif- 
ferth  killed  himself,  and  his  body  lies  at  Wimborne.  And 
then,  within  the  year,  there  was  a  great  mortality,  and  the 
great  fever  was  in  London  ;  and  Paul's  minster  was  burnt, 
imd  that  same  year  was  again  built  up.  In  tliis  same  year 
Atliehnod  the  mass-priest  went  to  Rome,  and  there  died,  on 
the  18th  before  the  Kalends  of  September. 

A.  963.  This  year  died  Wulfstan  the  deacon,  on  Childer- 
mass-day,  and  after  that  died  Gyric  the  mass-priest.  In  this 
same  year  abbat  Ethelwold*  succeeded  to  the  bishopric  at 
\\'inchester,  and  he  was  consecrated  on  the  vigil  of  St. 
Andrew  :  it  was  Sunday  that  day.  In  the  year  after  he  was 
consecrated,  then  made  he  many  minsters,  and  drove  the 
clerks  out  of  the  bishopric,  because  they  would  not  observe 
any  rule,  and  he  set  monks  there.  He  made  there  two  abba- 
cies ;  one  of  monks,  one  of  nuns  ;  all  which  was  within 
Winchester.  Afterwards,  then  came  he  to  the  king,  Edgar, 
and  begged  of  him  that  he  would  give  him  all  the  minsters 
which  heathen  men  had  formerly  broken  down,  because  he 
would  restore  them:  and  the  king  cheerfully  granted  it.  Ajid 
then  the  bishop  came  first  to  Ely,  w^here  St.  Etheldrida  lies, 
and  caused  the  minster  to  be  made  :  then  he  gave  it  to  one 
of  his  monks,  who  was  named  Britnoth.  He  then  conse- 
crated him  abbat,  a:id  there  set  monks  to  serve  God  where 
«  Of  Abingdon, 

80  THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,     a.d.  963 

previously  had  been  nuns  :  he  bought  then  many  villages 
of  the  king,  and  made  it  very  rich.  After  that  cams  bishop 
Etlielwold  to  the  minsrer  which  was  called  jMedeshamstede, 
which  formerly  had  lieeii  destroyed  by  heathen  men  :  he 
found  nothing  there  but  old  walls  and  wild  woods.  There 
found  he,  hidden  in  the  old  wails,  wa-itings  that  abbat 
Hedda  had  erewhile  written,  how  king  Wulfhere  and 
Ethelred  his  brother  had  built  it,  and  how  they  had  freed  it 
against  king  and  against  bishop,  and  against  all  secular  ser- 
vices, and  how  the  pope  Agatlio  had  confirmed  the  same  by 
his  rescript,  and  the  archbishop  Deus-dedit.  Then  caused 
he  the  minster  to  be  built ;  and  set  there  an  abbat,  who  was 
called  Adulf,  and  caused  monks  to  be  there  where  before 
was  nothing.  Then  came  he  to  the  king,  and  caused  him 
to  look  at  the  writings  wdiich  before  were  found  ;  and  the 
king  answered  then  and  said  : 

"  I,  Edgar,  grant  and  give  to-day,  before  God  and  before 
the  archbishop  Dunstan,  freedom  to  8t.  Peter's  minster, 
Lledeshamstede,  from  king  and  from  bishop  :  and  all  the 
villages  which  lie  thereto  ;  that  is  to  say,  Eastfield,  and 
Dodthorp,  and  Eye,  and  Fasten.  And  thus  I  free  it,  that 
no  bishop  have  there  any  command,  without  the  abbat  of  the 
minster.  And  I  give  the  town  which  is  called  Oundle,  with 
all  which  thereto  lieth,  that  is  to  say,  that  which  is  called 
*the  Eight-hundreds,'  and  market  and  toll,  so  freely,  that 
neither  king,  nor  bishop,  nor  earl,  nor  sheriff,  have  there 
any  command,  nor  any  man  except  the  abbat  alone,  and  him 
whom  he  thereto  appointeth.  And  I  give  to  Christ  and  St. 
Peter,  and  through  the  prayer  of  bishop  Etlielwold,  these 
lands  ;  that  is  to  say,  Barro,  Warmington,  Ashton,  Ketter- 
ing, Castor,  Eylesworth,  Walton,  Witherington,  Eye,  Thorp  ; 
and  one  moneyer  in  Stamford.  These  lands,  and  all  the 
others  that  belong  to  the  minster,  them  declare  I  free  :  that 
is,  with  sack  and  sock,  toll  and  team,  and  infangthief ;  these 
rights,  and  all  others,  them  declare  I  the  shire  of  Christ  and  St. 
Peter.  And  I  give  the  two  parts  of  Whittlesey-mere,  wnth  the 
waters  and  with  the  wears  and  fens,  and  so  through  Meer- 
lade  straight  to  the  water  which  is  called  Nen,  and  so  east- 
ward to  King's-delf.  And  I  will  that  a  market  be  in  the 
game  town,  and  that  no  other  be  between  St:imlbrd  and  Hun 
tingdon.     And  I  will  that  the  toll  be  thus  given  :  first,  from>3.     THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.  81 

Wliittlesey-mere  all  as  far  as  the  king's  toll  of  Norman-cross- 
hundred,  and  then  back  again  iVom  Whittlesey-niere,  through 
Meerhide,  straight  to  the  Nen,  and  so  as  the  water  runneth 
to  Crovvland,  and  from  Crowland  to  Must,  and  from  Must 
to  King's-delii  and  to  Whittlesey-mere.  And  I  will  that  all 
liberties,  and  all  the  remissions  tliat  my  predecessors  have 
given,  that  they  stand  ;  and  I  sign  and  confirm  it  with 
Christ's  rood-token."  y^ 

Then  Dunstan  the  archbishop  of  Canterbury  answered, 
and  said  :  "I  grant  that  all  the  things  which  here  are  given 
and  spoken  of,  and  all  the  things  which  thy  predecessors  and 
mine  have  conceded,  those  will  I  that  they  stand  ;  and  who- 
soever this  breaketh,  then  give  I  him  the  curse  of  God,  and 
of  all  saints,  and  of  all  ordained  heads,  and  of  myself,  unless 
he  come  to  repentance.  And  I  give,  in  acknowledgment,  tc 
St.  Peter,  my  mass-hackel,  and  my  stole,  and  my  '  reef,'  for 
the  service  of  Chi-ist."  "I,  Oswald,  archbishop  of  York, 
assent  to  all  these  words  by  tlie  holy  rood  which  Christ  suf- 
fered on.">^  "I,  Ethelwold,  bishop,  bless  all  who  shall 
observe  this  ;  and  I  excommunicate  all  who  shall  break  this, 
unless  he  come  to  repentance."  Here  was  Elfstan  bishop, 
Athulf  bishop,  and  Eskwi  abbat,  and  Osgar  abbat,  and 
Ethelgar  abbat,  and  Elfere  the  ealdorman,  Ethelwin  the 
ealdorman,  Britnoth  ;  Oslac  the  ealdorman,  and  many  other 
great  men  :  and  all  assented  to  it,  and  all  signed  it  with 
Christ's  cross,  y^  This  was  done  after  the  birth  of  our  Lord 
nine  hundred  and  seventy-two  years,  of  the  king's  reign  the 
sixteenth  year. 

Then  the  abbat  Aldulf  bought  lands,  numerous  and  many, 
then  greatly  enriched  the  minster  withal ;  and  then  was 
he  there  so  long  as  until  the  archbishop  Oswald  of  York 
was  dead,  and  then  he  was  chosen  archbishop.  And  then, 
soon,  another  abbat  was  chosen  of  the  self-same  minster,  who 
was  called  Kenulf  :  he  was  afterwards  bishop  at  Winchester. 
And  he  first  made  the  wall  about  the  minster  :  then  gave  lie 
that  to  name  Peterborough,  which  before  was  calLed  Medes- 
hamstede:  he  was  there  until  he  was  appointed  bishop 
at  Winchester.  Then  anotlier  abbat  was  chosen  of  the  self- 
same minster,  who  was  called  Elfsy  :  Elfsy  was  then  abbat, 
from  that  time,  fifty  years.  He  took  up  St.  Kyneburg  and 
bt.  Kyneswith,  who  lay  at  Ctistor.  and  St.  Tibba,  who  lay  at 

82         THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CIIPwONICLE.   a.d.  90:^972. 

Rvhall,  and  brought  them  to  Peterborough,  and  made  aa 
oiiering  of  them  all  to  St.  Peter  in  one  day  ;  and  pre;:>erved 
them  all  the  while  he  was  there. 

A.  963.  Tliis  year,  by  king  Edgar,  St.  Ethelwold  was  chosen  to  the 
hishoprick  at  Winchester.  And  the  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  St.  Dun- 
Btan,  consecrated  him  bishop  on  the  first  Sunday  of  Advent ;  that  vvaa  on 
tlie  3rd  before  the  Kalends  of  December. 

A.  964.  This  year  king  Edgar  expelled  the  priests  at 
Winchester  from  the  Old-minster  and  from  the  New-mi  iister, 
and  from  Chertsey,  and  from  Milton,  and  filled  them  with 
monks  ;  and  he  appointed  abbat  Ethelgar  abbat  to  the  New- 
mi  nster,  and  Ordbert  to  Chertsey,  and  Cyneward  to  Milton. 

A.  9G4.  This  year  were  the  canons  driven  out  of  the  OUI-minster  by 
kiny;  Edgar,  and  also  from  the  New-minster,  and  from  Chertsey  and  from 
Milton  ;  and  he  appointed  thereto  monks  and  abbats  :  to  the  New-minster 
Eihelgar,  to  Chertsey  Ordbert,  to  Milton  Cyneward. 

A.  965.  In  this  year  king  Edgar  took  Elfrida  for  his 
queen  ;  she  was  daughter  of  Ordgar  the  ealdorman. 

A.  966.  This  year  Thored,  Gunner's  son,  ravaged  West- 
moreland.    And  that  same  year  Oslac  obtained  an  ealdordom. 

A.  967. 

A.  968.  In  this  year  king  Edgar  ordered  all  Thanet- 
land  to  be  ravaged. 

A.  969.  970. 

A.  971.  This  year  died  archbishop  Oskytel :  he  was  first 
consecrated  bishop  of  Dorchester,  and  afterwards  of  York  ; 
by  favour  of  king  Edred,  and  of  all  his  'witan,*  he  was 
consecrated  archbishop ;  and  he  was  a  bishop  twenty  two 
years;  and  he  died  on  the  mass-night  of  All-Hallows,  ten 
days  before  Martin-mass,  at  Thame.  And  abbat  Thurkytel 
liis  kinsman,  carried  the  bishop's  body  to  Bedford,  because 
he  was  then,  at  that  time,  abbat  there. 

A.  972.  This  year  died  Edmund  the  etheling,  and  his 
body  lies  at  Rumsey. 

A.  972.  This  year  Edgar  the  etheling  was  consecrated  king  at  Bath, 
on  Pentecost's  mass-day,  on  the  .5th  before  the  Ides  of  May,  the  thirteenth 
year  since  he  had  obtained  the  kingdom  ;  and  he  was  then  one  less  thati 
thirty  years  of  age.  And  soon  after  that,  the  king  led  all  his  ahip-forcea 
to  Chester ;  and  there  came  to  meet  him  six  kings,  and  they  all  plighteU 
their  trath  to  him,  that  they  would  be  his  fellow- workers  by  sea  and  bj 



A.  973. 
Here  was  Edgar, 
ruler  of  Angles, 
in  full  assembly, 
li allowed  king, 
at  the  old  city 
Akemanscester  ; 
but  it  the  islanders, 
beorns,  by  another  word, 
name  Bath. 
There  was  much  bliss 
on  that  blessed  day 
to  all  occasioned, 
which  cliildren  of  men 
name  and  call 
Pentecost's  day. 
There  was  a  heap  of  priests  ; 
of  monks  a  large  band, 
as  I  have  heard, 
of  sage  ones,  gathered : 
and  then  agone  was 
ten  hundred  years, 
told  in  numbers, 
from  the  birth- tide 
of  the  glorious  King, 
Pastor  of  light, 
but  that  there  remaining 
then  still  was, 
of  yearly-tale, 
as  writings  say, 
sev^en  and  twenty: 
so  nigh  had  to  the  Victor- lord 
a  thousand  run  out 
wlien  this  befel. 
And  himself,  Edmund's 
offspring,  had 
nine  and  twenty, 
guardian  'gainst  evil  works, 
years  in  the  world 
waeu  thi«  was  done, 

•  Of 

and  then  in  the  tlnititth,  was 

hallowed  ruler. 
A.  974. 
A.  975. 

Here,  ended 

the  joys  of  earth, 

Edgar,  of  Angles  king 

chose  him  another  li"fht 
I  beauteous  and  winsome 

and  left  this  frail, 

this  barren  life. 

Children  of  men  name, 

men  on  the  earth, 

every  where,  that  month, 

in  this  land, 

those  who  erewhile  were 

in  the  art  of  numbers 

rightly  taught, 

July  month, 

when  the  youth  departed, 

on  the  eighth  day, 

Edgar,  from  life, 

bracelet  giver  to  heroes. 

And  then  his  son  succeeded 

to  the  kingdom, 

a  child  un-waxen, 

of  earls  the  prince. 

to  whom  was  Edward  name. 

And  him,  a  glorious  chief. 

ten  days  before, 

departed  from  Britain, 

the  good  bishop,* 

through  nature's  course, 

to  whom  was  Cyneward  nam  at 

Then  was  in  Mercia, 

as  I  have  heard, 

widely  and  every  where* 
I  the  glory  of  the  Lord 
I  laid  low  on  earth  : 
I  many  were  expelled. 




»age  servants  of  i.^ofl ; 

tliat  was  much  grief 

to  him  wlio  in  his  breast  bore 

a  burning  love 

of  the  Creator,  in  his  mind. 

Then  was  tl  le  Source  of  wonders 

too  oft  contemned ; 

the  Victor-lord, 

heaven's  Ruler.  [through 

Then    men    his     law    broke 

and  then  was  eke  driven  out, 

beloved  hero, 

Oslac  from  this  land, 

o'er  rolling  waters, 

o'er  the  ganet's-bath  ; 

hoary-haired  hero, 

wise  and  word-skilled, 

o'er  the  water's  throng, 

o'er  the  whale's  domain. 

(  of  home  bereaved. 
And  then  was  seen, 
high  in  the  heavens, 
a  star  in  the  firmament, 
which  lofty-souled 
men,  sage  minded, 
call  widely, 
cometa  by  name  ; 
men  skilled  in  arts, 
wise  truth-bearers. 
Throughout  mankind  was 
the  Lord's  vengeance 
widely  known, 
famine  o'er  earth. 
That  again  heaven's  Guardian, 
bettered.  Lord  of  angels, 
gave  again  bliss 
to  each  isle-dweller, 
through  earth's  fruits. 

A.  975.  The  8th  before  tlie  Ides  of  i  honoured  far, 


Here  Edgar  died, 
ruler  of  Angles, 
West- Saxons'  joy, 
and  Mercians*  protector. 

Known  was  it  widely 
throughout  many  nations. 
•  Thaet'  offspring  of  Edmund, 
o*er  the  ganet's-bath. 

Kings  him  widely 
bowed  to  the  king, 
as  was  his  due  by  kind. 

No  fleet  was  so  daring, 
nor  army  so  strong, 
that  'mid  the  English  nation 
took  from  him  aught, 
the  while  that  the  noble  king 
ruled  on  his  throne. 

And  this  year  Edward,  Edgar's  son,  succeeded  to  the  kingdom  ;  and  then 
Boon,  in  the  same  year,  during  harvest,  appeared  '  cometa'  the  star  ;  and 
then  came  in  the  fol'owinir  year  a  very  great  famine,  and  very  manifold 
commotions  among  the  English  people. 

whom  Edgar,  king,  ordered  crcwhile 
the  holy  bishop 

In  his  days, 

for  his  youth, 

God's  gainsay  ere 

God's  law  broke  ; 

Eldfere,  ealdorman, 

and  othw^  many  ; 

and  rule  monastic  qiiashed, 

and  minstei-s  dissolved, 

and  monks  drove  out, 

and  God's  servants  put  do^vn, 

Ethelwold  to  stablish  ; 

and  widows  they  plundered, 

many  times  and  oft  : 
^  and  many  unrighteonsnessee, 

and  evil  imjust-deeds 
j  arose  up  afterwards  . 
j  and  ever  after  that 
'  it  greatly  grew  in  evil. 

KaA  at  that  time  also,  was  Oslac  thcgreut  earl  banished  from  EogiAnd. 

A.XS.  976  079.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHIIONICLE.         85 

A-  976.  'I  Ms  year  was  the  great  famine  among  the  Enq^- 
lish  nation. 

A.  977.  This  year,  after  Easter,  was  the  great  council  at 
Kirtlington  ;  and  there  died  bishop  Sideman,  by  a  sudden 
death,  on  the  2d  before  the  Kalends  of  jMay.  He  wa^  bisliop  in 
Devonsliire,  and  he  desired  tliat  tlie  resting-place  of  his  body 
should  be  at  Crediton,  at  his  episcopal  seat.  Tlien  commanded 
king  Edward  and  archbishop  Dunstan  that  he  should  be  borne 
to  St.  Mary's  minster,  wliich  is  at  Abingdon  :  and  so  too  was 
it  done :  and  he  is  moreover  honourably  buried  on  the  north 
side,  in  St.  Paul's  chapel. 

A.  978.  Li  this  year  all  the  chief  '  witan'  of  the  English 
nation  fell  at  Calne  from  an  upper  cl] amber,  except  the  holy 
archbishop  Dunstan,  who  alone  supported  himself  upon  a 
beam  ;  and  there  some  were  grievously  maimed,  and  some 
did  not  escape  wnth  life.  In  this  year  was  King  Edward 
martyred  ;  and  Etiielred  the  etheling,  his  brother,  succeeded 
to  the  kingdom,  and  he  was  in  the  same  year  consecrated  kv:g. 
In  that  year  died  Alfwold  ;  he  was  bishop  of  Dorset,  and  his 
body  lies  in  the  minster  at  Sherborne. 

A.  979.  In  this  year  was  Ethelred  consecrated  king  at 
Kingston,  on  the  Sunday,  fourteen  days  after  Easter;  and 
there  were  at  his  consecration  two  archbishops,  and  ten  suffra- 
gan-bishops. That  same  year  was  seen  a  bloody  cloud,  often- 
times, in  the  likeness  of  hre  ;  and  it  w^as  mostly  apparent 
at  midnight,  and  so  in  various  beams  was  coloured  :  when  it 
began  to  dawn,  then  it  glided  away. 

A.  979.  This  year  was  king  Edward  slain  at  even-tide,  at  Cni-fe-cate, 
on  the  15th  before  the  Kalends  of  April,  and  then  was  he  buried  at  \V?re- 
ham,  without  any  kind  of  kingly  honours. 

There  has  not  been  'mid  Angles 

a  worse  deed  done 

than  this  was, 

since  they  first 

Britain-land  sought. 

Men  him  murdered, 

but  God  him  glorified. 

He  was  in  life 

an  earthly  king  ; 

he  is  now  after  death 

a  heavenly  saint. 

Hmi  would  not  his  earthly 

k.m*men  a  venire, 

but  Ixim  hath  heavenly  Father 

greatly  avenged. 

The  earthly  murderers 

would  his  memory 

on  eartli  blot  out, 

but  the  lofty  A  venger 

hath  his  memory 

in  the  heavens 

and  on  earth  wide-spread. 

They  who  would  not  ere  while 

to  his  living 

body  bow  down, 

they  now  humbly 

on  knees  bend 

to  his  deaA  hones. 

86        THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICt.E.   a.d.  gso^m 

and  their  councils, 
are  like  nought 
'gainst  God's  resolves. 

Now  we  may  understand 
that  men's  wisdom 
And  their  devices, 

This  year  Ethelred  succeeded  to  the  kingdom  ;  and  he  was  very  qujcKly 
after  that,  with  much  joy  of  the  English  witan,  consecrated  king  at  Kingston. 

A.  980.  In  this  year  abbat  Ethelgar*  was  consecrated 
bishop  on  the  6th  before  the  Nones  of  May,  to  the  episcopal  seat 
at  Selsey.  And  in  the  same  year  was  Southampton  ravaged 
by  a  ship-force,  and  the  most  part  of  the  townsmen  shiin,  and 
led  captive.  And  that  same  year  was  Thanet-land  ravag(^ 
by  a  sliip  force,  and  tlie  most  part  of  the  townsmen  slain, 
and  led  captive.  And  that  same  year  was  Legecester-shire 
rChester]  ravaged  by  a  northern  ship-force.  In  this  year  St. 
Dunstan  and  Alfere  the  ealdorman  fetched  the  holy  king^s 
body,  vSt.  Edward's,  from  Wareham,  and  bore  it  with  much 
solemnity  to  Shaftsbury. 

A.  981.  In  this  year  St.  Petroc's-stowe  [Padstow]  wa3 
ravaged  ;  and  that  same  year  was  much  harm  done  every- 
where by  the  sea-coast,  as  well  among  the  men  of  Devon  as 
among  the  Welsh.  And  in  the  same  year  died  Elfstan 
bishop  of  Wiltshire,  and  his  body  lies  in  the  minster  at 
Abingdon  ;  and  Wulfgar  then  succeeded  to  the  bishopric. 
And  in  the  same  year  died  abbat  Womaref  at  Ghent. 

A.  981.  This  year  came  first  the  seven  ships,  and  ravaged  Southampton. 

A.  982.  In  this  year  landed  among  the  men  of  Dorset 
three  ships  of  pirates  ;  and  they  ravaged  in  Portland.  That 
same  year  London  was  burnt ;  and  in  the  same  year  died  two 
ealdormen,  Ethelmer  in  Hampshire,  and  Edwin  in  Sussex  ; 
and  Ethelmer's  body  lies  at  Winchester,  in  the  New-minster, 
and  Edwin's  in  the  minster  at  Abingdon.  This  same  year 
died  two  abbesses  in  Dorset,  Herelufu  at  Shaftesbury,  and 
Wulfwina  at  Wareham.  And  that  same  year  went  Otho  the 
Koman  emperor  to  Greek-land  [Calabria],  and  there  met  he  a 
large  force  of  Saracens,  coming  up  from  the  sea,  and  they  would 
then  go  plundering  the  Christian  people.  And  then  the  Empe- 
ror fought  against  them,  and  there  was  great  slaughter  made 
on  either  hand ;  and  the  emperor  had  possession  of  the  place  oi 
tarnage  :  and  nevertheless  he  was  there  much  harassed  be- 
fore he  turned  thence  :  and  as  he  homeward  went,  then  died 

♦  Of  New-minstet.  t  Of  St.  Peter's. 

A.D.983  991.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.         87 

his  brother's  son,  who  was  named  Otho,  and   he  was  Jjeo 
dulf  the  etheling's  son,  and  Leodulf  was  the  elder  Otho's 
»on  and  king  Edward's  daughter's  son. 

A.  983.  This  year  died  Alfere  the  ealdorman,  and 
Alfi'ic  succeeded  to  the  same  ealdorman-ship.*  And  Pope 
Benedict  [VH.]  died. 

A.  984.  This  year  died  the  benevolent  bishop  of  Winches- 
ter, Ethelwold,  father  of  monks,  on  the  Kalends  of  August ; 
and  the  consecration  of  the  succeeding  bishop,  Elphege  [II.], 
wlio  by  another  name  was  called  Godwin,  was  on  the  14th 
before  the  Kalends  of  November  ;  and  he  took  the  episcoj)al 
seat  at  Winchester,  on  the  day  of  the  two  apostles  Simon 
and  Jude. 

A.  985.  This  year  was  Alfric  the  eoldorman  banished  the 
land.  And  in  the  same  year  was  Edwin  consecrated  abbat 
of  the  minster  at  Abingdon. 

A.  986.  This  year  the  king  laid  waste  the  bishopric  of 
Rochester.  Tliis  year  first  came  the  great  murrain  among 
cattle  in  the  English  nation. 

A.  987. 

A.  988.  This  year  was  Watchet  ravaged,  and  Goda,  the 
Devonshire  thane,  slain,  and  with  him  much  slaughter  made. 
And  this  year  departed  the  holy  archbishop  Dunstan,  and 
passed  to  the  heavenly  life  :  and  bishop  Ethelgarf  succeeded, 
after  him,  to  the  archbisliopric  ;J  and  little  while  after  that 
he  lived,  but  one  year  and  three  months. 

A.  989. 

A.  990.  This  year  Siric  was  consecrated  archbishop.  § 
and  aftPl■^v  Hrds  went  to  Rome  for  his  pall.  And  abbat  Ead- 
win||  dic<i ;   and  abbat  "Wulfgar  succeeded  to  the  abbacy. 

A.  991.  This  year  was  Ipswich  ravaged;  and  after  that, 
very  shortly,  was  Britnoth  the  ealdorman  slain  at  Maldon. 
And  in  that  year  it  was  decreed  that  tribute,  ^or  the  fii'st 
time,  should  be  given  to  the  Danish-men,  on  account  of  the 
great  terror  which  they  caused  by  the  sea-coast  ;  that  was  at 
first  ten  thousand  pounds  :  this  counsel  was  first  given  by 
archbishop  Siric. 

A.  992.  This  year  Oswald  the  holy  archbishop^  left  -"his, 
and  passed  to  the  heavenly  life:  and  Ethel  win  the  eald^oi'' 

«    Me-oiK-  f  OfSelsey.  j  Of  Canterburv 

i  Oi  Canterbury.      1|  Of  Abingdon.  %  Of  York. 

88        THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,  a.d.  992-993. 

man*  died  in  the  same  year.  Then  decreed  the  king  and 
all  his  witan  that  all  the  ships  which  were  worth  anytliing 
should  be  gathered  together  at  London.  And  the  king  then 
committed  the  forces  to  the  leading  of  Elfric  the  ealdorman, 
and  of  Thorod  the  earl,  and  of  bishop  Elfstan,f  and  of 
bishop  Escwj;J  and  they  were  to  try  if  they  could  any 
where  betrap  the  army  about.  Then  sent  the  ealdorman 
Elfric  and  directed  the  army  to  be  warned ;  and  then  during 
the  night  of  which  they  should  have  joined  battle  by  day, 
then  fled  he  by  night  from  the  forces,  to  his  great  disgrace : 
and  the  army  then  escaped,  except  one  ship,  whose  crew 
was  there  slain.  And  then  the  ships  from  East-Anglia,  and 
from  London  met  the  army,  and  there  tliey  made  great 
slaughter  of  them ;  and  took  the  ship,  all  armed  and  equip- 
ped, in  which  the  ealdorman  was.  And  then  after  the  de- 
cease of  archbishop  Oswald,  abbat  Aldulf,  of  Peterborough, 
succeeded  to  the  bishopric  of  York,  and  of  Worcester  ;  and 
Kenulf  to  the  abbacy  of  Peterborough. 

A.  992.  This  year  Oswald  the  blessed  archbishop  died,  and  Abbat 
Eadulf  succeeded  to  York  and  to  Worcester.  And  this  year  the  king  and 
all  his  witan  decreed  that  all  the  ships  which  were  worth  anytliing  sliould  he 
gathered  together  at  London,  in  order  that  they  might  try  if  they  could 
any  where  betrap  the  army  from  without.  But  yElfric  the  ealdonnan,  one 
of  those  in  whom  the  king  had  most  confidence,  directed  the  army  to  be 
warned;  and  in  the  night,  as  they  should  on  the  morrow  have  joined  battle, 
the  self-same  iElfric  fled  from  the  forces;  and  then  the  axmy  escaped. 

A.  993.  In  this  year  was  Bambrough  entered  by  storm, 
and  much  booty  there  taken.  And  after  that  the  army  came 
to  the  mouth  of  the  Humber,  and  there  wrought  much  evil, 
as  well  in  Lindsey  as  in  Northumbria.  Then  a  very  large 
force  was  gathered  together ;  and  as  they  should  have  joined 
battle,  then  the  leadei's,  first  of  all,  began  the  flight;  that 
was  Frene,  and  Godwin,  and  Frithgist.  In  tliis  year  the 
king  ordered  Elfgar,  son  of  Elfric  the  ealdorman,  to  be 

A.  993.  In  this  year  came  Olave  with  ninety-three  ships  to  Staines,  and 
ravaged  there  about,  and  then  went  thence  to  Sandwich,  and  so  thence  to 
IjKswicli,  and  that  ail  over-ran;  and  so  to  Maldon.  And  there  liritnoth 
the  cAidornian  came  against  tliem  with  his  forces,  and  fought  against  them: 
and  they  there  slew  the  etildorman,  and  had  possession  of  tlie  place  of 

•  Of  E.  Anglia.  +  Of  London.  $  Of  Dor.he8t«r. 

A.I).  994-095.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.         89 

ciiniHi^e.  Ami  ;irttT  that  jieiice  wjm  made  with  them;  and  hnn  [Anlat ) 
the  king  afterwards  received  at  the  bishop's  hands,  through  the  instruclinn 
of  Siric  bishop  of  the  Kentish-men,  and  of  ^Iphtge  [II.]  of  Winche»t<.>r. 

A.  994.  In  this  year  came  Olave  and  Sweyn  to  London, 
on  the  nativity  of  St.  Mary,  with  ninety-four  ships;  and 
they  then  continued  fit^liting  stoutly  against  the  city,  and 
would  also  have  set  fire  to  it.  But  they  there  sustained 
more  harm  and  evil  than  they  ever  supposed  that  any  citizens 
would  be  able  to  do  unto  them.  But  the  holy  mother 
of  God,  on  that  day,  shewed  her  mercy  to  the  citizens 
and  delivered  them  from  their  foes.  And  they  then  went 
tlience,  and  wrought  the  utmost  evil  that  ever  any  army 
could  do,  by  burning,  and  plundering,  and  by  man-slaying, 
both  by  the  sea-coast  and  among  the  East- Saxons,  and  in 
the  land  of  Kent,  and  in  Sussex,  and  in  Hampshire.  And 
at  last  they  took  to  themselves  horses,  and  rode  as  far  as 
they  would,  and  continued  doing  unspeakable  evil.  Then 
the  king  and  his  witan  decreed  that  they  should  be  sent  to, 
and  promised  tribute  and  food,  on  condition  that  they  should 
cease  from  their  plundering  :  which  terms  they  accepted. 
And  then  all  the  army  came  to  Southampton,  and  there 
took  up  their  winter-quarters:  and  there  they  were  vic- 
tualled from  all  the  realm  of  the  West- Saxons,  and  they 
were  paid  sixteen  thousand  pounds  of  money.  Then  the 
king  sent  bishop  Elpliege  [II  ]*  and  Ethelwerd  the  ealdorman 
after  king  Olave,  and  the  while,  hostages  were  delivered  to 
the  ships;  and  they  then  led  Olave  with  much  worship  to 
the  king  at  Andover.  And  king  Ethelred  received  him  at 
the  bishop's  hands,  and  royally  gifted  him.  And  then  Olave 
made  a  covenant  with  him,  even  as  he  also  fulfilled,  that  he 
never  again  would  come  hostilely  to  the  English  nation. 

A.  995.  In  this  year  appeared  *cometa,'  the  star,  and 
archbishop  Sigic  died:  and  Alfric  bishop  of  Wiltshire! 
was  chosen  J  on  Easter-day,  at  Amef^bury,  by  king  Ethelred 
and  by  all  his  witan.  This  Alfric  was  a  very  wise  man,  so 
that  there  was  no  sager  man  in  England.  Then  went  Alfric 
to  his  arcliiepiscopal  seat ;  and  when  he  came  thither  he  was 
received  by  those  men  in  orders  who  were  most  unacceptable 
to  him,  that  was,  by  clerks.  And  soon  (he  sent  for)  all  the 
wisest  men  he  anywhere  knew  of,  and  also  the  old  men  who 

•  Of  Winchester.         t  Ai\erward«  Saliabu.-j.         I  To  Cantcrbuiy. 

90  THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,     a.d.  095. 

tverc  able  to  say  the  soothest  how  each  thing  had  been  in 
this  land  in  the  days  of  their  elders;  in  addition  to  what 
himself  had  learned  from  books  and  from  wise  men.  Him 
told  the  very  old  men,  as  well  clergy  as  laity,  that  their 
elders  had  told  them  how  it  had  been  established  by  law 
so{m  after  St.  Augustine  came  to  this  land.  When  Augus- 
tine had  obtained  the  bishopric  in  the  city,*  then  was  he 
archbishop  over  all  king  Ethelbert's  kingdom,  as  it  is  re- 
lated in  Historia  Anglorumf make  (a  bishop's)  see  l)y 

the  king's  aid  in  ...  .  was  begun  by  the  old  Romans  ...  and 
to  sprout  forth.  In  that  company  the  foremost  were  Mel- 
li  tus,  Justus,  Paulinus,  Rufinianus.  By  these  sent  the  blesst-d 
pope  the  pall,  and  therewith  a  letter,  and  instruction  how  he 
should  consecrate  bishops,  and  in  which  place  in  Britain  he 
should  seat  them.  And  to  the  king  (also)  he  sent  letters 
and  many  worldly  gifts  of  divers  things.  And  the  churches 
which  they  had  got  ready  he  commanded  to  be  consecrated  in 
the  name  of  our  Lord  and  Saviour  Christ  and  St.  Mary; 
and  for  himself  there  fix  a  dwelling-place,  and  for  all  his 
after-followers;  and  that  he  (should)  place  therein  men  of 
the  same  order  that  he  had  sent  thither,  and  of  which  he 

himself  was,  and  also  that  each monks  who  should 

fill  the  archi episcopal  seat  at  Canterbury,  and  that  be  ever 
observed  by  God's  leave  and  blessing  and  by  St.  Peter's,  and 
by  all  who  came  after  him.  When  this  embassy  came  again 
to  king  Egelbert  and  to  Augustine,  they  were  very  pleased 
with  such  instruction.  And  the  archbishop  then  conse- 
crated the  minster  in  Christ's  name  and  St.  Mary's,  (on) 
the  day  which  is  called  the  mass-day  of  the  two  martyrs, 
Primus  et  Felicianus,  and  there  within  placed  monks  all  as 
St.  Gregory  commanded :  and  they  God's  service  continently 
performed ;  and  from  the  same  monks  bishops  were  taken  for 

each as  thou  mayst  read  in  Historia  Anglorum.  J    Then 

was  archbishop  Alfric  very  blithe,  that  he  had  so  many  wit- 
nesses (who)  stood  best  at  that  time  with  the  king.  Still 
more,  the  same  witan  who  were  with  the  archbishop  said: 
Thus  also  we  ....  monks  have  continued  at  Christ-Church 
during  Augustine's  days,  and  during  Laurentius',  Mellitus*, 
Justus',  Honorius',  Deusdedit,  Theodore's,  Berthwold's,  Tat» 
wine's,  Nothelm's,  Cuthbert's,  Bregwine's,  Lambert's,  . . ,  . 
Cantertur/.  f  Bedoi  b.  L  c.  25.  *  Bede,  b.  i.  c.  33^ 


i\  thelixrd's,  Wulfred's,  Theologild's.  But  the  (first)  year  whea 
Ceoliioth  came  to  the  archbishopric,  there  was  such  a  mor- 
tidity  that  there  remained  no  more  than  five  monks  within 
Christ-Church.  During  all  his  time  there  was  war  and  sor- 
row in  this  Land,  so  that  no  man  could  think  of  anything  else 

but Now,  God  be  thanked,  it  is  in  the  king's  power 

and  thine,  whether  they  may  be  longer  there  within,  because 
they  (might)  never  better  be  brouglit  thereout  than  now  may 
be  done,  if  it  is  the  king's  will  and  thine.  The  archbishop 
then,  without  any  staying,  with  all  (these)  men,  went  anon 
to  the  king  and  showed  liim  all,  so  as  we  here  before  have 
related.  Then  was  the  king  very  glad  (at  these)  tidings 
and  said  to  the  archbishop  and  to  the  others,  'It  seemeth 
advisable  to  me  that  thou  shouldst  go  first  of  all  to  Rome 
after  thy  (pall,  and  that)  thou  show  to  the  pope  all  this,  and, 
after  that,  act  by  his  counsel:'  And  they  all  answered,  that 
that  was  the  best  counsel.  When  (the  priests)  heai'd  this, 
then  resolved  they  that  they  should  take  two  from  amon^ 
themselves  and  send  to  the  pope ;  and  they  should  ofier  him 
great  gifts  and  silver,  on  condition  that  he  should  give  them 
the  arch(-pall).  But  when  they  came  to  Rome,  then  would 
not  the  pope  do  that,  because  they  brought  him  no  letter 
either  from  the  king  or  from  the  people,  and  commanded 
them  to  go,  lo !  where  they  would.  (So  soon  as)  the  priests 
had  gone  thence,  came  archbishop  Alfric  to  Rome,  and  the 
pope  received  Ifim  with  mucn  worship,  and  commanded  him 
on  the  morrow  to  perform  mass  at  St.  Peter's  altar,  and  the 
pope  himself  put  on  him  his  own  pall,  and  greatly  honoured 
him.  When  this  was  done,  the  archbishop  began  telling  the 
pope  all  about  the  clerks,  how  it  had  happened,  and  how 
they  were  within  the  minster  at  his  archbishopric.  And 
the  pope  related  to  him  again  how  the  priests  had  come  to 
him,  and  offered  great  gifts,  in  order  that  he  should  give 
them  the  paU.  And  the  pope  said,  *  Go  now  to  England 
again  with  God's  blessing,  and  St.  Peter's  and  mine ;  and  as 
thou  comest  home,  place  in  thy  minster  men  of  that  order 
which  St.  Gregorius  commanded  Augustine  therein  to  place, 
by  God's  command,  and  St.  Peter's  and  mine.'  Then  the 
archbishop  with  this  returned  to  England.  As  soon  as  he 
came  home,  he  entered  his  archiepiscopal  seat,  and  aft<ir  tliat 
went  to  the  (king)  and  the  king  and  all  his  people  thanked 

92         THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,   a. d.  996-999. 

God  for  his  return,  and  that  he  so  had  succeeded  as  was 
pleasing  to  them  all.  He  then  went  again  to  Canterbury, 
and  drove  the  clerks  out  of  the  minster,  and  there  within 
placed  monks,  all  as  the  pope  commanded  him. 

A.  996.  In  this  year  wiis  Alfric  consecrated  archbishop 
to  Chript-Church.*  This  year  was  Wulstan  ordained  bishop 
of  London. 

A.  997.  In  this  year  the  army  went  about  Devonshire 
mto  Severn-mouth,  and  there  ravaged,  as  well  among  the 
C<:)rnish-men  as  among  the  North- Welsh,  and  among  the 
men  of  Devon  ;  and  then  landed  at  Watchet,  and  there 
wrought  much  evil  by  burning  and  by  man-slaying.  And 
after  that  they  again  went  about  Penwithstert,  on  the  south 
side,  and  went  then  into  the  mouth  of  the  Tamar,  and  then 
went  up  until  they  came  to  Liddyford,  and  bui-ned  and  de- 
stroyed every  tiling  which  they  met  with  ;  and  they  burned 
Ordulf's  minster  at  Tavistock,  and  brought  unspeakable 
booty  with  them  to  their  ships.  This  year  ai'chbishop  Al- 
fric went  to  Rome  after  his  arch-pall. 

A.  998.  This  year  the  army  went  again  eastward  into 
Frome-mouth,  and  everywhere  there  they  went  up  as  far  as 
they  would  into  Dorset.  And  forces  were  often  gatliered 
against  them  ;  but,  as  soon  as  they  should  have  joined  battle, 
then  was  there  ever,  through  some  cause,  flight  begun  ;  and 
in  the  end  they  ever  had  the  victory.  And  then  at  another 
time  they  sat  down  in  the  Isle  of  Wight,  and  got  their  food 
the  while  from  Hampsliire  and  from  Sussex. 

A.  999.  This  year  the  army  again  came  about  into 
Thames,  and  went  then  up  along  the  Medway,  and  to 
Rochester.  And  then  the  Kentish  forces  came  there  to  meet 
them,  and  they  there  stoutly  joined  battle  r  but  alas  !  that 
they  too  quickly  yielded  and  fled  ;  for  they  had  not  the  sup- 
port which  they  should  have  had.  And  the  Danish-men 
had  possession  of  the  place  of  carnage  ;  and  then  they  took 
horse  and  rode  wheresoever  they  themselves  would,  and  full 
nigh  all  the  West-Kentish  men  they  ruined  and  plundered. 
Then  the  king,  with  his  witan,  decreed  that,  with  a  ship 
force  and  also  with  a  land  force,  they  should  be  attacked. 
But  when  th«;  shipswere  ready,  tlien  the  miserable  crew  delayed 
Irom  day  to  day,  and  distressed  the  poor  people  who  la,j  in 
•  Canterbury. 

A.D.  1000. 1001.  THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.      93 

the  ships  :  and  ever  su*  it  should  have  been  forwarder,  so  was 
it  later  from  one  time  to  another  ;  and  ever  tliey  let  their 
enemies*  forces  increase,  and  ever  the  people  retired  from  tlie 
sea.  and  they  ever  went  forth  after  them.  And  then  in  the 
end,  these  expeditions  both  by  sea  and  land  effected  nothiniz;, 
except  tlie  people's  distress  and  waste  of  money,  and  the 
emboldening  of  their  foes. 

A.  1000.  In  this  year  the  king  went  into  Cumberland, 
and  ravaged  it  well  nigh  all.  And  his  ships  went  out  about 
Chester,  and  should  have  come  to  meet  him,  but  they  were 
not  able  .  then  ravaged  they  Anglesey.  And  the  hostile 
fleet  went  tliis  summer  to  Richard's  dominions.* 

A.   1001.  In  this  year  was  much  hostility  in  the  land  of 
the  English  through  the  ship-force,   and  well  nigh  every 
where   they   ravaged   and   burned,   so   that   they  advanced 
in  one  course  until  they  came  to  the  town  of  Alton  ;  and 
then  there  came  against  them  the  men  of  Hampshire,  and 
fought  against  them.     And  there  was  Ethelwerd  the  king's 
high-steward  slain,  and  Leofric  at  Whitchurcli,  and  Leot'win 
the  king's  liigh-steward,  and  Wulfhere  the  bishop's  thane,  and 
Godwin  at  Worthy,  bishop   Elfsy's    son,f  and  of  all  men, 
one  and  eighty  ;  and  there  were  of  the  Danish-men  many 
more  slain,  though  they  had  possession  of  the  place  of  car- 
nage.    And   they   went   thence   west   until   they    came   to 
Devon  ;  and  there  Paley  came  to  meet  them,  with  the  ships 
which  he  could  gather,  because  he  had  fled  from  king  Ethel- 
red,  contrary  to  all  the  plighted  troth  that  he  had  given  him  ; 
and  the  king  had  also  well  gifted  him  with  houses,  and  with 
gold  and  with  silver.     And  they  burned  Teignton,  and  also 
many  other  good  towns  which  we  are  unable  to  name  ;  and 
thei'e,   aftervk^ards,  peace  was  made  with  them.     And  they 
tlien  went  thence  to  Exmouth,  so  that  they  proceeded  up- 
wards in  one  course  until   they  came  to  Pen  :    and   there 
Cole  the  king's  high-reve,  and  Edsy  the  king*s-reve,  went 
against  them  with  the  forces  which  they  were  able  to  gather 
together  ;  and  they  there  were  put  to  flight,  and  there  were 
many  slain  :  and  the  Danish-men  had  possession  of  the  place 
of  carnage.     And  the  morning  after,  they  burned  the  villag<» 
of  Pen  and  at  Clifton,  and  also  many  goodly  towns  which  we 
are  unnble  to  name,  and  then  went  again  east  until  thtf^ 
•  Kormandj.  f  gee  A.  1032  below. 

94      THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,   a. d.  1002, 1003. 

came  to  the  Isle  of  Wiirht ;  and  on  the  morning  after,  they 
bu'-iied  the  town  at  Waltham,  and  many  other  small  townis 
and  soon  after  a  treaty  was  entered  into  with  them,  and  they 
made  peace. 

A.  1001.  This  year  the  army  came  to  Exmouth,  and  then  went  up  to 
the  town,  and  there  continued  figliting  stoiitly  ;  but  they  were  very  strenu- 
ously resisted.  Then  went  they  tlirough  the  land,  and  did  all  as  was  their 
wont  ;  destroyed  and  burnt.  Then  was  collected  a  vast  force  of  the  peo- 
ple of  Devonand  of  the  people  of  Somerset,  and  they  then  came  together 
at  Pen,  And  so  soon  as  they  joined  battle,  then  the  people  gave 
way  :  and  there  they  made  great  slaughter,  and  then  they  rode  over  the 
land,  and  their  last  incursion  was  ever  worse  than  the  one  before  :  and  then 
thev  brought  much  booty  with  them  to  their  ships.  And  thence  they  went 
into  the  Isle  of  Wight,  and  there  they  roved  about,  even  as  they  themselves 
would,  and  nothing  withstood  them  :  nor  any  fleet  by  sea  durst  meet  them  ; 
nor  land  force  either,  went  they  ever  so  far  up.  Then  was  it  in  every 
wise  a  heavy  time,  because  they  never  ceased  from  their  evil  doings. 

A.  1002.  In  this  year  the  king  decreed,  and  his  witan, 
that  tribute  should  be  paid  to  the  fleet,  and  peace  made  with 
them,  on  condition  that  they  should  cease  from  their  evil- 
doings.  Then  sent  the  king  to  the  fleet  Leofsy  the 
caldorman  ;  and  he  then  settled  a  truce  with  them  by  the 
king's  word,  and  his  witan's,  and  that  they  should  receive 
food  and  tribute.  And  that  they  then  accepted  :  and  then 
were  they  paid  twenty-four  thousand  pounds.  Then  during 
this,  Leofsy  the  ealdorman  slew  Eafy  the  king's  high-steward ; 
and  the  king  then  banished  him  ilie  land.  And  then  m  the 
same  Lent  came  the  lady,  Richard's  *  daughter,  Emma 
Elfgive,  hither  to  land  :  and  in  the  same  summer  archbishop 
Aldulf  f  died.  And  in  that  year  the  king  ordered  all  the 
Danish-men  who  were  in  England  to  be  slain.  This  was 
done  on  St.  Brice's  mass-day  ;  because  it  was  made  known 
to  the  king  that  they  would  treacherously  bereave  him  of  his 
life,  and  afterwards  all  his  witan  ;  and  after  that  have  his 
kingdom  without  any  gainsaying. 

A.  1003.  This  year  was  Exeter  entered  by  storm,  through 
tlie  French  churl  Hugh,  whom  the  J  lady  had  appointed  her 
steward:  and  then  the  army  entirely  ruined  the  town,  and 
there  took  much  booty.  And  in  the  same  year  the  army 
went  up  into  Wiltshire.  Then  was  gathered  a  very  large 
force    from    Wiltsliire    and    from    Hampshire,    and    very 

•  Duke  of  Normandy.         f  Of  York  J  Lmma. 

A.D.  1004, 1005.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.      95 

rr^solutely  tliey  came  in  presence  of  the  army.  Thee  should 
tke  ealdonnan  Elt'ric  have  led  the  forces,  but  he  then  had 
recourse  to  his  old  devices :  as  soon  as  they  were  so  near  that 
either  amiy  could  look  on  the  other,  then  feigned  he  himself 
sick,  and  began  by  retching  to  spew,  and  said  that  he  was 
grievously  ill :  and  thus  deceived  the  people  whom  he  should 
have  led  ;  as  it  is  said  :  When  tlie  leader  groweth  feeble, 
then  is  all  the  army  greatly  liindered.  When  S^veyn  saw 
that  they  were  not  unanimous,  and  that  they  all  separated, 
then  led  he  his  army  into  Milton ;  and  they  spoiled  the  town, 
and  burned  it ;  and  he  went  then  to  Salisbury,  and  thence 
went  to  the  sea  again,  where  he  knew  that  his  sea-horses 

A.  1004.  Tliis  year  came  Sweyn  with  his  fleet  to 
Norwich,  and  entirely  spoiled  and  burned  the  town.  Then 
decreed  Ulfkytel,  with  the  witan  of  East-Anglia,  that  it  were 
better  that  they  should  purchase  peace  of  the  army  before 
they  did  very  much  harm  in  the  land  ;  because  they  had 
come  unawares,  and  he  had  not  time  that  he  might  gather 
his  forces.  Then  during  the  truce  which  ought  to  have  been 
between  them,  then  stole  the  army  up  from  their  ships,  and 
went  their  way  to  Thetford.  When  Ulfkytel  understood 
that,  then  sent  he  word  that  the  ships  should  be  hewed  in 
pieces,  but  they  in  whom  he  trusted  failed  to  do  it,  and  he 
then  gathered  his  forces  secretly,  as  he  best  might.  And 
the  army  then  came  to  Thetford,  within  three  weeks  of  their 
having  before  plundered  Norwich,  and  were  one  day  there 
witliin,  and  plundered  and  burned  the  town.  And  then  on  tlie 
morrow,  as  they  would  have  gone  to  their  ships,  then  came 
Ulfkytel  with  his  band,  in  order  that  they  might  there  join 
battle  with  them.  And  they  there  stoutly  joined  battle, 
and  much  slaughter  was  there  made  on  either  hand.  There 
were  the  chief  among  the  East-Anglian  people  slain  ;  but  if 
the  full  force  there  had  been,  they  never  again  had  gone  to 
their  ships  ;  inasmuch  as  they  themselves  said,  that  they 
never  had  met  a  worse  hand-play  among  the  English  nation 
than  Ulfkytel  had  brought  to  them. 

A.  1005.  In  this  year  was  the  great  famine  throughout 
the  English  nation  ;  such,  that  no  man  ever  before  recollected 
one  so  grim.  And  the  fleet  in  this  year  went  from  this  land 
lo  Donmark  ;  ar.d  staid  but  a  little  space  ere  it  came  again. 

96  THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,    a.d.  looe. 

A.  1006  Tliis  year  died  archbishop  Alfric,  and  after  him 
bishop  Elphege  [11.]  succeeded  to  tiie  arclibishopnc  :*  and  bi* 
»hop  Brithwin  succeeded  to  the  bishopric  of  Wiltshire."!"  And 
in  the  same  year  was  Vv'ulfgeat  deprived  of  all  his  possessions, 
and  Wulfeah  and  Ufgeat  were  blinded,  and  Elfelm  the 
ealdorman  was  slain  ;  and  bishop  Kenulf  J  died.  And  then^ 
after  mid-summer,  then  came  the  great  fleet  to  Sandwich,  and 
did  all  as  they  had  been  before  wont  ;  they  ravaged,  and 
burned,  and  destroyed,  wherever  they  went.  Then  the  king 
commanded  all  the  people  of  Wessex  and  of  Mercia  to  be 
called  out ;  and  then  tliey  lay  out  all  the  harvest  in  the  field 
against  the  army.  But  it  availed  notliing  the  more  than  it 
oft  before  had  done :  but  for  all  this  the  army  went 
wheresoever  itself  would,  and  the  forces  did  every  kind  of 
harm  to  the  inhabitants  ;  so  that  neither  profited  them,  nor 
the  home  army  nor  the  foreign  army.  When  it  became 
winter,  then  went  the  forces  home ;  and  the  army  then  came, 
over  St.  Martin's-mass,  to  their  quarters  in  the  Isle  of  ^Vight, 
and  procured  themselves  there  from  all  parts  that  which  they 
needed.  And  then,  at  mid-winter,  they  went  to  their  ready 
store,  throughout  Hampshire  into  Berkshire,  to  Reading: 
and  they  did  their  old  wont ;  they  lighted  their  war-beacons 
as  they  went.  Then  went  they  to  "V^'allingford,  and  that  all 
burned,  and  were  then  one  day  in  Gholsey :  and  they  went 
then  along  Ashdown  to  Cuckamsley-hill,  and  there  abode, 
as  a  daring  boast ;  for  it  had  been  often  said,  if  they  should 
reach  Cuckamsley-liill,  that  they  would  never  again  get  to 
the  sea  :  then  they  went  homewards  another  way.  Then 
were  forces  assembled  at  Kennet,  and  they  there  joined  battle  • 
and  they  soon  brought  that  band  to  flight,  and  afterwards 
carried  their  booty  to  the  sea.  But  there  might  the 
Winchester-men  see  an  army  daring  and  fearless,  as  they 
went  by  their  gates  towards  the  sea,  and  fetched  themselves 
food  and  treasures  over  fifty  miles  from  the  sea.  Then  had 
the  king  gone  over  Thames  into  Slu-opshire,  and  there  took 
his  abode  during  the  mid-winter's  tide.  Then  became  the 
dread  of  the  army  so  great,  that  no  man  could  think  or 
discover  how  they  could  be  driven  out  of  the  land,  or  tliis 
land  maintained  against  them  ;  for  they  had  every  shire  ir 

*  Of  Canterbi.rv.  f  Afterwards  the  dic^ceflc  of  Salisbuiy. 

t  Of  Wincherter. 

A.D.  1006-1009.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.      97 

Wessex  sadlj  marked,  by  burning  and  by  plundering.  Then 
the  king  began  eai*nestly  with  ^jis  witan  to  consider  what 
mi^ht  seem  most  advisable  to  them  all,  so  that  this  land 
might  be  saved,  before  it  was  utterly  destroyed.  Then  the 
king  and  his  witan  decreed,  for  the  behoof  of  the  whole 
nation,  though  it  was  hateful  to  them  all,  that  they  needs 
must  pay  tribute  to  the  army.  Then  the  king  sent  "^o  the 
army,  and  directed  it  to  be  made  known  to  them,  that  he 
would  that  there  should  be  a  truce  between  them,  and  that 
tribute  should  be  paid,  and  food  given  them.  And  then  all 
that  they  accepted  :  and  then  were  they  victualled  from 
throughout  the  English  nation. 

A.  1006.  This  year  Elphege  [II.]  was  consecrated  archbishop.* 

A.  1007.  Li  this  year  was  the  tribute  delivered  to  the 
army,  that  was  thirty-six  thousand  pounds.  In  this  year 
also  was  Edric  appointed  ealdorman  over  the  kingdom  of 
Mercia.  This  year  bishop  Elphege  went  to  Rome  after  his 

A.  1008.  This  year  the  king  commanded  that  ships  should 
be  speedily  built  throughout  the  English  nation  :  that  is  then, 
from  three  hundred  hides  and  from  ten  hides,  one  vessel ;  and 
from  eight  hides,  a  helmet  and  a  coat  of  mail. 

A.  1009.  In  this  year  were  the  ships  ready  about  which 
we  before  spake  ;  and  there  were  so  many  of  them  as  never 
before,  according  as  books  say  unto  us,  had  been  among  the 
English  nation  in  any  king's  days.  And  they  were  all 
brought  together  to  Sandwich,  and  there  they  were  to  lie 
and  defend  this  land  against  every  foreign  army.  But  still 
we  had  not  the  good  fortune  nor  the  worthiness,  that  the 
ship-force  could  be  of  any  use  to  this  land,  any  more  than  it 
oft  before  had  been.  Then  befell  it  at  this  same  time,  or  a 
little  before,  that  Brihtric,  Edric  the  ealdorman's  brother, 
accused  [of  treason]  to  the  king  Wulfnoth  the  "  child  "  of  the 
South- Saxons,  father  of  Godwin  the  earl.  He  then  went  out, 
and  enticed  ships  unto  him,  until  he  had  twenty ;  and  he  then 
ravaged  every  where  by  the  south  coast,  and  wrought  every 
kind  of  evil.  Then  it  was  told  unto  the  ship-forces  that 
they  might  be  easily  taken,  if  they  would  go  about  it.  Then 
Brihtric  took  with  him  eighty  ships,  and  thought  that  he 
fthouid  acquire  griat  fame  if  he  could  seize  Wulfncth  alive 
•  Of  Canterbury.  „ 

98  TH]]]  AKGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,    a.d.  im 

or  dead.  But  as  they  were  on  their  way  thither,  then  cAme 
such  a  wind  against  them  as  no  man  before  remembered,  and 
the  ships  it  then  utterly  beat,  and  smashed  to  pieces,  and 
cast  upon  the  land ;  and  soon  came  Wulfnoth,  and  burned 
the  ships.  When  this  was  thus  known  in  the  other  ships 
where  the  king  was,  how  the  others  had  fared,  tlien  was  it  as 
if  it  had  been  all  hopeless  ;  and  the  king  went  his  way  liome, 
and  the  eaklormen  and  the  nobility,  and  thus  lightly  left 
the  ships  ;  and  then  afterwards,  the  people  who  were  in  the 
ships  brought  them  to  London  :  and  they  let  the  whole 
nation's  toil  thus  lightly  pass  away  ;  and  no  better  was  that 
victory  on  which  the  whole  English  nation  had  fixed  their 
hopes.  When  this  ship-expedition  had  thus  ended,  then 
came,  soon  after  Lammas,  the  vast  hostile  army,  which  we 
have  called  Thurkill's  army,  to  Sandwich  ;  and  they  soon 
went  their  way  to  Canterbury,  and  the  city  would  soon 
have  subdued,  if  the  citizens  had  not  first  desired  peace  of 
them  :  and  all  the  people  of  East-Kent  made  peace  with  the 
army,  and  gave  them  three  thousand  pounds.  And  then, 
soon  after  that,  the  army  went  forth  till  they  came  to  the  Isle  of 
Wight ;  and  thence  every  where  in  Sussex,  and  in  Hampshire, 
and  also  in  Berkshire,  they  ravaged  and  plundered  as  their 
wont  is.*  Then  the  king  commanded  the  whole  nation  to  be 
called  out ;  so  that  they  should  be  opposed  on  every  side  : 
but  lo  !  nevertheless,  they  marched  as  they  pleased.  Then, 
upon  a  certain  occasion,  the  king  had  got  before  them  with 
all  his  forces,  as  they  would  go  to  their  ships  ;  and  all  the 
people  were  ready  to  attack  them.  But  it  was  then  prevented 
thj-ough  Edric  the  ealdorman,  as  it  ever  is  still*  Then, 
after  St.  Martin's-mass,  they  went  once  more  into  Kent, 
and  took  up  their  winter-quarters  on  the  Thames,  and  ob 
tained  their  food  from  Essex,  and  from  the  shires  which 
wore  there  nearest,  on  both  sides  of  the  Thames.  And  ot\ 
they  fought  against  the  city  of  London  :  but  praise  be  to 
God  that  it  yet  stands  sound,  and  they  there  ever  met 
with  ill  fare.  And  then,  after  mid-winter,  took  they  their 
way  upwards  through  Chiltern,  and  so  to  Oxford,  and  burned 
the  city  5  and  betook  themselves  then,  on  both  «»ides  of  the 

•  These  expressions  in  the  present  tense  afford  a  strong  proof  that  the 
orifrinal  records  of  these  transactions  are  nearly  coeval  with  the  transiictioiM 
ifeciiaelves.     Later  MSS.  use  the  oast  tense. — Inuiuh. 


niAin*^8,  towards  their  ships.  Then  were  they  warned  thrrt 
tliere  were  forces  gathered  at  London  against  them  :  tlieu 
went  they  over  at  Staines.  And  thus  they  went  the  whole 
winter  ;  and  during  Lent  they  were  in  Kent,  and  repaired 
flbeir  ships. 

A.  1010.  This  year,  after  Easter,  came  the  fore-mentioned 
army  into  East-Anglia,  and  landed  at  Ipswich,  and  went 
forthwith  where  they  understood  Ulfkyiel  was  with  his 
forces.  This  was  on  the  day,  called  the  first  of  the  ascension 
of  our  Lord.  The  East  Angles  soon  fled.  Then  stood  Cam- 
bridge-shire firmly  against  them.  There  was  slain  Athelstan 
the  king's  son-in-law,  and  Oswy  and  his  son,  and  WuLfric, 
Leofwin's  son,  and  Eadwy,  Efy's  brother,  and  many  other  good 
thanes,  and  numberless  of  the  people  :  the  flight  first  began 
at  Thurkytel  Myrehead.  And  the  Danes  had  possession  of 
the  place  of  carnage  :  and  there  were  they  horsed ;  and 
afterwards  had  dominion  over  East-Anglia,  and  the  land  three 
months  ravaged  and  burned  ;  and  they  even  went  into  the 
wild  fens,  and  they  destroyed  men  and  cattle,  and  burned 
throughout  the  fens  :  and  Thetford  they  burned,  and  Cam- 
bridge. And  after  that  they  went  southward  again  to  the 
Thames,  and  the  men  who  were  horsed  rode  towards  the 
ships  ;  and  after  that,  very  speedily,  they  went  westward 
into  Oxfordshire,  and  thence  into  Buckinghamshire,  and  so 
along  the  Ouse  until  they  came  to  Bedford,  and  so  onwards 
to  Temsford  ;  and  ever  burning  as  they  went.  Then  went 
they  again  to  their  ships  with  their  booty.  And  when  they 
went  to  their  ships,  then  ought  the  forces  again  to  have  gone 
out  against  them,  until  they  should  land  ;  but  then  the  forces 
went  home  :  and  when  they  were  eastwards,  then  were  the 
forces  kept  westwards  ;  and  when  they  were  southwards, 
then  were  our  forces  northwards.  Then  were  all  the  witan 
summoned  to  the  king,  and  they  were  then  to  counsel  how 
this  land  might  be  defended.  But  although  something  might 
be  then  counselled,  it  did  not  stand  even  one  month  :  at  last 
there  was  no  chief  who  would  assemble  forces,  but  each 
fled  as  he  best  might ;  nor,  at  the  last,  would  even  one  shire 
assist  another.  Then  before  St.  Andrew's  mass-day,  came 
the  enemy  to  Northampton,  and  they  soon  burned  the  town 
and  took  there-about  as  much  as  they  themselves  would  ; 
ftnd  thence  they  went  over  Thanies  into  Wesaex,  and  so  by 

H    2 

100    THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,   a.d.  ion,  m2. 

Cannings-marsh,  burning  all  the  way.  When  they  had 
gone  so  far  as  they  then  would,  then  came  they  at  mid-winter 
to  their  ships. 

A.  ion.  In  this  year  sent  the  king  and  his  witan  to  the 
army,  and  desired  peace,  and  promised  them  tribute  and  food, 
on  condition  that  they  would  cease  from  their  plundering. 
They  had  then  over-run,  1st,  East-Anglia,  and  2d,  Essex, 
and  3d,  Middlesex,  and  4th,  Oxfordshire,  and  5th,  Cambridge- 
shire, and  6th,  Hertfordshire,  and  7th,  Buckinghamshire, 
and  8th,  Bedfordshire,  and  9th,  half  of  Huntingdonshire, 
and  10th,  much  of  Northamptonshire  ;  and  south  ot 
Thames,  all  Kent,  and  Sussex,  and  Hastings,  and  Surry,  and 
Berkshire,  and  Hampshire,  and  much  of  Wiltsliire.  All 
these  misfortunes  befel  us  through  unwise  counsel,  that  they 
were  not  in  time  offered  tribute,  or  fought  against ;  but  when 
they  had  done  the  most  evil,  then  peace  and  truce  were  made 
with  them.  And  nevertheless,  for  all  the  truce  and  tribute, 
they  went  everywhere  in  bands,  and  plundered  our  miserable 
people,  and  robbed  and  slew  them.  And  then  in  this  year, 
between  the  Nativity  of  St.  Mary  and  St.  Mi  chad's -mass, 
they  besieged  Canterbury,  and  got  into  it  through  treachery, 
because  Elfmar  betrayed  it,  whose  life  the  archbishop  Elphege 
had  before  saved.  And  there  they  took  the  archbishop 
Elphege,  and  Elfward  the  king's  steward,  and  the  abbess  Leo- 
fruna,*  and  bishop  Godwin.f  And  abbat  Elfmar {  they  let 
go  away.  And  they  took  there  witliin  all  the  men  in  orders, 
and  men  and  women  :  it  is  not  to  be  told  to  any  man  how 
many  there  were.  And  they  remained  within  the  city 
afterwards  as  long  as  they  would.  And  when  they  had 
thoroughly  searched  the  city,  then  went  they  to  their  ships, 
and  led  the  archbishop  with  them. 
Was  then  captive  erewhile  saw  bliss, 

he  who  erewhile  was  in  that  hapless  city, 

head  of  the  English  race  whence  to  us  came  first 

and  Christendom.  Cliristendom  and  bliss, 

There  might  then  be  seen  'fore  God,  and  'fore  the  world, 
misery,  where  men  oft 

And  they  kept  the  archbishop  with  them  so  long  as  mtil  the 
time  that  they  martyred  him. 

A  1012.  In  this  year  came  Edric  the  ealdorman,  and  all 
•  Of  S.  ^lildied'a.    +  Godwin  111.  of  Rochester.    *  Of  St.  Augustine'i. 

A.D.101S.    THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.         101 

the  chief  witan,  clergy  and  laity,  of  the  English  people  to 
London,  before  Easter  ;  Easter-day  was  tlien  on  the  Ides 
of  April ;  and  they  were  there  then  so  long  as  until  all 
the  tribute  was  paid,  after  Easter  ;  that  was  eight  and  forty 
thousand  pounds.  Then  on  the  Saturday  was  the  army 
greatly  excited  against  the  bishop,  because  he  would  not  pro- 
mise them  any  money  :  but  he  forbade  that  any  thing  slioirtd 
be  given  for  him.  They  had  also  drunk  deeply,  for  wine 
had  been  brought  there  from  the  south.  Then  took  they  the 
bishop,  led  him  to  their  hustings  on  the  eve  of  Sunday,  the 
octaves  of  Easter,  which  was  on  the  13th  before  the  Kalends  of 
May  ;  and  there  they  then  shamefully  slaughtered  him  : 
they  cast  upon  him  bones  and  the  horns  of  oxen,  and  then 
one  of  them  struck  him  with  an  axe-iron  on  the  head,  so  that 
with  the  blow  he  sank  down  ;  and  his  holy  blood  fell  on  the 
earth,  and  his  holy  soul  he  sent  forth  to  God's  kingdom. 
And  on  the  morrow  the  body  was  carried  to  London,  and 
the  bishops  Ednoth*  and  Elfhun,"f  and  the  townsmen,  re- 
ceived it  with  all  reverence,  and  buried  it  in  St.  Paul's 
minster  ;  and  there  God  now  manifesteth  the  miraculous 
powers  of  the  holy  martyr.  When  the  tribute  was  paid,  and 
oaths  of  peace  were  sworn,  then  the  army  separated  widely, 
in  like  manner  as  before  it  had  been  gathered  together.  Then 
became  subject  to  the  king  five  and  forty  ships  of  the  army, 
and  covenanted  with  him  that  they  would  defend  this  country, 
and  that  he  should  feed  and  clothe  them. 

A.  1013.  In  the  year  after  that  in  which  the  archbishop 
Elphege  was  martyred,  the  king  appointed  bishop  Living  to 
be  archbishop  of  Canterbury.  And  in  this  same  year, 
before  the  month  of  August,  came  king  Sweyn  with  his 
fleet  to  Sandwich,  and  went  then,  very  soon,  about  East- 
Anglia  into  the  mouth  of  the  Humber,  and  so  upward  along 
Trent,  until  he  came  to  Gainsborough.  And  then,  soon, 
Utred  the  earl  and  all  the  North-humbrians  submitted  to 
him,  and  aU  the  people  in  Lindsey,  and  afterwards  the  people 
in  the  Five  Boroughs,  J  and  soon  after,  all  the  army  north  of 
WatUng-street  ;  and  hostages  were  delivered  to  him  from 
every  shire.     Alter  he  had  learned  that  all  the  people  were 

♦  Of  Dorchester.  +  Of  London. 

5  Namely,  Leicester  Lincoln,  Nottingham,  Stamford,  and  Deioy.    S*j« 
942,  1015. 

102         THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,    a.d.  1013. 

obedient  to  liim,  then  bade  he  that  his  army  should  be 
victualled  and  horsed  ;  and  he  then  afterwards  went  south- 
ward with  all  the  forces,  and  committed  the  ships  and  the 
hostages  to  his  son  Canute.  And  after  he  came  over  Watling- 
street,  they  wrought  the  most  evil  that  any  army  could  do. 
Then  went  he  to  Oxford,  and  the  townsmen  soon  submitted, 
and  delivered  hostages  ;  and  thence  to  Winchester,  and  they 
did  the  like.  Then  went  he  thence  eastward  to  London,  and 
much  of  his  people  was  drowned  in  the  Thames,  because 
they  kept  not  to  any  bridge.  When  he  came  to  the  city, 
then  would  not  the  townsmen  submit,  but  held  out  against 
him  with  all  their  might,  because  king  Ethelred  was  therein, 
and  Thurkill  with  him.  Then  went  king  Sweyn  thence  to 
Wallingford,  and  so  over  the  Thames  westward  to  Bath,  and 
sat  down  there  with  his  forces.  A  nd  Ethelmar  the  ealdor- 
man  came  thither,  and  the  western  thanes  with  him,  and  they 
all  submitted  to  Sweyn,  and  delivered  hostages  for  them- 
selves. And  when  he  had  thus  succeeded,  then  went  he 
northward  to  his  ships  ;  and  then  all  the  people  held  him  for 
full  king.  And  after  that  the  townsmen  of  London  sub- 
mitted, and  delivered  hostages,  because  they  dreaded  lest  he 
should  utterly  undo  them.  Then  Sweyn  ordered  a  full-tri- 
bute and  provisions  for  his  army  during  the  winter  ;  and 
Thurkill  ordered  the  like  for  the  army  which  lay  at  Green- 
wich :  and  for  all  that,  they  plundered  as  oft  as  they  would. 
Then  was  this  people  nothing  benefited  either  from  the  south 
or  from  the  north.  Then  was  king  Ethelred  some  while 
with  the  fleet  which  lay  in  the  Thames  ;  and  the  lady*  then 
departed  over  sea  to  her  brother  Richard,f  and  Elfsy,  abbat  of 
Peterborough,  with  her.  And  the  king  sent  bishop  Elfhun 
with  the  ethelings,  Edward  and  Alfred,  over  sea,  that  he 
might  have  charge  of  them.  Then  departed  the  king  from 
the  fleet  at  mid-winter  into  the  Isle  of  Wight,  and  was  there 
during  that  tide  ;  and  after  that  tide  he  went  over  the  sea  to 
Richard,  and  was  there  with  him  until  such  time  as  Sweyn 
was  dead.  And  the  while  that  the  lady  was  with  her  brother 
beyond  sea,  Elfsy,  abbat  of  Peterborough,  who  was  there  with 
lier,  went  to  the  minster  which  is  called  Boneval,  where  St. 
Florentine's  body  lav.  There  found  he  a  poor  place,  a  poor 
abbat,  and  poor  monks  ;  for  they  had  been  plundered.  Then 
•  Emma.  f  Duke  of  Normandy. 


©ought  he  there  of  the  abbat  and  of  the  monks  St.  FIf  ren 
tine's  body,  all  except  the  head,  for  five  hundred  pounds  ; 
and  then  when  he  came  home  again,  then  made  he  an  offer- 
ing of  it  to  Chi'ist  and  St.  Peter. 

A.  1014.  In  this  year  king  Sweyn  ended  his  days,  at 
Candlemas,  on  the  tliird  before  the  Nones  of  February.  And 
that  same  year  Alwy  was  consecrated  bishop  of  London,  at 
York,  on  St.  Juliana's  mass-day.  And  all  the  fleet  then 
chose  Canute  for  king.  Then  counselled  all  the  witan  who 
were  in  England,  clergy  and  laity,  that  they  should  send 
after  king  Ethelred  ;  and  they  declared  that  no  lord  were 
dearer  to  them  than  their  natural  lord,  if  he  would  rule  them 
better  than  he  had  before  done.  Then  sent  the  king  his 
son  Edward  hither  with  his  messengers,  and  ordered  them  to 
greet  all  his  people  ;  and  said  that  he  would  be  to  them  a 
loving  lord,  and  amend  all  those  things  which  they  all  ab- 
horred, and  each  of  those  things  should  be  forgiven  which 
had  been  done  or  said  to  him,  on  condition  that  they  all,  with 
one  consent,  would  be  obedient  to  him,  without  deceit.  And 
they  tlien  established  full  friendship,  by  word  and  by  pledge, 
on  either  half,  and  declared  every  Danish  king  an  outlaw 
from  England  for  ever.  Then,  during  Lent,  king  Ethelred 
came  home  to  his  own  people  ;  and  he  was  gladly  received 
by  them  all.  Then,  after  Sweyn  was  dead,  Canute^  sat  with 
his  army  at  Gainsborough  until  Easter  ;  and  it  was  agreed 
between  him  and  the  people  of  Lindsey  that  they  should  find 
him  horses,  and  that  afterwards  they  should  all  go  out  to- 
gether, and  plunder.  Then  came  king  Ethelred  thither,  to 
Lindsey,  with  his  full  force,  before  they  were  ready :  and 
then  they  plundered,  and  burned,  and  slew  all  the  people 
whom  they  could  reach.  And  Canute  went  away  out  with  his 
fleet,  and  thus  the  poor  people  were  deceived  through  him, 
and  then  he  went  southward  until  he  came  to  Sandwich  ; 
and  there  he  caused  the  hostages  to  be  put  on  shore  who  had 
been  delivered  to  his  father,  and  cut  off  th^eir  hands,  and 
ears,  and  noses.  And  besides  all  these  evils,  the  king 
ordered  the  army  which  lay  at  Greenwich  to  be  paid  twenty- 
one  thousand  pounds.  And  in  this  year,  on  the  eve  of  St. 
JVIichael's  mass,  came  the  great  sea-flood  wide  throughout 
this  land,  and  ran  so  far  up  as  it  never  before  had  done,  aj  i 
washed  away  many  towns,  and  a  couxitlei&s  number  of  poupid 

104    THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.  a.d.  lois,  lom 

A.  1015.  In  this  year  was  the  great  council  at  Oxford  ; 
and  there  Edric  the  ealdorman  betrayed  Sigeferth  and 
Morcar,  the  chief  thanes  in  the  Seven  Boroughs.  He  allured 
them  into  his  chamber,  and  there  within  they  were  cruelly 
slain.  And  the  king  then  took  all  their  possessions,  and 
ordered  Sigeferth's  relict  to  be  taken,  and  to  be  brought  to 
Malmesbury.  Then,  after  a  little  space,  Edmund  the 
etheling  went  there  and  took  the  woman,  contrary  to  the 
king's  will,  and  had  her  for  his  wife.  Then,  before  the 
Nativity  of  St.  Mary,  the  etheling  went  thence,  from  the 
west,  north  to  the  Five  Boroughs,  and  soon  took  possession  of 
all  Sigeferth's  property,  and  Morcar's  ;  and  the  people  all 
submitted  to  him.  Ajid  then,  during  the  same  time,  came 
king  Canute  to  Sandwich  ;  and  soon  after  went  about  Kent 
into  Wessex,  until  he  came  to  the  mouth  of  the  Frome  :  and 
then  he  ravaged  in  Dorset,  and  in  Wiltshire,  and  in  Somer- 
set. Then  lay  the  king  sick  at  Corsham.  Then  gathered 
Edric  the  ealdorman  forces,  and  the  etheling  Edmund  in 
the  north.  When  they  came  together,  then  would  the 
ealdorman  betray  the  etheling,  but  he  was  not  able  :  and 
tii-ry  then  parted  without  a  battle  on  that  account,  and  gave 
way  to  their  foes.  And  Edric  the  ealdorman  then  enticed 
forty  ships  from  the  king,  and  then  went  over  to  Canute.  And 
the  men  of  Wessex  submitted,  and  delivered  hostages,  and 
horsed  the  army  ;  and  then  was  it  there  until  mid-winter. 

A.  1016.  In  this  year  came  Canute  with  his  army,  and 
Edric  the  ealdorman  with  him,  over  Thames  into  Mercia  at 
Cricklade.  And  then  they  went  to  Warwickshire,  during 
the  midwinter's  tide,  and  ravaged,  and  burned,  and  slew  all 
that  they  could  come  at.  Then  began  the  etheling  Edmund 
to  gather  his  forces.  When  the  forces  were  assembled,  then 
would  it  not  content  them  except  it  so  were  that  the  king 
were  there  with  them,  and  they  might  have  the  help  of  the 
citizens  of  London :  then  gave  they  up  the  expedition, 
and  each  man  went  liim  away  home.  Then  after  that  tide, 
the  forces  were  again  called  out,  so  that  each  man,  who 
was  able  to  go,  should  come  forth,  under  full  penalties  ; 
and  they  sent  to  the  king  at  London,  and  prayed  him 
that  he  would  come  to  meet  the  forces  vdth  such  help  as 
he  could  gather.  When  they  all  had  come  together,  then 
xi  ft  vailed  them  nothing  more  than  it  oft  before   had  duuo. 

A.D.  1016.    THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.  105 

Then  was  it  made  known  to  the  king  that  they  would  betray 
liim  ;  they  who  ought  to  have  been  of  aid  to  him.  Then 
left  he  the  forces  and  returned  to  London.  Then  rode  the 
etheling  Edmund  into  North-humbria  to  Utred  the  earl, 
and  every  man  thought  that  they  would  assemble  forces 
against  king  Canute.  Then  marched  they  into  Staffordshire, 
and  into  Shropsliire,  and  to  Chester  ;  and  they  plundered  on 
their  part,  and  Canute  on  his  part.  He  went  out  through 
Buckinghamshire  into  Bedfordshire,  and  thence  to  Hunting- 
donshire, and  so  into  Northamptonshire  along  the  fens  to 
Stamford,  and  then  into  Lincolnshire ;  then  thence  to 
Nottinghamshire,  and  so  to  North-humbria  towards  York. 
When  Utred  heard  tliis,  then  left  he  off  his  plundering,  and 
hastened  northwards,  and  then  submitted,  from  need,  and  all 
the  North-humbrians  with  him  ;  and  he  delivered  hostages  : 
and,  notwithstanding,  they  slew  him,  through  the  counsel  of 
Edric  the  ealdorman,  and  Thurkytel,  son  of  Nafan,  with 
him.  And  then,  after  that,  king  Canute  appointed  Eric  to  be 
his  earl  in  North-humbria,  in  like  manner  as  Utred  had 
been  ;  and  afterwards  went  southward,  by  another  way,  all 
to  the  west :  and  then  before  Easter,  came  all  the  army  to 
their  ships.  And  the  etheling  Edmund  went  to  London  to 
his  father.  And  then,  after  Easter,  went  king  Canute  with  all 
his  ships  towards  London.  Then  befell  it  that  king  Ertbelred 
died,  before  the  ships  arrived.  He  ended  his  days  on  St. 
George's  mass  day,  and  he  held  his  kingdom  with  great  toil 
and  under  great  difficulties  the  while  that  his  life  lasted. 
And  then,  after  his  end,  all  the  peers  who  were  in  London, 
and  the  citizens,  chose  Edmund  to  be  king :  and  he 
strenuously  defended  his  kingdom  the  while  that  his  time 
lasted.  Then  came  the  ships  to  Greenwich  at  Rogation  days. 
And  within  a  little  space  they  went  to  London,  and  they  dug 
a  great  ditch  on  the  south  side,  and  dragged  their  ships  to 
the  west  side  of  the  bridge ;  and  then  afterwards  they  ditched 
the  city  around,  so  that  no  one  could  go  either  in  or  out :  and 
they  repeatedly  fought  against  the  city  ;  but  the  citizens 
strenuously  withstood  them.  Then  had  the  king  Edmund, 
before  that,  gone  out ;  and  then  he  over-ran  Wessex,  and  all 
the  people  submitted  to  him.  And  soon  after  that  he  fought 
against  the  army  at  Pen,  near  GiUingham.  And  a  second 
battle  he  fought,  after  mid-summer,  at  Sherston  ;  and  ther 

105         THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.    a.d.  lois. 

much  slaughter  was  made  on  either  side,  and  the  armies  of 

themselves  separated.  In  that  battle  was  Edric  the 
ealdorman,  and  JFAmer  darling,  helping  the  army  against 
king  Edmund.  And  then  gathered  he  his  forces  for  the 
third  time,  and  went  to  London,  all  north  of  Thames,  and  so 
out  through  Clayhanger ;  and  relieved  the  citizens,  and 
drove  the  army  in  flight  to  their  ships.  And  then,  two  days 
after,  the  king  went  over  at  Brentford,  and  there  fought 
against  the  army,  and  put  them  to  flight :  and  there  many 
of  the  English  people  were  drowned,  from  their  own 
carelessness  ;  they  who  went  before  the  forces,  and  would 
take  booty.  And  after  that  the  king  went  into  Wessex,  and 
collected  his  forces.  Then  went  the  army,  soon,  to  London, 
and  beset  the  city  around,  and  strongly  fought  against 
it,  as  well  by  water  as  by  land.  But  the  Almighty  God 
delivered  it. 

The  enemy  went  then,  after  that,  from  London,  with  their 
ships,  into  the  Orwell,  and  there  went  up,  and  proceeded  into 
Mercia,  and  destroyed  and  burned  whatsoever  they  over-ran, 
as  is  their  wont,  and  provided  themselves  with  food  :  and 
they  conducted,  as  well  their  ships  as  their  droves,  into  the 
Medway.  Then  king  Edmund  assembled,  for  the  fourth 
time,  all  his  forces,  and  went  over  the  Thames  at  Brentford, 
and  went  into  Kent ;  and  the  army  fled  before  him,  with 
their  horses,  into  Sheppey  :  and  the  king  slew  as  many  of 
them  as  he  could  overtake.  And  Edric  the  ealdorman  went 
then  to  meet  the  king  at  Aylesford  :  than  which  no  measure 
could  be  more  ill-advised. 

The  army  then  went  again  up  into  Essex,  and  passed  into 
Mercia,  and  destroyed  whatever  it  over-ran. 

When  the  king  learned  that  the  army  was  upward,  then 
assembled  he,  for  the  fifth  time,  all  the  English  nation,  and 
followed  after  them,  and  overtook  them  in  Essex,  at  the 
down  which  is  called  Assingdon :  and  there  they  strenuously 
joined  battle.  Then  did  Edric  the  ealdorman,  as  he  had 
oft  before  done,  begin  the  flight  first  with  the  Maisevethians, 
and  so  betrayed  his  royal  lord  and  the  whole  people  of  th<i 
I'^nglish  race.  There  Canute  had  the  victory ;  and  all  the 
English  nation  fought  against  him.  There  was  slain  bishop 
Ldaotli,*  and  abbat  Wulsy,  and  Elfric  the  ealdorman, 
•  Of  Dorcneausr 

A. p.  1017,1018.   THE  ANGLO-SAaON  CHRONICLE.    107 

and  Godwin  the  ealdorman  of  Lindsey,  and  Ulfkytel  of 
E^st-Anglia,  and  Ethelward,  son  of  Etliclwine*  the  ealdor- 
man; and  all  the  nobility  of  the  English  race  was  there 

Then,  after  this  battle,  went  king  Canute  up  with  his  army 
into  Gloucestershire,  wiiere  he  learned  that  king  Edmund 

Then  advised  Edric  the  ealdorman,  and  the  counsellors  who 
were  there,  that  the  kings  should  be  mutually  reconciled. 
And  they  delivered  hostages  mutually ;  and  the  kings  came 
together  at  Olney  near  Deerhurst,  and  then  confirmed  their 
friendship  as  well  by  pledge  as  by  oath,  and  settled  the  tribute 
for  the  army.  And  they  then  separated  with  this  recon- 
cilement :  and  Edmund  obtained  Wessex,  and  Canute  Mercia 
and  the  northern  district.  The  army  then  went  to  their 
ships  witli  the  things  they  had  taken.  And  the  men  of 
London  made  a  truce  with  the  army,  and  bought  themselves 
peace:  and  the  army  brought  their  ships  to  London,  and 
took  up  their  winter-quarters  therein.  Then,  at  St.  An- 
drews mass,  died  king  Edmund ;  and  his  body  lies  at 
Glastonbury,  with  his  grandfather  Edgar.  And  in  the 
same  year  died  Wulfgar,  abbat  of  Abingdon ;  and  Ethelsy 
succeeded  to  the  abbacy. 

A.  1017.  Li  this  year  king  Canute  obtained  the  whole 
realm  of  the  English  race,  and  divided  it  into  four  parts: 
Wessex  to  himself,  and  East-Anglia  to  Thurkill,  and  Mer- 
cia to  Edric,  and  North-humbria  to  Eric.  And  in  this 
year  was  Edric  the  ealdorman  slain  in  London,  very  justly, 
and  Norman,  son  of  Leofwin  the  ealdorman,  and  Ethel- 
ward,  son  of  Ethelmar  the  great,  and  Britric,  son  of 
Elphege,  in  Devonshire.  And  king  Canute  banished  Edwy 
the  etheling,  and  afterwards  commanded  him  to  be  slain,  and 
Edwy  king  of  the  churls.  And  then,  before  the  Kalends  of 
August,  the  king  commanded  the  relict  of  king  Ethelred, 
Richard's  daughter,  to  be  fetched  for  his  wife ;  that  was  Elf- 
give  in  EngUsh,  Emma  in  French. 

A.  1017.  This  year  Canute  was  chosen  king. 

A.  1018.  In  this  year  the  tribute  was  delivered  through- 
out the  whole  English  nation ;  that  was  altogether,  two  an4 

•  Cahed  Etheby  in  wimj  MSi^ 

108    THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.  a.d.  ioi9-io2a 

seventy  thousand  pounds,  besides  that  which  the  townsmen 
of  London  paid,  which  was  ten  and  a  half  thousand  pounds 
And  then  some  of  the  army  went  to  Denmark,  and  forty 
ehips  remained  with  king  Canute.  And  the  Danes  and  the 
Angles  agreed,  at  Oxford,  to  live  under  Edgar's  law.  And 
this  year  abbat  Ethelsy  died  at  Abingdon,  and  Ethelwine 
succeeded  him. 

A.  1019.  This  year  king  Canute  went  with  forty  ships  to 
Denmark,  and  there  abode  all  the  winter. 

A.  1019.  And  this  winter  died  archbishop  Elfstan  :*  he  was  named 
Living;  and  he  was  a  very  prondent  man,  both  as  to  God  and  as  to  thj 

A.  1020.  In  this  year  died  archbishop  Living:  and  king 
Canute  came  again  to  England.  And  then,  at  Easter,  there 
was  a  great  council  at  Cirencester:  then  was  outlawed 
Ethelward  the  ealdorman,  and  Edwy,  king  of  the  churls. 
And  in  this  year  went  the  king  to  Assingdon,  and  arch- 
bishop Wulstan  [II.]jt  ^^^  Thurkyl  the  earl,  and  many  bishops 
and  also  abbats,  and  many  monks  with  them,  and  consecrated 
the  minster  at  Assingdon.  And  Ethelnoth  the  monk,  who 
was  dean  at  Christ-Church,  was  in  the  same  year,  on  the 
Ides  of  November,  consecrated  bishop  at  Christ-Church,^  by 
archbishop  Wulfstan. 

A.  1020.  And  caused  to  be  built  there  a  minster  of  stone  and  lime,  for 
the  souls  of  the  men  who  there  were  slain,  and  gave  it  to  one  of  his  priests, 
whose  name  was  Stigand. 

A.  1021.  In  this  year,  at  Martin-mass,  king  Canute  out- 
lawed Thurkyl  the  earl.  And  bishop  Elfgar,§  the  alms- 
giver,  died  on  Christmas-morn. 

A.  1022.  This  year  king  Canute  went  out  with  his  ships 
to  the  Isle  of  Wight.  Archbishop  Ethelnoth  went  to  Rome, 
and  was  there  received  by  Benedict,  the  honourable  pope, 
with  much  worship ;  and  he,  wdth  his  own  hands,  put  his  pall 
upon  him,  and  very  honourably  consecrated  him  archbishop, 
and  blessed  him,  on  the  Nones  of  October.  And  the  arch- 
bishop soon  after,  on  the  self-same  day,  sang  mass  therewith  : 
and  then  thereafter  was  honourably  entertained  by  the  same 
pope,  and  also  himself  took  the  pall  from  St.  Peter's  altar  j 

♦  Of  Canterbury.  f  Of  York. 

I  Cftnterbury.  ^  Of  Elmluaa. 

A.IX  1022, 1023.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.    109 

*nd  then  afterwards  he  blithelj  went  home  to  his  coantry. 
And  abbat  LeoA\dne,  who  had  been  unjustly  driven  out 
from  Ely,  was  his  companion;  and  he  cleared  himself  of 
everything  that  was  said  against  him,  as  the  pope  instructed 
him,  in  the  presence  of  the  archbishop,  and  of  all  the  fellow- 
ship which  was  with  him. 

A.  1022.  And  afterwards  with  the  pall  he  there  performed  mass  as  the 
pope  instructed  him:  and  he  feasted  after  that  with  the  pope;  and  after- 
wards went  home  with  a  full  blessing. 

A.  1023.  This  year  king  Canute  came  again  to  England, 
and  Thurkyl  and  he  were  reconciled  ;  and  he  committed  Den- 
mark and  his  son  to  the  keeping  of  Thurkyl;  and  the  king 
tfX)k  Thurkyl's  son  with  him  to  England.  This  year  died 
archbishop  Wulfstan  :*  and  Elfric  succeeded  him ;  and 
archbishop  Ethelnoth  blessed  him  at  Canterbury.  Tliis 
year  king  Canute,  within  London,  in  St.  Paul's  minster,  gave 
full  leave  to  archbishop  Ethelnoth  and  Bishop  Brithwine,f 
and  to  all  the  servants  of  God  who  were  with  them,  that 
they  might  take  up  from  the  tomb  the  archbishop  St.  El- 
phege.  And  they  then  did  so,  on  the  sixth  before  the  Ides 
of  June.  And  the  illustrious  king,  and  the  archbishop  and 
suffragan  bishops,  and  earls,  and  very  many  clergy,  and  alsc 
laity,  carried,  in  a  ship,  his  holy  body  over  the  Thames  to 
Southwark,  and  there  delivered  the  holy  martyr  to  the  arch- 
bishop and  his  companions;  and  they  then,  with  a  worshipful 
band  and  sprightly  joy,  bore  him  to  Rochester.  Then,  on  the 
third  day,  came  Emma  the  lady,  with  her  royal  child  Harda- 
Canute :  and  then  they  aU,  with  much  state  and  bliss,  and  songs 
of  praise,  bore  the  holy  archbishop  into  Canterbury;  and  then 
worshipfully  brought  him  into  Christ's  Church,  on  the  third 
before  the  Ides  of  June.  Again,  after  that,  on  the  eighth 
day,  the  seventeenth  before  the  Kalends  of  July,  arch- 
bishop Ethelnoth,  and  bishop  Elfsy,J  and  bishop  Brith- 
wine,  and  all  those  who  were  with  them,  deposited  St. 
Elphege's  holy  body  on  the  north  side  of  Christ's  altar,  to 
the  glory  of  God,  and  the  honour  of  the  holy  archbishop, 
and  the  eternal  health  of  all  who  there  daily  seek  to  his 
holy  body  with  a  devout  heart  and  with  all  humility.  God 
-Almighty  have  in^'rcy  on  all  Christian  men,  through  St 
Elphege's  holy  merits. 

•  Of  lork.  f  'jf  Sherborne.  ::  Of  WincheBter 

no    THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,  a.d.  1023-1031 

A.  1023.  .ind  ^e  caused  St.  Elphege^s  remains  to  be  borne  ftoni  Londos 
to  Canterbury. 

A.  1023.  And  the  siime  year  arclihishop  Ethelnoth  bore  St.  Elpheae% 
the  archbishop's,  remains  to  Canterbury,  from  London. 

A.  1024. 

A.  1025.  This  year  king  Canute  went  to  Denmark,  with 
his  ships,  to  the  holm  by  the  holy  river.  And  there  came 
aigainst  him  Ulf  and  Eglaf,  and  a  very  great  army,  as  well  a 
land-army  as  a  fleet  from  Sweden.  And  there  very  many  men 
were  destroyed  on  king  Canute's  side,  as  well  of  Danish-men 
as  of  English :  and  the  Swedes  had  possession  of  the  place 
of  carnage. 

A.  1026.  This  year  bishop  Elfric*  went  to  Rome,  and 
received  his  pall  of  Pope  John,  on  the  2d  before  the  Ides  of 

A.  1027 

A.  1028.  This  year  king  Canute  went  from  England,  with 
fifty  ships  of  English  thanes,  to  Norway,  and  drove  king 
Clave  out  of  the  land,  and  possessed  himself  of  all  that  land. 

A.  1029.  This  year  king  Canute  came  home  again  to  Eng- 
land. And  so  soon  as  he  came  to  England,  he  gave  to  Christ- 
Church  at  Canterbury  the  haven  at  Sandwich,  and  all  the 
dues  that  arise  thereof,  on  either  side  of  the  haven  :  so  that, 
lo!  when  the  flood  is  all  at  the  highest,  and  all  at  the  fullest, 
if  a  ship  be  floating  so  nigh  the  land  as  it  nighest  may,  and 
there  be  a  man  standing  in  the  ship,  and  he  have  a  taper  ax 
in  his  ...  . 

A.  1030.  This  year  was  king  Clave  slain  in  Norway  by 
his  own  people  ;  and  afterwards  was  sainted.  And  in  this 
year,  before  that,  died  Hacon,  the  doughty  earl,  at  sea. 

A.  1030.  This  year  came  king  Olave  again  into  Norway,  and  the  people 
gathered  against  him,  and  fought  against  him  ;  and  he  was  there  slain. 

A.  1031.  This  year  king  Canute  went  to  Rome.  And  so 
soon  as  he  came  home  then  went  he  into  Scotland  :  and  the 
king  of  the  Scots,  Malcohn  [II.],  submitted  to  him,  and  be- 
came his  man,  but  that  he  held  only  a  little  while,  and  two 
other  kings,  Macbeth  and  Jelunar.  And  Robert,  eail  of  Nor- 
mandy, went  to  Jerusalem,  and  there  died  ;  and  William, 
who  was  afterwards  king  in  England,  succeeded  to  Nor* 
Uiandy,  though  he  was  a  child. 

♦  01  York. 

A.D.  1032  103C.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.    1 1 1 

A.  1032.  In  this  year  appeared  the  wild  fire,  such  2kS  do 
man  before  remembered ;  and  moreover  on  all  sides  it  did 
harm,  in  many  places.  And  in  the  same  year  died  Elfsy,* 
bishop  at  Winchester ;  and  Alwyn,  the  king's  priest,  suc- 
ceeded thereto. 

A.  1033.  This  year  died  bishop  Leofsy,  and  his  botly 
rests  at  Worcester:  and  Brilitegewas  raised  to  his  see.f  In 
this  year  died  Herewith  bishop  of  Somerset  4  and  he  is 
buried  at  Glastonbury. 

A.  1034.  This  year  died  bishop  Etheric,§  and  he  lies  at 
Ramsey.  This  same  year  died  Malcolm  [H.],  king  in  Scotland. 

A.  1035.  This  year  died  king  Canute ;  and  Harold,  his  son, 
succeeded  to  the  kingdom.  He  departed  at  Shaftesbury,  on 
the  2d  before  the  Ides  of  November  ;  and  they  bore  him  thence 
to  Winchester,  and  there  they  buried  him.  And  Elfgive, 
Emma,  the  lady,  then  sat  there  within  :  and  Harold,  who 
said  that  he  was  son  of  Canute  and  of  the  other  Elfgive, 
though  it  was  not  true ;  he  sent  thither,  and  caused  to  be  taken 
from  her  all  the  best  treasures,  which  she  could  not  withhold, 
that  king  Canute  had  possessed  ;  and  nevertheless  she  still 
8at  there  within,  as  long  as  she  could. 

A.  1036.  This  year  Alfred  the  innocent  etheling,  son  of 
king  Ethelred,  came  in  hither,  and  would  go  to  his  mother, 
who  sat  at  Winchester ;  but  that  neither  Godwin  the  earl,  nor 
the  other  men  who  had  much  power,  would  allow  him  be- 
cause the  cry  was  then  greatly  in  favour  of  Harold,  though 
that  was  unjust. 

But  Godwin  him  then  let, 
and  liim  in  bonds  set ;        [ed 
and  his  companions  he  dispers- 
and  some  divers  ways  slew  ; 
some  they  for  money  sold, 
some  cruelly  slaughtered, 
some  did  they  bind, 
some  did  they  blind, 
some  did  they  mutilate, 
some  did  they  scalp  : 
nor  was  a  bloodier  deed 
done  in  this  land 

since  the  Danes  came, 
and  here  accepted  peace. 
Now  is  our  trust  in 
the  beloved  God, 
that  they  are  in  bliss, 
blithely  with  Christ, 
who  were  without  guilt 
so  miserably  slain. 
The  etheling  still  lived, 
every  ill  they  him  vowed, 
until  it  was  decreed 
that  he  should  be  led 

•  Godwin  and  Dugdale  make  Elfsy  or  Elsinus.  to  be  translated  to  Can- 
terbury, 1U38.  t  Worcrster.  $  Wells.  §  Of  Dorchestti- 

112    THE  AKGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.   a.d.  loss-ioss. 

to  Ely -bury, 

thus  bound. 

Soon  as  he  came  to  land, 

in  the  ship  he  was  blinded ; 

and  him  thus  blind 

they  brought  to  the  monks  : 

and  he  there  abode 

the  while  that  he  lived. 

After  that  him  they  biiried, 

as  well  was  his  due 

full  worthily, 

as  he  worthy  was, 

at  the  west  end, 

the  steeple  well-nigh, 

in  the  south  aisle. 

His  soul  is  with  Christ. 

A.  1036.  This  year  died  king  Canute  at  Shaftesbury,  and  he  is  buried  at 
Winchester  in  the  Old-minster  :  and  he  was  king  over  all  England  very 
nigh  twenty  years.  And  soon  after  his  decease  there  was  a  meeting  of  all 
the  witan  at  Oxford  ;  and  Leofric  the  earl,  and  almost  all  the  thanes  north 
of  the  Thames,  and  the  '  lithsmen'  at  London,  chose  Harold  for  chief  of 
all  England,  him  and  his  brother  Hiirdecanute  who  was  in  Denmark.  And 
Godwin  the  earl  and  all  the  chief  men  of  Wessex  withstood  it  as  long  as 
they  could  ;  but  they  were  unable  to  effect  any  thing  in  opposition  to  it. 
And  then  it  was  decreed  that  Elfgive,  Hardecanute's  mother,  should  dwell 
at  Winchester  with  the  king's,  her  son's,  household,  and  hold  all  Wessex  in 
hia  power  ;  and  Godwin  the  earl  was  their  man.  Some  men  said  of 
Harold  that  he  was  son  of  king  Canute  and  of  Elfgive  daughter  of  Elfelm 
the  ealdorman,  but  it  seemed  quite  incredible  to  many  men  ;  and  he  waa 
nevertheless  full  king  over  all  England. 

A.  1037.  This  year  was  Harold  chosen  king  over  all,  and 
Hardecanute  forsaken,  because  he  stayed  too  long  in  Den- 
mark ;  and  then  they  drove  out  his  mother  Elfgive,  tlie 
queen,  without  any  kind  of  mercy,  against  the  stormy  winter  : 
and  she  came  then  to  Bruges  beyond  sea  ;  and  Baldwin  the 
earl*  there  weU  received  her,  and  there  kept  her  the  while 
she  had  need.  And  before,  in  this  year,  died  Eafy  the  noble 
dean  at  Evesham. 

A.  1037.  This  year  was  driven  out  Elfgive,  king  Canute's  relict  ;  she  waa 
king  Hardecanute's  mother  ;  and  she  then  sought  the  protection  of  Bald- 
win south  of  the  sea,  and  he  gave  her  a  dwelling  in  Bruges,  and  protected 
and  kept  her,  the  while  that  she  there  was. 

A.  1038.  This  year  died  Ethelnoth  the  good  archbishop,! 
and  bishop  Ethehic  in  Sussex,  J  who  desired  of  God  that  he 
would  not  let  him  live,  any  while,  after  his  beloved  father 
Ethelnoth ;  and  accordingly,  within  seven  days  after,  he 
departed,  and  bishop  Elfric  in  East-Anglia,  §  and  bishop 
Briteagusin  Worc^j^tershire  on  the  13th  before  the  Kalemis  of 
January.     And  then  bishop  Eadsine  succeeded  to  the  arch- 

*  Of  Flauden*         t  Of  Canterbury.         t  Selsej.        $  Elmhara. 

A.D.  103S-1W1.   THE  ANGLO-S.VXON  CHRONICLE.    113 

bishopric,  and  Grinketd    to   the  bishopric  in  Sussex,  and 
bishop  Living  to  Worcestervshire  and  to  Gloucestershire. 

A.  1038.  This  year  died  Etlielnoth,  the  good  archbishop,  on  the  Ka- 
lends of  November,  and  a  little  alter,  Ethelric  bishop  in  Sussex,  and  then 
before  Christmas,  Briteagus  bishop  in  Worcestershire,  and  soon  after,  Elfric 
bishop  in  East-Anglia. 

A.  1039.  This  year  was  the  great  wind :  and  bishop 
Brithmar  died  at  Lichfield,  And  the  Welsh  slew  Edwin 
brother  of  Leofric  the  earl,  and  Thurkil,  and  Elfget,  and 
very  many  good  men  with  them.  And  this  year  also  came 
Hai'decanute  to  Bruges,  where  his  mother  was. 

A.  1039.  This  year  king  Harold  died  at  Oxford,  on  the  16th  before  the 
Kalends  of  April,  and  he  was  bxiried  at  Westminster.  And  he  ruled  Eng* 
land  four  years  and  sixteen  weeks  ;  and  in  his  days  sixteen  ships  were  re- 
tained in  pay,  at  the  rate  of  eight  marks  for  each  rower,  in  like  manner  as  had 
been  before  done  in  the  days  of  king  Canute.  And  in  this  same  yei\x  came 
king  Hardecanute  to  SandAvich,  seven  days  before  midsummer.  And  he  waa 
soon  acknowledged  as  well  by  English  as  by  Danes  ;  though  his  advisers 
afterwards  grievously  requited  it,  when  they  decreed  that  seventy-two  ships 
should  be  retained  in  pay,  at  the  rate  of  eight  marks  for  each  rower.  And 
in  this  same  year  the  sester  of  wheat  went  up  to  fifty-five  pence,  and  even 

A.  1040.  This  year  died  king  Harold.  Then  sent  they 
after  Hardecanute  to  Bruges  ;  thinking  that  they  did  well. 
And  he  then  came  hither  with  sixty  ships  before  midsummer, 
and  then  imposed  a  very  heavy  tribute,  so  that  it  could  hardly 
be  levied  ;  that  was  eight  marks  for  each  rower,  and  all  were 
then  averse  to  him  who  before  had  desired  him  ;  and  more- 
over he  did  nothing  royal  during  his  whole  reign.  He 
caused  the  dead  Harold  to  be  taken  up,  and  had  him  cast  into 
a  fen.     This  year  archbishop  Eadsine  went  to  Rome. 

A.  1 040.  This  year  was  the  tribute  paid ;  that  was  twenty-one 
thousand  pounds  and  ninety-nine  pounds.  And  after  that  they  paid  to 
thirty-two  ships,  eleven  thousand  and  forty-eight  pounds.  And,  in 
this  same  year,  came  Edward,  son  of  king  Ethelred,  hither  to  land*  from 
Weal-land  ;  he  was  brother  of  king  Hardecanute  :  they  were  both  sons  of 
Elfgive  ;  Emma,  who  was  daughter  of  earl  Richard. 

A.  104 1.  This  year  Hardecanute  caused  all  Worcestershire 
to  be  ravaged,  on  account  of  his  two  household  servants,  who 
demanded  the  heavy  impost ;  when  the  people  slew  them  in  th^ 
town  within  the  minster.  This  year,  soon  after,  came  from 
beyond  sea  Edward,  his  brother  on  the  motlier's  side,  king 

114    THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CnPwONIOLE.   a.d.  io4i-io«. 

Etheb-ed's  eon,  who  before  for  many  years  had  been  driveiA 
from  his  country  ;  and  yet  was  he  sworn  king  :  and  he 
then  abode  thus  in  his  brother's  family  while  he  lived. 
And  in  this  year  also  Hardecanute  betrayed  Eadulf  the  earl.* 
while  under  his  protection  :  and  he  became  then  a  beher  of 
his  "wed."  And  this  year  bishop  Egelricf  was  ordained  at 
York,  on  the  3rd  before  the  Ides  of  January. 

A.  1041 .  This  year  died  king  Hardecanute  at  Lambeth,  on  the  6th  before 
the  Ides  of  June :  and  he  was  king  over  all  Enjiland  two  years  wanting  ten 
days  ;  and  he  is  buried  in  the  Old-minster  at  Winchester  with  king  Canute 
his  father.  And  his  mother,  for  his  soul,  gave  to  the  New-minster  the 
head  of  St.  Valentine  the  martyr.  And  before  he  was  buried,  all  people 
chose  Edward  for  king  at  London  :  may  he  hold  it  the  while  that  God 
shall  grant  it  to  him  !  And  all  that  year  was  a  very  heavy  time,  in  many 
things  and  divers,  as  well  in  respect  to  ill  seasons  as  to  the  fruits  of  the 
earth.  And  so  much  cattle  perished  in  the  year  as  no  man  before  remem- 
bered, as  well  through  various  diseases  as  through  tempests.  And  in  this 
same  time  died  Elsinus  abbat  of  Peterborough  ;  and  then  Amwius  the  monk 
was  chosen  abbat,  because  he  was  a  very  good  man,  and  of  great  simplicity. 

A.  1042.  This  year  died  king  Hardecanute  as  he  stood  at 
his  drink,  and  he  suddenly  fell  to  the  earth  with  a  terrible 
convulsion  :  and  then  they  who  were  there  nigh  took  hold  of 
him  ;  and  he  after  that  spake  not  one  word  :  and  he  died  on 
the  6th  before  the  Ides  of  June.  And  all  people  then  ac- 
knowledged Edward  for  king,  as  was  his  true  natural  right. 

A.  1043.  This  year  was  Edward  consecrated  king  at  Win- 
chester, on  the  first  day  of  Easter,  with  much  pomp  ;  and 
then  was  Easter  on  the  third  before  the  Nones  of  April, 
Archbishop  Eadsine  consecrated  liim,  and  before  all  the  people 
well  instructed  1dm  ;  and  for  his  own  need,  and  all  the  peo- 
ple's, well  admonished  him.  And  Stigand  the  priest  wa.«. 
blessed  bishop  of  the  East- Angles. J  And  soon  after,  the 
king  caused  all  the  lands  which  his  mother  possessed  to  be 
seized  into  his  hands,  and  took  from  her  all  that  she  pos- 
sessed in  gold,  and  in  silver,  and  in  tilings  unspeakable,  be- 
cause she  had  before  held  it  too  closely  with  him.  And  soon 
after,  Stigand  was  deposed  from  his  bishopric,  and  all  that 
he  possessed  was  seized  into  the  king's  hands,  because  he 
was  nearest  to  his  mother's  counsel,  and  she  went  just  as  be 
ftdrised  her,  as  people  thought. 

*  Of  Northumbna.  f  Of  Durham.  |  Elmhoou 

A.i>.  1C43 1045.   THE  ANGLO-SAXCil  CHi^ONICLE.    llo 

\.  1043.  This  year  was  Edward  consecrated  king  at  Winchester  (ti  th<» 
firet  day  of  Easter.  And  this  ye?ir,  fourteen  days  before  Andrew's-masi*, 
the  king  was  advised  to  ride  from  Gloucester,  and  Leofric  the  earl,  and 
liodwin  the  earl,  and  Sigwarth  [Siward]  the  earl,  with  their  followers,  to 
Winchester,  unawares  upon  the  lady  [Emma]  ;  and  they  bereaved  her  of 
ill  the  treasures  which  she  possessed,  they  were  not  to  be  told,  because 
i>etore  that  she  had  been  very  hard  with  the  king  her  son  ;  inasmuch  uf 
»ii)e  had  done  less  for  him  than  he  would,  before  he  was  king,  and  also 
Bince  :  and  they  suffered  her  after  that  to  remain  therein. 

This  year  king  Edward  took  the  daughter  [Edgitha]  of  Godwin  the 
earl  for  his  wife.  And  in  this  same  year  died  bishop  Brithwn,  and  he 
held  the  bishopric  thirty-eight  years,  that  was  the  bishopric  of  Shrr- 
borne,  and  Herman  the  king's  priest  succeeded  to  the  bishopric.  And  in 
this  year  Wulfric  was  hallowed  abbat  of  St.  Augustine's  at  Christmas,  »>n 
Stephen's  mass-day,  by  leave  of  the  king,  and,  on  account  of  his  great  intir- 
mity,  of  abbat  Elfstan. 

A.  1044.  This  year  archbishop  Eadsine*  gave  up  tlie 
bishopric  by  reason  of  his  infirmity,  and  he  blessed  thereto 
Siward  abbat  of  Abingdon,  as  bishop,  by  the  king's  leave 
and  counsel,  and  Godwin's  the  earl's  :  it  was  known  to  few 
men  else  before  it  was  done,  because  the  archbishop  thought 
that  some  other  man  would  obtain  or  buy  it  whom  he  could 
less  trust  in,  and  be  pleased  with,  if  more  men  should  know 
of  it.  And  in  this  year  was  a  very  great  famine  over  all 
England,  and  corn  was  so  dear  as  no  man  before  remem- 
bered ;  so  that  the  sester  of  wheat  went  up  to  sixty  pence, 
and  even  further.  And  in  the  same  year  the  king  went  out 
to  Sandwich  with  thirty-five  ships :  and  Athelstan  the 
churchwarden  obtained  the  abbacy  at  Abingdon.  And  Sti- 
gand  re-obtained  his  bishopric.  And  in  the  same  year  king 
Edward  took  Edgitha,  daughter  of  Godwin  the  earl,  to 
ivife,  ten  days  before  Candlemas. 

A.  1 044.  This  year  died  Living  bishop  in  Devonshire,  and  Leofric  suc- 
ceeded thereto  :  he  was  the  king's  priest.  And  in  this  same  year  died 
Elfstan  abbat  of  St.  Augustine's,  on  the  third  before  the  Nones  of  July 
And  in  this  same  year  was  outlawed  Osgod  Clapa. 

A.  1045.  In  this  year  died  bishop  Brithwinf  on  the  10th 
before  the  Kalends  of  May  ;  and  king  Edward  gave  the 
bishopric  to  Herman  his  priest.  And  in  the  same  sum- 
mer king  Edward  went  out  with  his  ships  to  Sandwich ; 
and  there  so  great  a  force  was  gathered,  that  no  man  had 

•  Of  Canterbury. 

t  Of  liusiiHUwryf  afterwards  removed  to  Salisbury. 


116    THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.   a.d.  iws,  iC46. 

■>^en  tt  greater  fleet  in  this  land.  And  in  this  same  ym 
died  bisljop  Living*  on  the  loth  before  tlie  Kalends  of 
April ;  and  the  king  gave  the  bishopric  to  Leofric  his 
priest.  This  year  died  Elfward  bishop  of  London,  on  the 
8th  before  the  Kalends  of  August.  He  was  first  abbat  of 
Evesham,  and  greatly  advanced  the  minster  whilst  he 
was  there.  He  went  then  to  Ilamsey,  and  there  gave  up 
his  life.  And  Manni  was  chosen  abbat, f  and  ordained  on 
the  4th  before  the  Ides  of  August.  And  in  this  year  was 
driven  out  Gunnilde,  the  noble  woman,  king  Canute's  niece  ; 
and  she,  after  that,  stayed  at  Bruges  a  long  while,  and  after- 
wards went  to  Denmark. 

A.  1045.  This  year  died  Grimkytel  bishop  in  Sussex,  and  Heca  the 
king's  priest  succeeded  thereto.  And  in  this  year  died  Alwyn,  bishop  of 
Winche&iter,  on  the  4th  before  the  Kalends  of  September  ;  and  Stigand, 
bishop  ti>  the  north,t  succeeded  thereto.  And  in  the  same  year  Sweyn 
the  earl  went  out  to  Baldwin's  land§  to  Bruges  and  abode  there  all  the 
winter  ;  and  then  in  svmuner  he  went  out. 

A.  1016.  In  this  year  Sweyn  the  earl  went  into  Wales, 
and  Grithn  the  Northern  king||  went  with  him;  and  they 
delivered  hostages  to  him.  As  he  was  on  his  way  home- 
wards, then  commanded  he  to  be  brought  unto  him  the  ab- 
bess of  Leominster  :  and  he  had  her  as  long  as  he  listed ; 
and  after  that  he  let  her  go  home.  And  in  this  same  year 
Osgod  Clapa  was  outlawed  before  mid-winter.  And  in  tliis 
same  year,  after  Candlemas,  came  the  severe  winter,  with 
frost  and  with  snow,  and  with  all  kinds  of  tempestuous  wea- 
ther, so  that  there  was  no  man  then  alive  who  could  remem- 
ber so  severe  a  winter  as  this  was,  as  well  through  mortality 
of  men  as  murrain  of  cattle  ;  even  birds  and  fishes  perished 
through  the  great  cold  and  famine. 

A.  1046.  This  year  died  Bnth^vin,  bishop  in  Wiltshire,  and  Herman 
was  appointed  to  his  see.  In  that  year  king  Edward  gathered  a  large  ship- 
force  at  Sandwich,  on  account  of  the  threatening  of  Magnus  in  Norway  : 
hut  his  and  Sweyn's  contention  in  Denmark  hindered  his  com'tng  here. 

A.  1046.  This  year  died  Athelstan,  abbat  of  Abingdon,  and  Spar- 
hawk,  monk  of  St.  Edmund's-bury,  succeeded  him.  And  in  this  8;ime 
\  •lar  died  bishop  Siward,  and  archbishop  Eadsine  again  obtained  the  whole 
^isnopriclf  And  in  this  same  year  Lothen  and  Irling  came  with  twenty- 
fivt;  ships  to  Sandwich,  and  there  took  unspeakable  booty,  in  men^  and  ia 

•  Of  Creditor.  t  Of  Evesham.  X  Of  Ehnham. 

i  Fiandere.  ^  E  Of  Nortli  Wales.       ^  Of  Canterbury. 

A.D.io4«,io47.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.    117 

gold,  and  in  silver,  so  that  no  man  knew  how  much  it  all  waa.  And  they 
then  went  about  Thanet,  ani  would  there  do  the  like  ;  but  the  land's  folk 
strenuously  withstood  them,  and  denied  them  as  well  landing  as  water  ; 
and  thence  utterly  put  them  to  flight.  And  they  betook  themselves  then 
into  Essex,  and  there  they  ravaged,  and  took  men,  and  j)roperty,  and  what- 
soever they  might  find.  And  they  betook  themselves  then  east  to  Bald- 
wine's  land,  and  there  they  sold  what  they  had  plundered  ;  and  after  that 
went  their  way  east,  whence  they  before  had  come. 

A.  1046.  In  this  year  was  the  great  s}Tiod  at  St.  Remi's  [Rheims]. 
Thereat  was  Leo  the  pope,  and  the  archbishop  of  Burgundy  [Lyons],  and 
the  archbishop  of  Besanfon,  and  the  archbishop  of  Treves,  and  the  arch- 
bishop of  Rheims  ;  and  many  men  besides,  both  clergy  and  laity.  And 
king  Edward  sent  thither  bishop  Dudoc,*  and  Wulfric  abhat  of  St.  Augus- 
tine's, and  abbat  Elfwin,+  that  they  might  make  known  to  the  king  what 
should  be  there  resolved  on  for  Christendom.  And  in  this  same  year  king 
Edward  went  out  to  Sandwich  with  a  great  fleet.  And  Sweyn  the  earl, 
Bon  of  Godwin  the  earl,  came  in  to  Bosham  with  seven  ships  ;  and  he 
obtained  the  king's  protection,  and  he  was  promised  that  he  should  beheld 
worthy  of  every  thing  which  he  before  possessed.  Then  Harold  the  earl, 
his  brother,  and  Beom  the  earl  contended  that  he  should  not  be  held  wor- 
thy of  any  of  the  things  which  the  king  had  granted  to  them  :  but  a  pro- 
tection of  four  days  was  appointed  him  to  go  to  his  ships.  Then  befell  it 
during  this,  that  word  came  to  the  king  that  hostile  ships  lay  westward, 
and  w^re  ravaging.  Then  went  Godwin  the  earl  west  about  with  two  of 
the  king's  ships ;  the  one  commanded  Harold  the  earl,  and  the  other  Tos- 
ty  his  brother ;  and  forty- two  of  the  people's  ships.  Then  Harold  the  eari 
was  removed  from  the  king's  ship  which  Harold  the  earl  before  had  com- 
manded. Then  went  they  west  to  Pevensey,  and  lay  there  weather-bound. 
Upon  this,  after  two  days,  then  came  Sweyn  the  earl  thither,  and  spoke 
with  his  father,  and  with  Beom  the  earl,  and  begged  of  lieom  that  he 
would  go  with  him  to  the  king  at  Sandwich,  and  help  him  to  the  khig's 
friendship :  and  he  granted  it.  Then  went  they  as  if  they  would  go  to  the 
king.  Then  whilst  they  were  riding,  then  begged  Sweyn  of  him  that  he 
would  go  with  him  to  his  ships:  saj-ing  that  his  seamen  would  depart  from 
liim  unless  he  should  at  the  soonest  come  thither.  Then  went  they  both 
where  his  ships  lay.  When  they  came  thither,  then  begged  Sweyn  the 
earl  of  him  that  he  would  go  with  him  on  ship-boaid.  He  strenuously 
refused,  so  long  as  until  his  seamen  seized  him,  and  threw  him  into  the 
boat,  and  bound  him,  and  rowed  to  the  ship,  and  put  him  there  aboard. 
Then  they  hoisted  up  their  sails  and  ran  west  to  Exmouth,  and  had  hin? 
with  them  until  they  slew  him :  and  they  took  the  body  and  buried  it  in  n 
churdi.  And  then  his  friends  and  litsmen  came  from  London,  and  took 
him  up,  and  bore  him  to  Winchester  to  the  Old-minster:  and  he  is  there 
buried  with  king  Canute  his  uncle.  And  Sweyn  went  then  ea«t  to  Bald- 
win's land,  and  sat  down  there  all  the  ^vinter  at  Bruges,  with  his  full  prf>- 
tection.  And  m  the  same  year  died  Eadnoth  [II.]  bishop  t  of  the  north 
»nd  Ulf  was  made  bishop. 

A.  1047.  In  this  year  died   bishop   Grinketel ;    he  was 
•  Of  Welia,  t  Of  R^imscv.  ;  Of  LJorcneeter. 

118    THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,   a.d.  io47.  i043. 

bishop*  in  Sussex,  and  he  lies  in  Christ-Church,  at  Canter 
bury ;  and  king  Edward  gave  the  bishopric  to  Heca  his 
priest.  And  in  this  same  year  died  bishop  Alwynj  on  the 
4th  before  the  Kalends  of  September ;  and  liing  Edward 
gave  the  bishopric  to  bishop  Stigand.  And  Athelstan 
abbat  of  Abingdon  died  in  the  same  year,  on  the  4th  before 
the  Kalends  of  April :  then  was  Easter-day  on  the  3rd  before 
the  Nones  of  April.  And  there  was  over  all  England  a  very 
great  mortality  in  the  same  year. 

A.  1047.  This  year  died  Living  the  eloquent  bishop,  on  the  10th  before 
the  Kalends  of  April,  and  he  had  three  bishoprics;  one  in  Devonshire, 
and  in  Cornwall,  and  in  Worcester.  Then  LeofricJ  succeeded  to  Devon- 
shire and  to  Cornwall,  and  bishop  Aldred  to  Worcester.  And  in  this  year 
Osgod,  the  master  of  the  horse,  was  outlawed  :  and  Magnus$  won  Denmark. 

A.  1047.  In  this  year  there  was  a  great  council  in  London  at  Mid-lent, 
and  nine  ships  of  lightermen  were  discharged,  and  five  remained  behind. 
In  this  same  year  came  Sweyn  the  earl  into  England.  And  in  this  same 
year  was  the  great  synod  at  Rome,  and  king  Edward  sent  thither  bishop 
iieroman  and  bishop  Aldred ;  and  they  came  thither  on  Easter  eve. 
And  afterwards  the  pope  held  a  synod  at  Vercelli,  and  bishop  Ulf  came 
thereto  ;  and  well  nigh  would  they  have  broken  his  staff,  if  he  had  not 
given  very  great  gifts ;  because  he  knew  not  how  to  do  his  duty  so  well  as 
he  should.  And  in  this  year  died  archbishop  Eadsine,  on  the  4th  before 
the  Kalends  of  November. 

A.  1048.  In  this  year  was  a  great  earthquake  wide  through- 
out England.  In  the  same  year  Sandwich  and  the  Isle  of 
Wight  were  ravaged,  and  the  chief  men  that  were  there  slain. 
And  after  that  king  Edward  and  the  earls  went  out  with 
heir  ships.  And  in  the  same  year  bishop  Siward  resigned 
the  bishopric  on  account  of  his  infirmity,  oid  went  to  Abing- 
ion,  and  archbishop  Eadsine  again  received  the  bishopric  :J 
ind  he  [Siward]  died  within  eight  weeks  after,  on  the  10th 
before  the  Kalends  of  November. 

A.  1048.  This  year  was  the  severe  winter  •  and  this  year  died  Alwyn, 
bishop  of  Winchester,  and  bishop  Stigand  was  raised  to  his  see.  And  be- 
tore  that,  in  the  same  year,  died  Grinketel,  bishop  in  Sussex,  and  Heca 
the  priest  succeeded  to  the  bishopric.  And  Swevn  also  sent  hither,  beg- 
ging assistance  against  Magnus,  king  of  Norway  ;  tnat  fifty  ships  should  be 
»ent  to  his  aid.  But  it  seemed  unadvisable  to  all  people :  and  it  was  then 
•iladered  by  reason  that  Magnus  had  a  great  ship  force.  And  he  then 
drove  out  Sweyn,  and  with  much  man-slaying  won  the  land  :  and  tha 

♦  Of  SelseT.  +  Of  Winchester. 

^   LeotiiC  removed  the  »ee  to  Fxr-ter. 

^  King  of  Norway.  (    Of  Cai\terhury. 


1.D.1043.    THE  AXGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.  119 

Danes  pa'd  him  much  money  and  irknowledged  him  as  king.     And  that 
■ime  year  Magnus  died. 

A.  1048.  In  this  year  king  Edward  app/iinted  Robert,  of  Londoa, 
archbiahop  of  Canterbury,  during  Lent.  And  in  the  same  Lent  he  went  to 
Rome  after  his  pall :  and  the  king  gave  the  bishopric  of  London  to  Spar- 
hafoc  abbat  of  Abingdon  ;  and  the  king  gave  the  abbacy  of  Abingdon  to 
bishop  Rodulf,  his  kinsman.  Then  came  the  archbishop  from  Rome  one 
day  before  St.  Peter 's-mass-eve,  and  entered  on  his  archiepiscopal  see  at 
Christ's  Church  on  St.  Peter's  mtiss-day  ;  and  soon  after  went  to  the  kinj;. 
Then  came  abbat  Sparhafoc  to  him  with  the  king's  writ  and  seal,  in  order 
that  he  should  consecrate  him  bishop  of  London.  Then  the  archbisiiorv 
refused,  and  said  that  the  pope  had  forbidden  it  him.  Then  went  the  abl'at 
to  the  archbishop  again  for  that  purpose,  and  there  desired  episcopal  ordi- 
nation ;  and  the  archbishop  constantly  refused  him,  and  said  that  the  pope 
had  forbidden  it  him.  Then  went  the  abbat  to  London,  and  occupied  the 
bishopric  which  the  king  before  had  granted  him,  with  his  full  leave,  all  the 
summer  and  the  harvest.  And  then  came  Eustace*  from  beyond  sea  soon 
after  the  bishop,  and  went  to  the  king,  and  spoke  with  him  that  which  he  then 
would,  and  went  then  homeward.  When  he  came  to  Canterbury,  east,  then 
took  he  refreshment  there,  and  his  men,  and  went  to  Dover.  When  be  was 
some  mile  or  more  on  this  side  of  Dover,  then  he  put  on  his  breast-  plate, 
and  so  did  all  his  companions,  and  went  to  Dover.  When  they  came 
thither,  then  would  they  lodge  themselves  where  they  chose.  Then  came 
one  of  his  men,  and  would  abide  in  the  house  of  a  householder  against  his 
will,  and  wounded  the  householder  ;  and  the  householder  slew  the  other. 
Then  Eustace  got  upon  his  horse,  and  his  companions  upon  theirs  ;  and 
the^  went  to  the  householder,  and  slew  him  within  his  own  dwelling  ;  and 
they  went  up  towards  the  town,  and  slew,  as  well  within  as  without, 
more  than  twenty  men.  And  the  townsmen  slew  nineteen  men  on 
the  other  side,  and  wounded  they  knew  not  how  many.  And  Eustace 
escaped  with  a  few  men,  and  went  again  to  the  king,  and  made  known 
to  him,  in  part,  how  they  had  fared.  And  the  king  became  very  wroth 
with  the  townsmen.  And  the  king  sent  off  Godwin  the  earl,  and  bade  him 
go  into  Kent  in  a  hostile  manner  to  Dover  :  for  Eustace  had  made  it 
appear  to  the  king,  that  it  had  been  more  the  fault  of  the  townsmen  than 
his  :  but  it  was  not  so.  And  the  earl  would  not  consent  to  the  inroad,  be- 
cause he  was  loath  to  injure  his  own  people.  Then  the  king  sent  after  all 
his  council,  and  bade  them  come  to  Gloucester,  nigh  the  aftermass  of  St, 
Mary.  Then  had  the  Welshmen  erected  a  castle  in  Herefordshire  among 
the  people  of  Sweyn  the  earl,  and  wrought  every  kind  of  harm  and  dis- 
grace to  the  kind's  men  there  about  which  they  could.  Then  came  God- 
win the  earl,  and  Sweyn  the  earl,  and  Harold  the  ean,  together  at  Bever- 
stone,  and  many  men  with  them,  in  order  that  they  might  go  to  their  royal 
lord,  and  to  all  the  peers  who  were  assembled  with  him,  in  order  that 
they  miglit  have  the  advice  of  the  king  and  his  aid,  and  of  all  this  council, 
how  they  might  avenge  the  king's  disgrace,  and  the  whole  nation's.  Then 
were  the  Welshmen  with  the  king  beforehand,  and  accused  the  earlsy 
Bo  that  they  might  not  come  within  his  eyes'  sight ;  because  they  said  that 
they  were  coming  thither  in  order  to  betray  the  king.     Thither  bad 

*  Eao  Dt  fioulogue. 

120         THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.    a.d.  low 

Si  ward  the  earl  •  and  Leofricthe  earl,+  and  much  people  with  them,  from 
the  north,  to  the  king  ;  and  it  was  made  known  to  tlui  earl  Grjdwin  and  his 
sons,  that  the  king  and  the  men  who  were  with  him,  were  taking  counsel 
concerning  them  :  and  they  arrayed  themselves  on  the  other  hand  reso- 
lutely, thoTigh  it  were  loathful  to  them  that  they  should  stand  againt*  their 
royal  lord.  Then  the  peers  on  either  side  decreed  that  every  kind  of  evil 
ehould  ceafe  :  and  the  king  gave  the  peace  of  God  and  his  full  fciendship 
to  either  side.  Then  the  king  and  his  peers  decreed  that  a  council  of  all 
the  nobles  should  be  held  for  the  second  time  in  London  at  the  harvest 
equinox  ;  and  the  king  directed  the  army  to  be  called  out,  as  well  south 
of  the  Thames  as  north,  all  that  was  in  any  way  most  eminent.  Then  de- 
clared they  Sweyn  the  earl  an  outlaw,  and  summoned  Godwin  the  earl  and 
Harold  the  earl,  to  the  council,  as  quickly  as  they  could  effect  it.  When 
they  had  come  thither,  then  were  they  summoned  into  the  coimcil.  Theit 
required  he  safe  conduct  and  hostages,  so  that  he  might  come,  unbetrayed, 
into  the  council  and  out  of  the  council.  Then  the  king  demanded  all  the 
thanes  whom  the  earls  before  had  ;  and  they  granted  them  all  into  his 
hands.  Then  the  king  sent  again  to  them,  and  commanded  them  that  they 
should  come  with  twelve  men  to  the  king's  council.  Then  the  earl  again 
required  safe  conduct  and  hostages,  that  he  might  defend  himself  against 
each  of  those  things  which  were  laid  to  him.  Then  were  the  hostages  re- 
fused him  ;  and  he  was  allowed  a  safe  conduct  for  five  nights  to  go  out  of 
the  land.  And  then  Godwin  the  earl  and  Sweyn  the  earl  went  to 
Bosham,  and  shoved  out  their  ships,  and  betook  themselves  beyond  sea, 
and  sought  Baldwin's  protection,  and  abode  there  all  the  winter.  And 
Harold  the  earl  went  west  to  Ireland,  and  was  there  all  the  winter  within 
the  king's  protection.  And  soon  after  this  happened,  then  put  away  the 
king  the  lady  who  had  been  consecrated  his  queen,:!:  and  caused  to  be  taken 
from  her  all  which  she  possessed,  in  land,  and  in  gold,  and  in  silver,  and  in 
all  things,  and  delivered  her  to  his  sister  at  Wherwell.  And  abbat  Sj)rir- 
hafoc  was  then  driven  out  of  the  bishopric  of  London,  and  William  the  king's 
priest  was  ordained  thereto.  And  then  Odda  was  appointed  earl  over 
Devonshire,  and  over  Somerset,  and  over  Dorset,  and  over  the  Welsh. 
And  Algar,  the  son  of  Leofric  the  earl,  was  appointed  to  the  earldom 
which  Harold  before  held. 

A.  1049.  In  this  year  the  emperor  gathered  a  countless 
force  against  Baldwin  §  of  Bruges  :  by  reason  that  he  had 
'estroyed  the  palace  at  Nimeguen,  and  also,  that  he  had 
lone  many  other  injuries  to  him  :  the  force  was  not  to  be 
told  which  he  had  gathered.  There  was  Leo  [IX.]  the  pope 
of  Rome,  and  many  great  men  of  many  nations.  He  sent 
also  to  king  Edward,  and  begged  the  aid  of  his  ships,  in 
order  that  he  should  not  suffer  him  to  ©scape  from  him  by 
water.  And  he  went  then  to  Sandwich,  5nd  there  continued 
lying  with  a  great  fleet,  until  the  emperor  obtained  of  Bald- 

♦  Of  Northvjiibna.  t  Of  .Mercia. 

t  IMithA.  i  £arl  of  Flandeza. 

AD.  1049.    THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.  121 

win  all  that  he  would.  Tliither  came  back  again  Swejii 
the  earl  to  king  Edward,  and  requested  land  of  hiin,  from 
which  he  might  maintain  himself.  But  Harold  his  brother 
contended,  and  Beorn  the  earl,  that  they  should  not  give 
up  to  him  any  thing  which  the  king  had  given  to  them. 
He  came  hither  with  false  pretences  ;  saying  that  he  would 
be  his  man,  and  begged  of  Beorn  the  earl  that  he  would  aid 
him  :  but  the  king  refused  him  every  thing.  Then  went 
Sweyn  to  his  ships  at  Bosham ;  and  Godwin  the  earl  went 
from  Sandwich  vsdth  forty-two  ships  to  Pevensey,  and  Beorn 
the  earl  went  forth  with  him  ;  and  then  the  king  gave  leave 
to  all  the  Mercians  to  go  home  :  and  they  did  so.  Then  wiia 
it  made  known  to  the  king,  that  Osgod  lay  at  Ulps  with 
thirty-nine  ships.  Then  the  king  sent  after  the  ships  which 
lay  at  the  Nore,  that  he  might  send  after  him.  But 
Osgod  fetched  his  wife  from  Bruges,  and  went  back  again 
with  six  ships  ;  and  the  others  landed  in  Essex,  at  Eadulf- 
ness,  and  there  did  harm,  and  went  again  to  their  ships. 
Then  lay  Godwin  the  earl  and  Beorn  the  earl  at  Pevensey 
with  their  ships.  Then  came  Sweyn  the  earl  with  fraud, 
and  begged  of  Beorn  the  earl  that  he  would  be  his  companion 
to  the  king  at  Sandwich  ;  saying  that  he  would  swear  oaths 
to  him,  and  be  faithful  to  him.  Then  Beorn  concluded  that, 
on  account  of  their  kindred,  he  would  not  deceive  him.  Then 
took  he  three  companions  with  him,  and  they  then  rode  to 
Bosham,  as  if  they  would  go  to  Sandwich,  where  Sweyn's 
Bhips  lay.  And  they  soon  bound  him,  and  led  him  on  shi])- 
board  ;  and  then  went  to  Dartmouth,  and  there  caused  him  to 
be  slain  and  deeply  buried.  But  him  his  kinsman  Harold 
thence  fetched  and  bore  to  Winchester,  and  there  buried  with 
king  Canute  his  uncle.  And  then  the  king  and  all  the  army 
declared  Sweyn  an  outlaw.  Eight  ships  he  had  before  he 
murdered  Beorn  ;  after  that,  aU  forsook  him  except  two  : 
and  then  he  went  to  Bruges,  and  there  abode  with  Baldwin. 
And  in  this  year  died  Eadnoth,  the  good  bishop,  in  Oxford- 
shire,* and  Oswy  abbat  of  Thorney,  and  Wulfnoth  abbat  of 
Westminster :  and  king  Edward  gave  the  bishopric  to  Ulf 
his  priest,  s.nd  unworthily  bestowed  it.  And  in  this  same 
year  king  Edward  discharged  nine  ships  from  pay  ;  and 
they  went  away,  ships  and  all  ;  and  five  ohips  remained  be- 
•  Dorchester. 

122    THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICL"S.   a. d.  1049, 105.). 

hind,  and  the  king  promised  them  twelve  months'  paj.  And 
in  the  same  year  went  bishop  Heroman*  and  bishop  Aldredf 
to  Rome,  to  the  pope,  on  the  king's  errand. 

A.  1049.  This  year  Sweyn  came  again  to  Denmark,  and  Harold,  uncle  of 
Magnus,  went  to  Norway  after  Magnus  was  dead  ;  and  the  Normans 
acknowledged  him  :  and  he  sent  hither  to  land  concerning  peace.  And 
Sweyn  also  sent  from  Denmark,  and  begged  of  king  Edward  the  aid  of 
his  ships.  They  were  to  be  at  least  fifty  ships  :  but  all  people  opposed  it. 
And  this  year  also  there  was  an  earthquake,  on  the  Kalends  of  May,  in 
many  places  in  Worcester,  and  in  Wick,  and  in  Derby,  and  elsewhere  ;  and 
also  there  was  a  great  nioi-tality  among  men,  and  murrain  among  cattle  : 
and  moreover,  the  wild-fire  did  much  evil  in  Derbyshire  and  elsewhere. 

A.  1050.  In  this  year  came  the  bishops  home  from  Rome : 
and  Sweyn  the  earl  was  inlawed.  And  in  this  same  year 
died  archbishop  Eadsine,  on  the  fourth  before  the  Kalends  of 
November ;  and  also,  in  this  same  year,  Alfric  archbishop  of 
York,  on  the  eleventh  before  the  Kalends  of  February  ;  and 
liis  body  lies  at  Peterborough.  Then  king  Edward  held 
a  council  in  London  at  Mid-lent,  and  appointed  Robert 
archbishop  of  Canterbury,  and  abbat  Sparhafoc  to  London ; 
and  gave  to  bishop  Rodulf,  his  kinsman,  the  abbacy  at 
Abingdon.  And  the  same  year  he  discharged  all  the 
lightermen  from  pay. 

A.  1050.  Thither  also  came  Sweyn  the  earl,  who  before  had  gone  from 
this  land  to  Denmark,  and  who  there  had  ruined  himself  with  the  Danes. 
He  came  thither  with  false  pretences ;  saying  that  he  would  again  he 
obedient  to  the  king.  And  Beom  the  earl  promised  him  that  he  would  be 
of  assistance  to  him.  Then,  after  the  reconciliation  of  the  emperor  and  of 
Baldwin,  many  of  the  ships  went  home,  and  the  king  remained  behind  at 
Sandwich  with  a  few  ships  ;  and  Godwm  the  earl  also  went  with  forty-two 
ships  from  Sandwich  to  Pevensey,  and  Beom  the  earl  went  with  him.  Then 
was  it  made  known  to  the  king  that  Osgod  lay  at  Ulpswith  thirty-nine 
ships ;  and  the  king  then  sent  after  the  ships  which  before  had  gone  home, 
that  h<»  m'ght  send  after  him.  And  Osgod  fetched  his  wife  from  Bruges, 
and  they  went  hack  again  with  six  ships.  And  the  others  landed  in 
Sussex  t  at  Eadulf-ness,  and  there  did  harm,  and  went  again  to  their  ships  : 
and  then  a  strong  wind  came  against  them,  so  that  they  were  all  destroye<i, 
except  four,  whose  crews  were  slain  beyond  sea.  While  Godwin  the  ear 
and  Beom  the  earl  lay  at  Pevensey,  then  came  Sweyn  the  earl,  and  begged 
Beom  the  earl,  with  fraud,  who  was  his  uncle's  son,  tliat  he  would  be  his 
companion  to  the  king  at  Sandwich,  and  better  his  affairs  with  him.  He 
went  then,  on  account  of  the  relationship,  with  three  companions,  with 
him ;  and  he  led  him  then  towards  Bosham,  where  his  ships  lay :  and  then 
they  bi)und  him,  and  led  him  on  ship-board.     Then  went  he  thence  witk 

♦  Of  Ramshury,     Heroman  removed  the  see  t<>  Salisbury, 
t  Of  Worcester.  J  ijwey. 

A.D.  1051, 1032.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.     123 

him  to  Dartmouth,  and  there  ordered  him  to  be  slain,  and  deepiy  bur{e<L 
Aftejwards  he  was  found,  and  borne  to  \\'inchester,  and  buried  with  king 
Canufe  bis  nroV.  A  little  before  that,  the  men  of  Hastings  and  thereabrmt, 
fought  two  of  his  ships  with  their  ships ;  and  slew  all  the  men,  and  brought 
the  sliips  to  Sandwich  to  the  king.  Eight  ships  he  had  before  he  betrayed 
Beom  ;  after  that  all  forsook  him  except  two.  In  tlie  same  year  arrived 
in  the  Welsh  Axa,  from  Ireland,  thirty-six  ships,  and  thereabout  did  harm^ 
with  the  help  of  Griffin  the  Welsh  king.  The  people  were  gathered 
together  against  them  ;  bishop  Aldred  *  was  also  there  with  them  ;  but 
iney  had  too  little  power.  And  they  came  unawares  upon  them  at  very 
early  morn  ;  and  there  they  slew  many  good  men,  and  the  others  escaped 
with  the  bishop  :  this  was  done  on  the  fourth  before  the  Kalends  of  August. 
This  year  died,  in  Oxfordshire,  Oswy  abbat  of  'i'horney,  and  Wulfnoth 
abbat  of  Westminster  ;  and  Ulf  the  priest  was  appointed  as  pastor  to  the 
bishopric  which  Eadnoth  had  held  ;  but  he  was  after  that  driven  away  j 
because  he  did  nothing  bishop-like  therein  :  so  that  it  shameth  us  now  to 
tell  more  about  it.  And  bishop  Siward  died:  he  lieth  at  Abingdon.  And  this 
year  was  consecrated  the  great  minster  at  Rheims :  there  was  pope  Leo  [IX.] 
and  the  emperor  ;t  and  there  they  held  a  great  synod  concerning  God's 
service.  St.  Leo  the  pope  presided  at  the  synod  :  it  is  difficult  to  have  a 
knowledge  of  the  bishops  who  came  there,  and  how  many  abbats  :  and 
hence,  from  this  land  were  sent  two — from  St.  Augustine's  and  from 

A.  1051.  In  this  year  came  archbishop  Robert  hither 
over  sea  with  his  pall.  And  in  this  same  year  were  banished 
Godwin,  the  earl,  and  all  his  sons  from  England  ;  and  he 
went  to  Bruges  and  his  wife,  and  liis  tliree  sons,  Sweyn, 
and  Tosty,  and  Grith  :  and  Harold  and  Leofwine  went  to 
Ireland,  and  there  dwelt  during  the  winter.  And  in  this 
same  year  died  the  old  lady,  king  Edward's  mother,  and 
Hardecanute's,  who  was  called  Emma,  on  the  second  before 
the  Ides  of  March ;  and  her  body  lies  in  the  Old-minster.  J 
with  king  Canute. 

A.  1051.  In  this  year  died  Kadsine  archbishop  of  Canterbury  ;  and  the 
king  gave  to  Robert  the  Frenchman,  who  before  had  been  bishop  of  Lon- 
don, the  archbishopric.  And  Sparhafoc  abbat  of  Abingdon  succeeded  to 
the  bishopric  of  London  ;  and  it  was  afterwards  taken  from  him  before  he 
was  consecrated.     And  bishop  Heroraan  and  bishop  Aldred  went  to  Rome. 

A.  1052.  This  year  came  Harold,  the  earl,  from  Ireland, 
with  Ids  ships  to  the  mouth  of  the  Severn,  nigh  the  bound- 
aries of  Somerset  and  Devonshire,  and  there  greatly  ravaged ; 
and  the  people  of  the  land  drew  together  against  him,  aa 
well  from  Somerset  as  from  Devonshire  ;  and  he  put  them  to 
flight,  and  there  slew  more  than  thirty  good  tlianes,  besides 
•  Of  Worcester.  f  Hen.  III.  %  Wincheste  . 

124         THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHKONICLE.    a. d.  1052. 

other  people  :  and  soon  after  that  he  went  about  Penwith^ 
Btert.  And  then  king  Edward  caused  forty  vessels  to  b« 
fitted  out.  They  lay  at  Sandwich  many  weeks  ;  they  were 
to  lie  in  wait  for  Godwin,  the  earl,  who  had  been  at  Bruges 
during  the  winter  ;  and,  notwithstanding,  he  came  hither  to 
land  first,  so  that  they  knew  it  not.  And  during  the  time 
that  he  was  here  in  the  land,  he  enticed  to  him  all  the  men 
of  Kent,  and  all  the  boatmen  from  Hastings  and  every- 
where there  by  the  sea-coast,  and  all  the  East-end,  and  Sus« 
Bex,  and  Surrey,  and  much  else  in  addition  thereto.  Then  all 
declared  that  they  with  him  would  die  and  live.  When  the 
fleet  which  lay  at  Sandwich,  learned  this  concerning  God- 
win's voyage,  then  set  they  out  after  him.  And  he  escaped 
them,  and  concealed  himself  wherever  he  then  could ;  and 
the  fleet  went  again  to  Sandwich,  and  so  homeward  to  Lon- 
don. Then  when  Godwin  learned  that  the  fleet  which  lay 
at  Sandwich  was  gone  home,  then  went  he  once  more  to  the 
Isle  of  Wight,  and  lay  thereabout  by  the  sea-coast  so  long  as 
until  they  came  together,  he  and  liis  son  earl  Harold.  And 
they  did  not  much  harm  after  they  came  together,  except 
that  they  seized  provisions  :  but  they  enticed  to  them  all  the 
Umd-folk  by  the  sea-coast  and  also  up  the  country  ;  and  they 
went  towards  Sandwich,  and  collected  ever  forth  with  them 
all  the  boatmen  which  they  met  with,  and  then  came  to 
Sandwich,  with  an  overflowing  army.  When  king  Edward 
learned  that,  then  sent  he  up  after  more  help ;  but  they  came 
very  late.  And  Godwin  advanced  ever  towards  London 
with  his  fleet  until  he  came  to  Southwark,  and  there  abode 
6ome  time  until  the  flood-tide  came  up.  During  that  time 
he  also  treated  with  the  townsmen,  that  they  should  do 
almost  all  that  he  would.  When  he  had  mustered  all 
his  host,  then  came  the  flood-tide  ;  and  they  then  soon  drew 
their  anchors,  and  held  their  way  through  the  bridge  by  the 
south  shore,  and  the  land-force  came  from  above,  and  arrayed 
themselves  along  the  strand  :  and  they  then  inclined  with 
the  ships  towards  the  north  shore,  as  if  they  would  hem  the 
king's  ships  about.  The  king  also  had  a  great  land-force  on 
his  side,  in  addition  to  his  shipmen  ;  but  it  was  loathful  to 
almost  all  of  them  that  they  should  fight  against  men  cf 
their  own  race  ;  for  there  was  little  else  there  which  was  ot 
much  account  except  Englishmen,  on  either  aifle  ;  and  iDDrc- 

A.D.  lo.'i?.    THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.  125 

over  they  wero  unmlling  that  this  land  should  be  still  mora 
exposed  to  OMilandish  men,  by  reason  that  they  theraselvei 
destroyed  each  other.  Then  decreed  they  that  wise  men 
sliould  be  sent  between  them  ;  and  they  settled  a  truce  on 
either  side.  And  Godwin  landed,  and  Harold  his  son,  and 
from  their  fleet  as  many  as  to  them  seemed  fitting.  Then 
there  was  a  j>eneral  council  :  and  they  gave  his  earldom 
clean  to  Godwin,  as  full  and  as  free  as  he  before  possessed  it, 
and  to  his  sons  also  all  that  they  before  possessed,  and  to  his 
wife  and  his  daughter  as  full  and  as  free  as  they  before  pos- 
sessed it.  And  tliey  then  established  between  them  full 
friendship,  and  to  all  the  people  they  promised  good  law. 
And  then  they  outlawed  all  the  Frenchmen  who  before  had 
instituted  unjust  law,  and  judged  unjust  judgments,  and 
counselled  ill  counsel  in  this  land  ;  except  so  many  as  they 
agreed  upon,  whom  the  king  liked  to  have  with  him,  who 
were  true  to  him  and  to  all  liis  people.  And  bishop  Robert,* 
and  bishop  William,  f  and  bishop  Ulf,J  with  difficulty 
escaped,  with  the  Frenchmen  who  were  with  them,  and  thus 
got  over  sea.  And  Godwin,  the  earl,  and  Harold,  and  the 
queen,  §  sat  down  in  their  possessions.  Sweyn  had  gone 
before  this  to  Jerusalem  from  Bruges  ;  and  he  died  on  his 
way  home  at  Constantinople  on  Michael's-mass.  It  was  on 
the  INIonday  after  St.  Mary's-mass  that  Godwin  with  his 
ships  came  to  Southwark  ;  and  the  morning  after,  on  the 
Tuesday,  they  were  reconciled,  as  it  here  before  stands. 
Godwin  then  grew  sick  soon  after  he  landed  ;  and  he  after- 
wards departi.^.d  :  but  he  did  all  too  little  penance  for  the 
property  of  God  which  he  held  belonging  to  many  holy 
places.  And  the  same  year  came  the  strong  wind,  on  Tho- 
mas's-mass-night,  and  did  much  harm  in  many  parts.  More- 
over Rees,  the  Welsh  king's  |j  brother,  was  slain. 

A.  1052.  This  year  died  Alfric,  archbishop  of  York,  a  very  pious  man, 
and  wise.  And  in  the  same  year  king  Edward  abolished  the  tribute, 
which  king  Ethelred  had  before  imposed  :  that  was  in  the  nine-and- 
thirtieth  year  after  he  had  begun  it.  That  tax  distressed  all  the  English 
nation  during  so  long  a  time,  as  it  here  above  is  written  ;  that  was  ever  be- 
fore other  taxes  which  were  variously  paid,  and  wherewith  the  people  were 
manifestly  distressed.     In  the  same  year  Eustace  ^  landed  at  Dover  :  he 

♦  Of  CanStrbury.       f  Of  London.  t  Oi  Dorchester. 

f  Editha,  U  Of  South  Wales.  ^  Earl  of  Boulogne. 

126         THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.    a.d.  1052. 

had  king  Edward's  aster  to  wife.  Then  went  his  men  mconfiideiately 
ifter  quarters,  and  a  certain  man  of  the  town  they  slew  ;  and  another  man 
of  the  town  their  companion  ;  so  that  there  lay  seren  of  his  companions. 
And  much  harm  was  there  done  on  either  side,  by  horse  and  also  by 
weapons,  until  the  people  gathered  together  :  and  then  they  fled  away 
until  they  came  to  the  king  at  Gloucester  ;  and  he  gave  them  protection. 
When  Godwin,  the  earl,  understood  that  such  things  should  have  hap- 
pened in  his  earldom,  then  began  he  to  gather  together  people  over  all  his 
earldom,*  and  Sweyn,  tlie  earl,  his  son,  over  his,  and  Harold,  his  other  son, 
over  his  earldom  ;  and  they  all  drew  together  in  Gloucestershire,  at  Lang- 
tree,  a  great  force  and  countless,  all  ready  for  battle  ag;iinst  the  king,  un- 
less Eustace  were  given  up,  and  his  men  placed  in  their  hands,  and  also 
the  Frenchmen  who  were  in  the  castle.  This  was  done  seven  days  before 
the  latter  mass  of  St.  Mary.  Then  was  king  Edward  sitting  at  Gloucester. 
Then  sent  he  after  Leofric,  the  earl,t  and  north  after  Siward  the  earl,J  and 
be^,'ged  their  forces.  And  then  they  came  to  him  ;  first  with  a  moderate  aid, 
but  after  they  knew  how  it  was  there,  in  the  south,  then  sent  they  north  over 
all  their  earldoms,  and  caused  to  be  ordered  out  a  large  force  for  the  help 
of  their  lord  ;  and  Ralph,  also,  over  his  earldom  :  and  then  came  they  all 
to  Gloucester  to  help  the  king,  though  it  might  be  late.  Then  were  they 
all  BO  united  in  opinion  with  the  king  that  they  would  have  sought  out 
Godwin's  forces  if  the  kijig  had  so  willed.  Then  thought  some  of  them 
that  it  would  be  a  great  folly  that  they  should  join  battle  ;  because  there 
was  nearly  all  that  was  most  noble  in  England  in  the  two  armies,  and  they 
thought  that  they  should  expose  the  land  to  our  foes,  and  cause  great  de- 
struction among  ourselves.  Then  counselled  they  that  hostages  should  be 
given  mutually  ;  and  they  appointed  a  term  at  London,  and  thither  the 
people  were  ordered  out  over  all  this  north  end,  in  Siward's  earldom,  and 
in  Leofric's,  and  also  elsewhere  ;  and  Godwin,  the  earl,  and  his  sons  were 
to  come  there  with  their  defence.  Then  came  they  to  Southwark,  and  a 
great  multitude  with  them,  from  Wessex  ;  but  his  band  continually  dimin- 
ished the  longer  he  stayed.  And  they  exacted  pledges  for  the  king  from 
all  the  thanes  who  were  under  Harold,  the  earl,  his  son  ;  and  then  they 
outlawed  Sweyn,  the  earl,  his  other  son.  Then  did  it  not  suit  him  to  come 
with  a  defence  to  meet  the  king,  and  to  meet  the  army  which  was  with  him. 
Then  went  he  by  night  away  ;  and  the  king  on  the  morrow  held  a  council, 
and,  together  with  all  the  army,  declared  him  an  outlaw,  him  and  all 
his  sons.  And  he  went  south  to  Thorney,  and  his  wife,  and  Sweyn  his  son, 
and  Tosty  and  his  wife,  Baldwin's  relation  of  Bruises,  and  Gnth  his  son. 
And  Harold,  the  earl,  and  Leofwine,  went  to  Bristol  in  the  ship  which 
Sweyn,  the  earl,  had  before  got  ready  for  himself,  and  pro\isioned.  And 
the  king  sent  bishop  Aldred  §  to  London  with  a  force  ;  and  they  were  to 
overtake  him  ere  he  came  on  ship-board  :  but  they  could  not  or  they  would 
not.  And  he  went  out  from  Avonmouth,  and  met  with  such  heavy  weather 
that  he  with  difficulty  got  away  ;  and  there  he  sustained  much  damage. 
Then  went  he  forth  to  Ireland  when  fit  weather  came.     And  Godwin, 

•  Godwin's  earldom  consisted  of  Wessex,  Sussex,  and  Kent  :  Sweyn'f 
of  Oxford,  Gloucester,  Hereford,  Somerset,  and  Berkshire  :  and  Harold'i 
of  Essex,  East-Anglia,  Huntingdon,  and  Cambridgeshire. 

t  Of  Mercia.  J  Of  Northumbria.  §  Of  \Vorc—ua 

A.D.1052.    THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CnnONICLE.  127 

and  those  who  were  with  him,  went  from  Thomey  to  Bruges,  to  Baldwin*! 
land,  in  one  ship,  with  as  much  treasure  as  they  nii<^lit  therein  best  stow  i\>r 
each  man.  It  would  have  seemed  wondrous  to  every  man  who  wua  in 
Kngland  if  any  one  before  that  had  said  that  it  sliould  end  thus ;  for  he  had 
been  erewhile  to  that  degree  exalted,  as  if  he  ruled  the  king  and  all  Eng- 
land ;  and  his  sons  were  earls  and  the  king's  darlings,  and  his  dau^-^htei 
wedded  and  united  to  the  king  :  she  was  brought  to  Wherwell,  and  they 
delivered  her  to  the  abbess.  Then,  soon,  came  William,  the  earl,*  Irom 
beyond  sea,  with  a  great  band  of  Frenchmen  ;  and  the  king  ri.-ceivfd 
him,  and  as  many  of  his  companions  as  it  pleased  him  ;  and  let  hmi  away 
at;ain.  This  same  year  was  given  to  William,  the  priest,  the  bishopric  of 
London,  which  before  had  been  given  to  Sparhafoc. 

A.  1052.  This  year  died  Elfgive,  the  laily,  relict  of  king  Ethelred  and 
of  king  Canute,  on  the  second  before  the  Is  ones  of  March.  In  the  »mne 
year  Griffin,  the  Welsh  king,  plundered  in  Herefordshire,  imtil  he  came 
very  nigh  to  Leominster  ;  and  they  gathered  against  liim,  as  well  the 
landsmen  as  the  Frenchmen  of  the  castle,  and  there  were  slain  of  the 
English  very  many  good  men,  and  also  of  the  Frenchmen  ;  that  was  on 
the  same  day,  on  which,  thirteen  years  before,  Eadwine  had  been  slain  by 
his  companions. 

A.  1052.  In  this  year  died  Elfgive  Emma,  king  Edward's  mother  and 
king  Hardecanute's.  And  in  this  same  year,  the  king  decreed,  and  his 
council,  that  ships  should  proceed  to  Sandwich  ;  and  they  set  Ralph,  the 
earl,  and  Odda,  the  earl,+  as  head-men  thereto.  Then  Godwin,  the  earl, 
went  out  from  Bruges  with  his  ships  to  Ysendyck,  and  left  it  one  day  before 
Midsummer's-mass  eve,  so  that  he  came  to  Is' ess,  which  is  south  of  Rom- 
ney.  Then  came  it  to  the  knowledge  of  the  earls  out  at  Sandwich  ;  and 
they  then  went  out  after  the  other  ships,  and  a  land-force  was  ordered  out 
against  the  ships.  Then  during  this,  Godwin,  the  earl,  was  warned,  and 
then  he  went  to  Pevensey  ;  and  the  weather  was  very  severe,  so  that 
the  earls  could  not  learn  what  was  become  of  Godwin,  the  carl.  And  then 
Godwin,  the  earl,  went  out  again,  until  he  came  once  more  to  Bruges;  and 
the  other  ships  returned  again  to  Sandwich.  And  then  it  was  decreed  that 
the  ships  should  return  once  more  to  London,  and  that  other  earls  and 
commanders  should  be  appointed  to  the  ships.  Then  was  it  <ielayed  so 
long  that  the  ship-force  all  departed,  and  all  of  them  wen*  home.  When 
Godwin,  the  earl,  learned  that,  then  drew  he  up  his  sail,  and  his  fleet,  and 
then  "rent  west  direct  to  the  Isle  of  Wight,  and  there  landed  and  ravaged  so 
.ong  there,  until  the  people  yielded  them  so  much  as  they  laid  on  them. 
Ar.d  then  they  went  westward  imtil  they  came  to  Portlani,  and  there  they 
landed,  and  did  whatsoever  harm  they  were  able  to  do.  Then  was  Harold 
come  out  from  Ireland  with  nine  ships  ;  and  then  landed  at  Porlock,  and 
there  much  people  was  gathered  against  him  ;  but  he  failed  not  to  procure 
himself  provisions.  He  proceeded  further,  and  slew  there  a  great  number 
of  the  people,  and  took  of  cattle,  and  of  men,  and  of  propeity  as  it  suited 
him.  He  then  went  eastward  to  his  father  :  and  then  they  both  went  east- 
ward imtil  they  came  to  the  Isle  of  Wight,  and  there  took  that  which  was 
yet  remaining  for  them.  And  then  they  wont  thence  to  Pevensey,  and 
got  Hway  thence  as  many  sh'w^  as  were  there  fit  for  service,  and  so  on  vai48 

t  Of  Devon. 

128         THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,    a. d.  1052. 

until  fie  came  to  Ness,  and  got  all  the  ships  which  were  in  Romney,  and  i» 
Hythe,  and  in  Folkstone.  And  theji  they  went  east  lo  Dover,  and  theal 
huided,  and  there  took  sliips  and  hostages,  as  many  as  they  would,  and  i9 
went  to  SandM'ich  and  did  "  hand  "  the  same  ;  and  everywnere  hostage^ 
were  given  them,  and  provisions  wherever  they  desired.  And  then  thi^ 
went  to  North-mouth,  and  so  toward  London  ;  and  some  of  the  ships  went 
within  Sheppey,  and  there  did  mucli  harm,  and  went  their  way  to  King'a 
Milton,  and  that  they  all  burned,  and  betook  themselves  then  toward 
London  after  the  earls.  When  the}  came  to  London,  there  lay  the  king 
and  all  the  earls  there  against  them,  with  fifty  ships.  Then  the  earls  sent 
to  the  king,  and  re(juired  of  him,  that  they  might  be  held  worthy  of  each 
of  those  things  which  had  been  unjustly  taken  from  them.  Then  the  king, 
however,  resisted  some  while  ;  so  long  as  until  the  people  who  were  with 
the  earl  were  much  stirred  against  the  king  and  against  his  people,  so  that 
the  earl  himself  with  difficulty  stilled  the  people.  Then  bishop  Stigand 
interposed  with  God's  help,  and  the  wise  men  as  well  within  the  town  aa 
without  ;  and  they  decreed  that  hostages  should  be  set  forth  on  either  side  : 
and  thus  was  it  done.  When  archbishop  Robert  and  the  Frenchmen 
learned  that,  they  took  their  horses  and  went,  some  west  to  Pentecost's 
castle,  some  north  to  Robert's  castle.  And  archl)ishop  Robert  and  bishop 
Ulf  went  out  at  East-gate,  and  their  companions,  and  slew  and  otherwise 
injured  many  young  men,  and  went  their  way  direct  to  Eadulf's-ness ;  and 
he  there  put  himself  in  a  crazy  ship,  and  went  direct  over  sea,  and  left  his 
■  all  and  all  Christendom  here  on  land,  so  as  God  would  have  it,  inasmuch  as 
he  had  before  obtained  the  dignity  so  as  God  would  not  have  it.  Then  there 
was  a  great  council  proclaimed  without  London  :  and  all  the  earls  and  the 
chief  men  who  were  in  this  land  were  at  the  council.  There  Godwin  bore 
forth  his  defence,  and  justified  himself,  before  king  Edward  his  lord,  and 
before  all  people  of  the  land,  that  he  was  guiltless  of  that  which  was 
laid  against  him,  and  against  Harold  his  son,  and  all  his  children.  And 
the  king  gave  to  the  earl  and  his  children  his  full  friendship,  and  full  earl- 
dom, and  all  that  he  before  possessed,  and  to  all  the  men  who  were  with 
him.  And  the  king  gave  to  the  lady*  all  that  she  before  possessed.  And 
they  declared  archbishop  Robert  utterly  an  outlaw,  and  all  the  French- 
men, because  they  had  made  most  of  the  difference  between  Godwin,  the 
earl,  and  the  king.  And  bishop  Stigand  obtained  the  archbishopric  of 
Canterbury.  In  this  same  time  Amwy,  abbat  of  Peterborough,  left  the 
abbacy,  in  sound  health,  and  gave  it  to  Leofric  the  monk,  by  leave  of  tha 
king  and  of  tlie  monks  ;  and  abbat  Amwy  lived  afterwards  eight  years. 
And  abbat  Leofric  then  (enriched)  the  minster,  so  that  it  was  called  the 
Golden-borough.  Then  it  waxed  greatly,  in  land,  and  in  gold,  and  in  silver. 
A.  1052.  And  went  so  to  the  Isle  of  Wight,  and  there  took  all  the  ships 
which  could  be  of  any  service,  and  hostages,  and  betook  himself  so  eastward. 
And  Harold  had  landed  with  nine  ships  at  Porlock,  and  slew  there  much 
people,  and  took  cattle,  and  men,  and  property,  and  went  his  way  eastward 
to  his  father,  and  they  both  went  to  Romney,  to  Hythe,  to  Folkstone,  to 
Dover,  to  Sandmch,  and  ever  they  took  all  the  ships  which  they  found, 
which  could  be  of  any  service,  and  hostage*,  aU  aa  iiey  proceeded  ;  and 
wai  then  to  London. 

•  EdjthA. 

A.D.  1058, 1064    THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONTCLE.     1-29 

A.  1053.  In  this  year  was  the  king  at  Winchester  at 
Ea.«^ter,  and  Godwin,  the  earl,  with  him,  and  Harold,  the 
earl,  his  son,  and  Tosty.  Then,  on  the  second  day  c>f 
Easter,  sat  he  with  the  king  at  the  feast :  then  suddenly  sank 
he  down  by  the  footstool,  deprived  of  speech,  and  of  all  his 
power,  and  he  was  then  carried  into  the  king's  chamber,  and 
they  thought  it  would  pass  over  :  but  it  did  not  so  ;  but  he 
continued  on,  thus  speechless  and  powerless,  until  the  Thurs- 
day, and  then  resigned  his  life  :  and  he  lies  there  within  the 
Old -minster.  And  his  son  Harold  succeeded  to  his  earldom, 
and  resigned  that  which  he  before  held  ;  and  Elgar  suc- 
ceeded tliereto.  This  same  year  died  Wulfsy,  bishop  of 
Lichfield,  and  Leofwine,  abbat  of  Coventiy  succeeded  to  the 
bishopric  ;  and  Egelward,  abbat  of  Glastonbury,  died,  and 
Godwin,  abbat  of  Winchcomb.  Moreover,  the  Welshmen 
slew  a  great  number  of  the  English  people,  of  the  wardmen, 
near  Westbury.  In  this  year  there  was  no  archbishop  in 
this  land  ;  but  bishop  Stigand  held  the  bishopric  of  Canter- 
bury at  Christchurch,  and  Kynsey  of  York  ;  and  Leofwine 
and  Wulfwy  went  over  sea,  and  caused  themselves  to  be  there 
ordained  bishops  ;  Wulfwy  obtained  the  bishopric  which  Ulf 
had,*  he  being  yet  living  and  driven  from  it. 

A.  1053.  This  year  was  the  great  wind  on  Thomas 's-mass-night,  ana 
also  the  whole  midwinter  there  was  much  wind  ;  and  it  was  decreed  that 
ReeSjthe  Welsh  king's  brother,  should  be  slain,  because  he  had  done  harm 
and  his  head  was  brought  to  Gloucester  on  Twelfth-day  eve.  And  the 
same  year,  before  All  Hallows-mass,  died  Wulfsy,  bishop  of  Lichfield, 
and  Godwin,  abbat  of  Winchcomb,  and  Egelward,  abbat  of  Glastonbury, 
all  within  one  month,  and  Leofwine  succeeded  to  the  bishopric  of  Lich- 
field, and  bishop  Aldredf  took  the  abbacy  at  Winchcomb,  and  Egel- 
noth  succeeded  to  the  abbacy  at  Glastonbury.  And  the  same  year  died 
Elfric,  Odda's  brother  at  Deorhurst  ;  and  his  body  resteth  at  Pershore 
And  the  same  year  died  Godwin  the  earl  ;  and  he  fell  ill  as  be  sat  with 
the  king  at  Winchester.  And  Harold  his  son  succeeded  to  the  earldom 
which  his  father  before  held  ;  and  Elgar,  the  earl,  succeeded  to  the  earl- 
dom which  Harold  before  held. 

A.  1053.  In  this  year  died  Godwin,  the  earl,  on  the  17th  before  the 
Kalends  of  May,  and  he  is  buried  at  Winchester,  in  the  Oid-rainster  ;  and 
Harold,  the  earl,  his  son,  succeeded  to  the  earldom,  and  to  all  that  which 
his  father  had  held  :  and  Elgar,  the  earl,  succeeded  to  the  earldom  which 
Harold  before  held. 

A.  1054.  This  year  went  Siward  the  earl±  with  a  great 
army  into  Scotland,  and  made  much  slaughter  of  the  Scots 
♦  Dorchester.  f  Of  Worcester.  X  Of  Northumbria. 


130    THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,   a.d.  ior>*,  1055. 

and  put  them  to  flight :  and  the  king  escaped.  Moreover, 
many  fell  on  his  side,  as  well  Danish-men  as  English,  and  also 
his  own  son.*  The  same  year  was  consecrated  the  minster 
at  Evesham,  on  the  6th  before  the  Ides  of  October.  In  the 
same  year  bishop  Aldredf  went  south  over  sea  into  Saxony, 
and  was  there  received  with  much  reverence.  That  same 
year  died  Osgod  Clapa  suddenly,  even  as  he  lay  on  his 
bed.  In  this  year  died  Leo  [IX.]  the  holy  pope  of  Rome. 
And  in  this  year  there  was  so  great  a  murrain  among  cattle, 
as  no  man  remembered  for  many  years  before.  And  Victor 
[II.]  was  chosen  pope. 

1054.  This  year  went  Siward  the  earl  with  a  great  army  into  Scotland, 
both  with  a  ship-force  and  with  a  land-force,  and  fought  against  the  Scots, 
and  put  to  Bight  king  Macbeth,  and  slew  all  who  were  the  chief  men  in  the 
land,  and  led  thence  much  booty,  such  as  no  man  before  had  obtained. 
But  his  son  Osborn,  and  his  sister's  son  Siward,  and  some  of  his  house-carls, 
and  also  of  fhe  king's,  were  there  slain,  on  the  day  of  the  Seven  Sleepers. 
The  same  year  went  bishop  Aldred  to  Cologne,  over  sea,  on  the  king's 
errand  ;  and  he  was  there  received  with  much  worship  by  the  emperor,J 
and  there  he  dwelt  well  nigh  a  year  ;  and  either  gave  him  entertainment, 
both  the  bishop  of  Cologne  and  the  emperor.  And  he  gave  leave  to 
bishop  Leofwine§  to  consecrate  the  minster  at  Evesham  on  the  6th  before  the 
Idea  of  October.  In  this  year  died  Osgod  suddenly  in  his  bed.  And  this 
year  died  St.  Leo  the  pope  ;  and  Victor  was  chosen  pope  in  his  stead. 

A.  1055.  In  this  year  died  Siward  the  earl  at  York,  and  his 
body  lies  within  the  minster  at  Galmanho,  ||  which  himself  had 
before  built,  to  the  glory  of  God  and  of  all  his  saints.  Then, 
within  a  little  time  after,  was  a  general  council  in  London, 
and  Elgar  the  earl,  Leofric  the  earl's  son,  was  outlawed 
without  any  kind  of  guilt ;  and  he  went  then  to  Ireland,  and 
there  procured  himself  a  fleet,  which  was  of  eighteen  ships, 
besides  his  own  :  and  they  went  then  to  Wales,  to  king 
Griffin,^  with  that  force  ;  and  he  received  him  into  his  pro- 
tection. And  then,  with  the  Irishmen  and  with  Welshmen, 
they  gathered  a  great  force  :  and  Ralph  the  earl  gathered  a 
great  force  on  the  other  hand  at  Hereford-port.  And  they 
sought  them  out  there :  but  before  there  was  any  spear 
thrown,  the  English  people  fled  because  they  were  on  horses  | 

*  Osbom.  +  Of  "Worcester. 

i  Henry  III.  fj  Of  Lichfield. 

I  A  Saxon  abf  ey,  merged  afterwardi  in  St  Maiy^  at  York. 

i  Of  North  Walw. 

i.D.iw.5.    TTTE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.  131 

and  there  great  slaughter  was  made,  about  four  hundr<^ci 
men  oi  five  ;  and  they  made  none  on  the  other  side.  And 
they  then  betook  themaelves  to  the  town,  and  that  they 
burned  ;  and  the  great  minster  which  Athelstan  the  vene 
rable  bishop  before  caused  to  be  built,  that  they  plundered 
*.nd  bereaved  of  relics  and  of  vestments,  and  of  all  things  s 
and  slew  the  people,  and  some  they  led  away.  Then  a  force 
was  gathered  from  well  nigh  throughout  all  England,  and 
they  came  to  Gloucester,  and  so  went  out,  not  far,  among 
the  Welsh  ;  and  there  they  lay  some  while  :  and  Harold  the 
earl  caused  the  ditch  to  be  dug  about  the  port*  the  while. 
Then,  during  this,  then  spoke  they  concerning  peace  ;  and 
Harold  the  earl,  and  those  who  were  with  him,  came  to 
Bilsley :  and  there  peace  and  friendship  was  established 
between  them.  And  then  they  inlawed  Elgar  the  earl, 
and  gave  him  all  that  before  had  been  taken  from  him  ;  ar^d 
the  fleet  went  to  Chester,  and  there  awaited  their  pay,  which 
Elgar  had  promised  them.  The  man-slaying  was  on  the 
rsinth  before  the  Kalends  of  November.  In  the  same  year 
died  Tremerin  the  Welsh  bishop, f  soon  after  that  ravaging  ; 
he  was  bishop  Athelstan's  coadjutor  from  the  time  that  be 
had  become  infirm. 

A.  1055.  In  this  year  died  Siward  the  earl  at  York,  and  he  lies  at 
Galmanho,  in  the  minster  which  himself  caused  to  be  built,  and  consecrated 
in  God's  and  Olave's  name.  And  Tosty  succeeded  to  the  earldom  which  he 
had  held.  And  archbishop  KynseyJ  fetched  his  pall  from  pope  Victor. 
And  soon  thereafter  was  outlawed  Elgar  the  earl,  son  of  Leofric  the  earl, 
well-nigh  without  guilt.  But  he  went  to  Ireland  and  to  Wales,  and  pro- 
cured himself  there  a  great  force,  and  so  went  to  Hereford  :  but  there  came 
against  him  Ralph  the  earl,  with  a  large  army.  And  with  a  slight  conflict 
he  put  them  to  flight,  and  much  people  slew  in  tne  flight  :  and  they  went  then 
into  Hereford-port,  and  that  they  ravaged,  and  burned  the  great  minster 
which  bishop  Athelstan  had  built,  and  slew  the  priests  within  the  minster, 
and  many  in  addition  thereto,  and  took  all  the  treasures  therein,  and  carried 
them  away  with  them.  And  when  they  had  done  the  utmost  evil,  this 
counsel  was  counselled  :  that  Elgar  the  earl  should  be  inlawed,  and  be 
given  his  earldom,  and  all  that  had  been  taken  from  him.  This  ravaging 
happened  on  the  9th  before  the  Kalends  of  November.  In  the  same  year 
died  Tremerin  the  Welsh  bishop,$  soon  after  that  ravaging  :  and  he  waa 
bifhop  Athelstan's  coadjutor  from  the  time  that  he  had  become  infirm. 

A.  1055.  In  this  year  died  Siward  the  earl :  and  then  was  siraimoived  a 
general  coimcil,  seven  days  before  Mid-lent ;  and  they  outlawed  Elgsv  *he 
eurl,  because  it  was  cast  upon  him  that  he  was  a  traitor  to  the  king  aivi  to 

•  Hereford.        f  Of  St.  David's.       J  Of  York.        $  Of  St  David'* 


132    THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.  a.d  1056.1057. 

flll  the  people  of  the  land.  And  he  made  a  rorfession  of  it  before  all  th« 
men  wlio  were  there  gathered  ;  though  the  word  escaped  hiin  uninten- 
tionally. And  the  king  gave  the  earldom  to  Testy,  son  of  eai-1  Godwin, 
w-hich  Siward  the  earl  before  held.  And  Elgar  the  earl  sought  Griffin's 
protection  in  North-Wales.  And  in  this  year  Griffin  and  Elgar  burned  St. 
Kltheibert's  minster,  and  all  the  town  of  Hereford. 

A.  1056.  This  year  bishop  Egelric  gave  up  his  bishopric 
<it  Durham,  and  went  to  St.  Peter's  minster,  Peterborough  ;  and 
his  brother  Egelwine  succeeded  thereto.  This  year  died 
Athelstan  the  venerable  bishop,  on  the  4th  before  the  Ides 
of  February,  and  liis  body  lies  at  Hereford-port ;  and  Leof- 
gar  was  appointed  bishop  ;  he  was  the  mas--priest  of  Harold 
the  earl.  He  wore  his  knapsack  during  his  priesthood 
until  he  was  a  bishop.  He  forsook  his  chrism  and  his  rood, 
his  ghostly  weapons,  and  took  to  his  spear  and  his  sword, 
after  his  bishophood  ;  and  so  went  to  the  field  against  Griffin 
the  Welsh  king :  and  there  was  he  slain,  and  his  priests 
with  him,  and  Elnoth  the  sheriff  and  many  good  men  with 
them  ;  and  the  others  fled  away.  This  was  eight  days 
before  midsummer.  It  is  difficult  to  tell  the  distress,  and 
ail  the  marching,  and  the  camping,  and  the  travail  and  de- 
struction of  men,  and  also  of  horses,  which  all  the  English 
army  endured,  until  Leofric  the  earl*  came  thither,  and 
Harold  the  earl,  and  bishop  Aldi-ed,f  and  made  a  reconcilia- 
tion there  between  them  ;  so  that  Griffin  swore  oaths  that  he 
v/ould  be  to  king  Edward  a  faithful  and  unbetraying  under- 
ki ng.  And  bishop  Aldred  succeeded  to  the  bishopric 
v/hich  Leofgar  had  before  held  eleven  weeks  and  four  days. 
In  the  same  year  died  Cona|  the  emperor.  This  year 
died  Odda  the  earl,§  and  his  body  lies  at  Pershore,  and  he 
was  ordained  a  monk  before  his  end  ;  a  good  man  he  was 
and  pure,  and  right  noble.  And  he  died  on  the  2nd  before 
the  Kalends  of  September. 

A.   1057. 
Here  came  Edward  etheling 
to  Angle-land  ; 
\e  was  king  Edward's 
bother's  son, 
Edmund  king, 
who  Ironside  was  called 

for  his  valour. 

This  etheling  Canute  king 

had  sent  away 

to  Unger-land|| 

to  be  betrayed  : 

but  he  there  grew  up 

to  a  good  man. 

•  Of  Mercia.  f  Of  Worcester.  t  Hon.  IIL 

(  Of  Devon.  y  Hungary, 

A.D.  1057, 1058.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.    133 

his  kinsman  Edward 

kinoj  beliold. 

Alas  !  that  was  a  rueful  caso 

and  harmful 

for  all  this  nation 

that  he  so  soon 

his  life  did  end  [came 

after  that  he  to  Angle-lard 

for  the  mishap 

of  this  wretched  nation. 

a8  Gf.J  him  granted. 

and  him  well  became  ; 

so  that  he  obtained  [wife, 

tlie  emperor's   kinswoman  to 

and  by  her,  fair 

offspring  he  begot  : 

she  was  Agatha  hight. 

Nor  wist  we 

for  which  cause 

that  done  was, 

that  he  might  not 

In  the  same  year  died  Leofric  the  earl,*  on  the  second  befor© 
the  kalends  of  October  ;  he  was  very  wise  for  God  and  also 
for  the  world,  which  was  a  blessing  to  all  this  nation.  He 
lies  at  Coventry  ;  and  his  son  Elgar  succeeded  to  his  govern- 
ment. And  within  the  year  died  Ralph,  the  earlf  on  th« 
12th  before  the  kalends  of  January;  and  he  lies  at  Peter- 
borough. Moreover,  bishop  Heca  died  in  Sussex,  and  Agel- 
ric  was  raised  to  his  secj  And  this  year  pope  Victor  died, 
and  Stephen  [IX.  J  was  chosen  pope. 

A.  1057.  In  this  year  Edward  etheling,  king  Edmund'8  son,  camenither 
to  land,  and  soon  after  died  :  and  his  body  is  buried  within  St.  Paul's  min- 
ster at  London.  And  pope  Victor  died,  and  Stephen  [IX.]  was  chostn 
pope  :  he  was  abbat  of  Mont-Cassino.  And  Leofric  the  earl  died,  and 
Elgar  his  son  succeeded  to  the  earldom  which  the  father  before  held. 

A.  1058.  This  year  Elgar,  the  earl,§  was  banished  ;  but 
he  soon  came  in  again,  with  violence,  through  Griffin's  ||  aid. 
And  this  year  came  a  fleet  from  Norway  :  it  is  tedious  to 
tell  how  all  these  matters  went.  In  the  same  year  bishop 
Aldredlf  consecrated  the  minster  at  Gloucester,  wliich  himself 
liad  raised  to  the  glory  of  God  and  of  St.  Peter  ;  and  so  he 
went  to  Jerusalem  with  such  splendour  as  none  other  h?.d 
displayed  before  him,  and  there  devoted  himself  to  God:  ami 
a  worthy  gift  he  also  offered  at  our  Lord's  tomb  ;  that  was  u 
golden  chalice  of  five  marks  of  very  wonderful  work.  In 
the  same  year  died  Pope  Stephen  [IX.],  and  Benedics 
[^X.]|  was  appointed  pope  :  he  sent  a  pall  to  bishop  Stiganil 

*  OfMercia.  f  Of  Hereford. 

t  Selaey.  ^  Of  Mercia. 

H  King  of  North  Wales.  11  Of  Worcester, 

134    THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,   a.d.  io5»-ioQa 

Algenc  was  ordained  l»shop  of  Silsstx  *  and  abbat  Siward 
of  Rochester. 

A.  1058.  This  year  died  Pope  Stephen,  and  Benedict  was  consec^ted 
pope  :  the  same  sent  hither  to  land  a  pall  to  archbishop  Stigand.  And 
in  this  year  died  Heca,  bishop  of  Sussex  ;  and  archbishop  Stigand 
ordained  Algeric,  a  monk  at  Christchurch,  bishop  of  Sussex,  and  abbat 
Siward  bishop  of  Rochester. 

A.  1059.  In  this  year  was  Nicholas  fll.]  chosen  pope, 
he  had  before  been  bishop  of  the  town  of  Florence ;  and 
Benedict  was  driven  awaj,  who  had  there  before  been  pope. 
And  in  this  year  was  the  steeple  consecrated  at  Peter- 
borough, on  the  16th  before  the  Kalends  of  November. 

A.  1060.  In  this  year  there  was  a  great  earthquake  on 
the  Translation  of  St.  Martin  :  and  king  Henry  died  in 
France.  And  Kynsey,  archbishop  of  York,  departed  on  the 
11th  before  the  Kalends  of  January,  and  he  lies  at  Peter- 
borough ;  and  bishop  Aldred  succeeded  to  the  bishopric,  and 
Walter  succeeded  to  the  bishopric  of  Herefordshire  :  and 
bishop  Dudoc  also  died ;  he  was  bishop  in  Somerset  ;j"  and 
Giso  the  priest  was  appointed  in  his  stead. 

A.  1061.  This  year  bishop  Aldred  went  to  Rome  after 
his  pall,  and  he  received  it  from  Pope  Nicholas.  And  Tosty 
and  his  wife  also  went  to  Rome  ;  and  the  bishop  and  the 
earl  suffered  much  distress  as  they  came  homeward.  And 
this  year  died  Godwin,  bishop  of  St.  Martin's  4  ^"^  Wulfric 
abbat  of  St.  Augustine's,  on  the  14th  before  the  Kalendj^  of 
April  [May?].  And  Pope  Nicholas  died,  and  Alexander 
[IL]  was  chosen  pope  :  he  had  been  bishop  of  Lucca. 

A.  1061.  In  this  year  died  Dudoc,  bishop  of  Somerset,  and  Giso  succeedeo . 
And  in  the  same  year  died  Godwin,  l)ishop  of  St.  Martin's,  on  the  7th 
before  the  Ides  of  March.  And  in  the  self-same  year  died  Wulfric,  abbat 
of  St.  Augustine's,  within  the  Easter  week,  on  the  14th  before  the 
Kalends  of  May.  When  word  came  to  the  king  that  abbat  Wulfric  was 
departed,  then  chose  he  Ethelsy  the  monk  thereto,  from  the  Old-Min- 
ster, who  then  followed  archbishop  Stigand,  and  was  consecrated  abbat  at 
Windsor,  on  St.  Augustine's  mass-day. 

A.  1062. 

A.   1063.  In  this  year,  after  raidwintp.r,  Harold,  the  earl^ 

went  from  Gloucester  to  Rhyddlan,  which  was  Griffin's,  and 

burned  the  vill,   and   his  ships,    and    all   the  stores  which 

thereto  belonged,  and  put  liim  to  flight.     And  then,  at  Roga* 

*  Selsey  f  Weiu.  t  At  Canterbuty 

A.D.  1063-1065.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.    135 

tion-tide,  Harold  went  with  his  ships  from  Bristol  about 
Wales  ;  and  the  people  made  a  truce  and  delivered  hostages  ; 
and  Tostj  went  with  a  land-force  against  them  :  and  they 
subdued  the  land.  But  in  this  same  year,  during  harvest, 
was  king  Griffin  slain,  on  the  Nones  of  August,  by  his  own 
men,  by  reason  of  the  war  that  he  warred  with  Harold  the 
earl.  He  was  king  over  all  tlie  Welsli  race  :  and  his  head 
was  brought  to  Harold  the  earl,  and  Harold  brought  it  to  the 
king,  and  his  ship's  head,  and  the  rigging  therewith.  And 
king  Edward  committed  the  land  to  his  two  brothers,  Bleth- 
gent  and  Rigwatle  ;  and  they  swore  oaths,  and  delivered 
hostages  to  the  king  and  to  the  earl,  that  they  would  be 
faithful  to  him  in  all  things,  and  be  everywhere  ready  for 
him,  by  water  and  by  land,  and  make  such  renders  from  the 
land  as  had  been  done  before  to  any  other  king. 

A.  1063.  This  year  went  Harold  the  earl,  and  his  brother  Tosty  the 
earl,  as  well  with  a  land-force  as  a  ship-force,  into  Wales,  and  they  sub- 
dued the  land  ;  and  the  people  delivered  hostages  to  them,  and  submitted  ; 
and  went  afterwards  and  slew  their  king  Griffin,  and  brought  to  Harold  his 
head:  and  he  appointed  another  king  thereto. 

A.  1064. 

A.  1065.  Li  this  year,  before  Lammas,  Harold  the  earl 
ordered  a  building  to  be  erected  in  Wales  at  Portskeweth, 
after  he  had  subdued  it  ;  and  there  he  gathered  much  good  ; 
and  thought  to  have  king  Edward  there  for  the  purpose  of 
hunting.  But  when  it  was  all  ready,  then  went  Caradoc, 
Griffin's  son,  with  the  whole  force  wliich  he  could  procure, 
and  slew  almost  all  the  people  who  there  had  been  building  ; 
and  they  took  the  good  which  there  was  prepared.  We  wist 
not  who  first  devised  this  ill  counsel.  This  was  done  on  St. 
Bartholomew's  mass-day.  And  soon  after  this,  all  the  thanes 
in  Yorkshire  and  in  Northumberland  gathered  themselves 
together,  and  outlawed  their  earl,  Tosty,  and  slew  his  house- 
hold men,  aU  that  they  might  come  at,  as  well  English  as 
Danish :  and  they  took  all  his  weapons  at  York,  and  gold, 
and  silver,  and  all  his  treasures  which  they  might  any  where 
there  hear  of,  and  sent  after  Morkar,  the  son  of  Elgar  the 
earl,  and  chose  him  to  be  their  earl :  and  he  went  south  with 
all  the  shire,  and  with  Nottinghamshire,  and  Derbyshire, 
and  Lincolnshire,  until  he  came  to  Northampton  :  and  his 
brother  Edwin  came  ty  neet  him  with  the  men  who  wer« 


THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.    a.d.  iocs. 

in  his  earldom,  and  also  many  Britons  camo  with  him. 
There  came  Harold,  the  earl,  to  meet  them  ;  and  they  laid 
an  errand  upon  him  to  king  Edward,  and  also  sent  messen- 
gers with  him,  and  begged  that  they  might  have  Morkar  for 
their  earl.  And  the  king  granted  it,  and  sent  Harold  again 
to  them  at  Northampton,  on  the  eve  of  St.  Simon's  and 
St.  Jude's  mass  ;  and  he  made  known  the  same  to  them,  and 
deliverdd  a  pledge  thereof  unto  them  :  and  he  there  renewed 
Canute's  law.  But  the  northern  men  did  much  harm 
about  Northampton  whilst  he  went  on  their  errand,  irjfl" 
much  as  they  slew  men  and  burned  houses  and  corn  ;  and 
took  all  the  cattle  which  they  might  come  at,  that  was  many 
thousand  :  and  many  hundrod  men  they  took  and  led  north 
^vith  them  ;  so  that  that  shire,  and  the  other  shires  which 
there  are  nigh,  were  for  many  years  the  worse.  And  Tosty 
the  earl,  and  his  wife,  and  all  those  who  would  what  he 
would,  went  south  over  sea  with  him  to  Baldwin,  the  earl, 
and  he  received  them  all  ;  and  they  were  all  the  winter 
there.  And  king  Edward  came  to  Westminster  at  midwin- 
ter, and  there  caused  to  be  consecrated  the  minster  which  him- 
self had  built  to  the  glory  of  God  and  of  St.  Peter,  and  of 
all  God's  saints  ;  and  the  church-hallowing  was  on  Childer- 
mass-day.  And  he  died  on  Twelfth-day  eve,  and  him  they 
buried  on  Twelfth-day  eve,  in  the  same  minster,  as  it  here- 
after sayeth. 

Here  Edward  king, 

of  Angles  lord, 

gent  his  stedfast 

soul  to  Christ, 

in  God's  protection, 

spirit  holy. 

He  in  the  world  here 

dwelt  awhile 

in  royal  majesty 

mighty  in  council. 


lordly  ruler  ! 

of  winters  numbered, 

he  wealth  dispensed  ; 

and  he  a  prosperous  tide; 

ruler  of  heroes, 

I  distinguished  governed, 

j  Welsh  and  Scots, 
and  Britons  also, 
son  of  Ethelred, 
Angles  and  Saxons, 
chieftains  bold. 
Where'er  embrace 
cold  ocean-waves, 
there  all  to  Edward, 
noble  king  ! 
obeyed  faithfully, 
the  warrior-men. 
Aye  was  blithe-mind 
the  harmless  king, 
though  he  long  erst 

>  of  land  bereaved. 

A.i>.  1005,1066.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.     137 

in  exile  dwelt 

mde  o'er  the  earth, 

since  Canute  o'ercame 

■.he  race  of  Ethelred, 

and  Danes  wielded 

the  dear  realm 

of  Angle-land, 


of  winters  numbered, 

wealth  dispensed. 

After  forth-came, 

in  vestments  lordly, 

king  with  the  chosen  good, 

chaste  and  mild, 

Edward  the  noble  : 

the  realm  he  guarded, 

land  and  people, 

until  suddenly  came 

death  the  bitter, 
and  so  dear  a  one  seized 
This  noble,  from  earth 
angels  carried, 
stedfast  soul, 
into  heaven's  light. 
And  the  sage  ne'erthelcss, 
the  realm  committed 
to  a  highly-born  man, 
Harold's  self, 
the  noble  earl  ! 
He  in  all  time 
obeyed  faithfully 
his  rightful  lord 
by  words  and  deeds, 
nor  aught  neglected 
which  needful  was 
■  to  his  sovereign -king. 

And  this  year  also  was  Harold  consecrated  king  ;  and  he  with 
little  quiet  abode  therein,  the  while  that  he  wielded  the 

A.  1065.  And  the  man-slaying  was  on  St.  Bartholomew's  mass-day. 
And  then,  after  Michael's-mass,  all  the  thanes  in  Yorkshire  went  to  York, 
and  there  slew  all  earl  Tosty's  household  servants  whom  they  might 
hear  of,  and  took  his  treasures  :  and  Tosty  was  then  at  Britford  with  the 
king.  And  then,  very  soon  thereafter,  was  a  great  council  at  Northamp- 
ton ;  and  then  at  Oxford  on  the  day  of  Simon  and  Jude.  And  there  was 
Harold  the  earl,  and  would  work  their  reconciliation  if  he  might,  but  he  could 
not  :  but  all  his  earldom  him  unanimously  forsook  and  outlawed,  and  all 
who  with  him  lawlessness  upheld,  because  he  robbed  God  first,  and  all 
those  bereaved  over  whom  he  had  power  of  life  and  of  land.  And  they  then 
took  to  themselves  Morkar  for  earl  ;  and  Tosty  went  then  over  sea,  and  his 
\«nfe  with  him,  to  Baldwin's  land,  and  they  took  up  their  winter  residence 
at  St.  Omer's. 

A.  1066.  In  this  year  king  Harold  came  from  York  to 
Westminster,  at  that  Easter  which  was  after  the  mid-winte 
in  which  the  king  died  ;  and  Easter  was  then  on  tlie  day 
16th  before  the  Kalends  of  May.  Then  was,  over  all  Eng 
land,  such  a  token  seen  in  the  heavens,  as  no  man  ever 
before  saw.  Some  men  said  that  it  was  cometa  the  star, 
which  some  men  call  the  haired  star  ;  and  it  appeared  first 
on  the  eve  Litania  Major,  the  8th  before  the  Kalends  cf  Ma^ 

138         THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.    a.d.  ioc6. 

and  80  shone  all  the  seven  nights.  And  soon  after  came  In 
'J'osty  the  earl  from  beyond  sea  into  the  Isle  of  Wight,  with 
80  great  a  fleet  as  he  might  procure  ;  and  there  they  yielded 
him  as  well  money  as  food.  And  king  Harold,  his  brother, 
gathered  so  great  a  ship-force,  and  also  a  land-force,  as  no  king 
here  in  the  land  had  before  done ;  because  it  was  made  known 
to  hira  that  William  the  bastard  would  come  hither  and  win 
this  land  ;  all  as  it  afterwards  happened.  And  the  wliile, 
came  Tosty  the  earl  into  Humber  with  sixty  ships  ;  and 
Edwin  the  earl  came  with  a  land-force  and  di-ove  him  out. 
And  the  boatmen  forsook  him  ;  and  he  went  to  Scotland 
with  twelve  vessels.  And  there  met  him  Harold  king  of 
Norway  with  three  hundred  ships  ;  and  Tosty  submitted  to 
him  and  became  his  man.  And  they  then  went  both  into 
Humber,  until  they  came  to  York  ;  and  there  fought  against 
them  Edwin  the  earl,  and  Morkar  the  earl,  his  brother  : 
but  the  Northmen  had  the  victory.  Then  was  it  made  known 
to  Harold  king  of  the  Angles  that  this  had  thus  happened  : 
and  this  battle  was  on  the  vigil  of  St.  Matthew.  Then  came 
Harold  our  king  unawares  on  the  Northmen,  and  met  with 
them  beyond  York,  at  Stanford-bridge,  with  a  great  army 
of  Enghsh  people  ;  and  there  during  the  day  was  a  very 
severe  fight  on  both  sides.  There  was  slain  Harold  the  Fair- 
haired,  and  Tosty  the  earl ;  and  the  Northmen  who  were  there 
remaining  were  put  to  flight ;  and  the  English  from  behind 
hotly  smote  them,  until  they  came,  some,  to  their  ships,  some 
were  drowned,  and  some  also  burned  ;  and  thus  in  divers 
ways  they  perished,  so  that  there  were  few  left :  and  the 
English  had  possession  of  the  place  of  carnage.  The  king 
then  gave  his  protection  to  Olave,  son  of  the  king  of  the  Nor- 
wegians, and  to  their  bishop,  and  to  the  earl  of  Orkney,  and 
to  all  those  who  were  left  in  the  ships  :  and  they  then  went 
up  to  our  king,  and  swore  oaths  that  they  ever  would  observe 
peace  and  friendship  towards  this  land  ;  and  the  king  In.t 
them  go  home  with  twenty-four  ships.  These  two  general 
battles  were  fought  within  five  days.  Then  came  William 
earl  of  Normandy  into  Pevensey,  on  the  eve  of  St.  Michael's- 
mass  :  and  soon  after  they  were  on  their  way,  they  construc- 
ted a  castle  at  Hasting's-port.  This  was  then  made  knowa 
to  king  Harold,  and  he  then  gathered  a  great  force,  and  came 
to  maet  him  at  the  estuary  of  Appledore ;  and  William  came 


against  him  unawares,  before  his  people  were  set  in  order. 
But  the  king  nevertheless  strenuously  fought  against  liiiii 
with  those  men  who  would  follow  him  ;  and  there  was  great 
slaughter  made  on  either  hand.  There  was  slain  king 
Harold,  and  Leofwin  the  earl,  his  brother,  and  Girth  the 
earl,  his  brother,  and  many  good  men  ;  and  the  Frenchmen 
had  possession  of  the  place  of  carnage,  all  as  God  granted 
them  for  the  people's  sins.  Archbishop  Aldred  and  tlie 
townsmen  of  London  would  then  have  child  Edgar  for  king, 
all  as  was  his  true  natural  right :  and  Edwin  and  Morcar 
vowed  to  him  that  they  would  fight  together  with  him.  But 
in  that  degree  that  it  ought  ever  to  have  been  forwarder,  so 
was  it  from  day  to  day  later  and  worse  ;  so  that  at  the  end 
all  passed  away.  This  fight  was  done  on  the  day  of  Calix- 
lus  the  pope.  And  William  the  earl  went  afterwards  again 
to  Hastings,  and  there  awaited  to  see  whether  the  people 
would  submit  to  him.  But  when  he  understood  that  they 
would  not  come  to  him,  he  went  upwards  with  all  his  army 
which  was  left  to  him,  and  that  which  afterwards  had  come 
from  over  sea  to  him  ;  and  he  plundered  all  that  part  which 
he  over-ran,  until  he  came  to  Berkhampstead.  And  there 
came  to  meet  him  archbishop  Aldred,*  and  child  Edgar, 
and  Edwin  the  earl,  and  Morcar  the  earl,  and  aU  the 
chief  men  of  London  ;  and  then  submitted,  for  need,  when 
the  most  harm  had  been  done  :  and  it  was  very  unwise  that 
they  had  not  done  so  before  ;  since  God  would  not  better  it, 
for  our  sins  :  and  they  delivered  hostages,  and  swore  oaths 
to  him  ;  and  he  vowed  to  them  that  he  would  be  a  loving 
lord  to  them  :  and  nevertheless,  during  this,  they  plundered 
all  that  they  over-ran.  Then,  on  mid-winter's  day,  arch- 
bishop Aldred  consecrated  him  king  at  Westminster ;  and  he 
gave  him  a  pledge  upon  Christ's  book,  and  also  swore,  before 
he  would  set  the  crown  upon  his  head,  that  he  would  govern 
this  nation  as  well  as  any  king  before  him  had  at  the  best 
done,  if  they  would  be  faithful  to  him.  Nevertheless,  he 
laid  a  tribute  on  the  people,  very  heavy  ;  and  then  went,  du- 
ring Lent,  over  sea  to  Normandy,  and  took  with  him  arch- 
bishop Stigand,  and  Aylnoth,  abbat  of  Glastonbury,  and 
child  Edgar,  and  Edwin  the  earl,  and  Morkar  the  earl, 
4nd  Waltheof  the  earl,  and  many  other  good  men  of  Eng« 
•  Of  York. 

140         THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.    a.d.  iocs. 

land.  And  bishop  Odo*  and  William  the  earl  remained  here 
behind,  and  they  built  castles  wide  throughout  the  nation, 
and  poor  people  distressed  ;  and  ever  after  it  greatly  grew 
in  evil.     May  the  end  be  good  when  God  will  ! 

A.  1066.  This  year  died  king  Edward,  and  Harold  the  earl  succeeded 
to  the  kingdom,  and  held  it  forty  weeks  and  one  day.  And  this  year  came 
William,  and  won  England.  And  in  this  year  Christ-Church  f  was  burned. 
And  this  year  appeared  a  comet  on  the  14th  before  the  Kalends  of  May. 

A.  1U66. . . .  J  And  then  he  [Tosty]  went  thence,  and  did  harm  everywhere 
by  the  sea-coast  where  he  could  land,  as  far  as  Sandwich.     Then  was  it 
made  known  to  king  Harold,  who  was  in  London,  that  Tosty  his  brother 
was  come  to  Sandwich.     Then  gathered  he  so  great  a  ship-force,  and  also 
a  land  force,  as  no  king  here  in  the  land  had  before  gathered,  because  it 
had  been  soothly  said  unto  him,  that  William  the  earl  from  Normandy, 
king  Edward's  kinsman,  would  come  hither  and  subdue  this  land:  all  as 
it    afterwards   happened.      When  Tosty   learned   that  king  Harold  was 
on  his  way  to  Sandwich,  then  went  he  from  Sandwich,  and  took  some  of 
the  boatmen  \vith  him,  some  willingly  and  some  unwillingly  ;  and  went 
then  north  into  Humber,  and  there  ravaged  in   Lindsey,  and  there  slew 
many  good  men.     When  Edwin  the  earl  and  Morcar  the  earl  understood 
that,  then  came  they  thither,  and  drove  him  out  of  the  land.     And  he  went 
then  to  Scotland :  and  the  king  of  Scots  protected  him,  and  assisted  him 
with  provisions ;   and  he  there  abode  all  the  summer.     Then  came  king 
Harold  to  Sandwich,  and  there  awaited  his  fleet,  because  it  was  long  before 
it  could  be  gathered  together.     And  when  his  fleet  was  gathered   together, 
then  went  he  into  the  Isle  of  Wight,  and  there  lay  all  the  summer  and  the 
harvest ;  and  a  land-force  was  kept  every  where  by  the  sea,  though  in  the 
end  it  was  of  no  benefit.     When  it  was  the  Nativity  of  St.  Mary,  then  were 
the  men'r  provisions  gone,  and  no  man  could  any  longer  keep  them  there. 
Then  were  the  men  allowed  to  go  home,  and  the  king  rode  up,  and  the 
ships  were  despatched  to   London ;  and  many  perished  before  they  came 
thither.     When  the  ships  had  reached  home,  then  came  king  Harold  from 
Norway,  north  into  Tyne,  and  unawares,  with  a  very  large  ship-force,  and 
no  small  one;  that  might  be,  or  more.      And  Tosty  the  earl  came  to  him 
with  all  that  he  had  gotten,  all  as  they  had  before  agreed  ;  and  then  the)' 
went  both,  with  all  the  fleet,  along  the  Ouse,  up  towards  York.     Then  was 
it  made  known  to  king  Harold  in  the  south,  as  he  was  come  from  on  ship- 
board, that  Harold  king  of  Norway  and  Tosty  the  earl  were  landed  near 
York.     Then  went  he  northward,  day  and  night,  as  quickly  as  he  couM 
gather  his  forces.     Then,  before  that  king  Harold  could  come  thither,  then 
gathered  Edwin  the  earl  and  Morcar  the  earl  from  their  earldom  as  great  a 
force  as  they  could  get  together  ;  and  they  fought  against  the  army,  and 
made  great  slaughter :  and  there  was  much  of  the  English  people  slain, 
and  drowned,  and  driven  away  in  flight ;  and  the  Northmen  had  possession 
of  the  place  of  carnage.     And  this  fight  was  on  the  vigil  of  St.  Matthew 
the  apostle,  and  it  was  Wednesday.     And  then,  after  the  fight,  went  Ha- 
rold king  of  Norway,  and  Tosty  the  earl,  into  York,  with  as  much  people 
•  Odo,  bishop  of  Bayeux,  half  brother  of  king  William,  ani  Wiliia^ 
Fit7.  Osbert,  created  earl  of  Hereford.  +  Canterbury, 

^  Continued  after  '*  money  as  food/'  in  page  440. 


as  seemed  meet  to  them.  And  they  deh'vered  hostages  to  them  froix  the 
city,  and  also  assisted  them  with  provisions ;  and  so  they  went  tlience  to 
their  ships,  and  tliey  agreed  upon  a  full  peace,  so  that  they  should  all  go 
with  him  south,  and'  this  land  subdue.  Then,  during  this,  came  Harold 
king  of  the  Angles,  with,  all  his  forces,  on  the  Sunday,  to  Tadcaster,  and 
there  drew  up  his  force,  and  went  then  on  Monday  throughout  York ;  and 
Harold  king  of  Norway,  and  Tosty  the  earl,  and  their  forces,  were  gone 
from  their  ships  beyond  York  to  Stanfordbridge,  because  it  had  been  pro- 
mised them  for  a  certainty,  that  there,  from  all  the  shire,  hostages  should 
be  brought  to  meet  them.  Then  came  Harold  king  of  the  English  against 
them,  unawares,  beyond  the  bridge,  and  they  there  joined  battle,  and  very 
Btrenuously,  for  a  long  time  of  the  day,  continued  fighting :  and  there  was 
Harold  king  of  Norway  and  Tosty  the  earl  slain,  and  nnmberless  of  tl>e 
people  with  them,  as  well  of  the  Northmen  as  of  the  English :  and  the 
Northmen  fled  from  the  English.  Then  was  there  one  of  the  Norwegians 
who  withstood  the  English  people,  so  that  they  might  not  pass  over  tlie 
bridge,  nor  obtain  the  victory.  Then  an  Englishman  aimed  at  him  witn  a 
javelin,  but  it  availed  nothing  ;  and  then  came  another  under  the  bridge,  and 
pierced  him  terribly  inwards  under  the  coat  of  mail.  Then  came  Harold, 
king  of  the  English,  over  the  bridge,  and  his  forces  onward  with  him,  and 
there  made  great  slaughter,  as  well  of  Norwegians  as  of  Flemings.  And 
the  king's  son,  Edmund,  Harold  let  go  home  to  Norway,  with  all  the  ships. 
A.  1066,  In  this  year  was  consecrated  the  minster  at  Westminster,  on 
Childer-mass-tlay.  And  king  Edward  died,  on  the  eve  of  Twelfth-day  ; 
and  he  was  buried  on  Twelfth-day,  within  the  newly  consecrated  church  at 
Westminster.  And  Harold  the  earl  succeeded  to  the  kingdom  of  England, 
even  as  the  king  had  granted  it  to  him,  and  men  also  had  chosen  him 
thereto  ;  and  he  was  cro\vned  as  king  on  Twelfth-day.  And  that  same  year 
that  he  became  king,  he  went  out  with  a  fleet  against  William  ;*  and  the 
while,  came  Tosty  the  earl  into  Humber  with  sixty  ships.  Edwin  the  earl 
came  with  a  land-force  and  drove  him  out ;  and  the  boatmen  forsook  him. 
And  he  went  to  Scotland  with  twelve  vessels  ;  and  Harold  the  king  of  Nor- 
way met  him  with  three  hundred  ships,  and  Tosty  suljmitted  to  him ;  and 
they  both  went  into  Humber,  until  they  came  to  York.  And  Morcar  tlie 
earl,  and  Edwin  the  eai-1,  fought  against  them  ;  and  the  king  of  the  NorAve- 
gians  had  the  victory.  And  it  was  made  known  to  king  Harold  how  it 
there  was  done,  and  had  happened  ;  and  he  came  there  with  a  great  army 
of  English  men,  and  met  him  at  Stanfordbridge,  and  slew  him  and  the  e^irl 
Tosty,  and  boldly  overcame  a'l  the  army.  And  the  while,  William  the 
earl  landed  at  Hastings,  on  St.  Michael's-day :  and  Harold  came  from  the 
north,  and  fought  against  him  before  all  his  army  had  come  up  :  and  there 
he  fell,  and  his  two  brothers.  Girth  and  Leofwin ;  and  William  subdued 
this  land.  And  he  came  to  Westminster,  and  archbishop  Aldred  conse- 
crated him  king,  and  men  paid  him  tribute,  and  delivered  him  hostages, 
and  afterwards  bought  their  land.  And  then  was  Leofric  abbat  of  Peter- 
borough in  that  same  expedition  ;  and  there  he  sickened,  and  came  home, 
and  was  dead  soon  thereafter,  on  All-hallows- mass-night;  God  be  merciful 
to  his  soul !  In  his  day  was  all  bliss  and  all  good  in  Peterborough ;  and 
he  was  dear  to  all  people,  so  that  the  king  gave  to  St.  Peter  and  to  him 
the  abbacy  at  Bmton,  and  that  of  Coventry,  which  Leofric  the  earl,  who 

*  Earl  of  Normandy. 

U2         THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,    a.d.  ioc7. 

was  Ilk  uncle,  before  had  made,  and  that  of  Crowland,  and  that  of  Thor- 
ney.  And  he  conferred  so  much  of  good  upon  the  minster  of  Feter- 
Dorough,  in  gold,  and  in  silver,  and  im  vestments,  and  in  land,  as  never  any 
other  did  before  him,  nor  any  after  him.  After,  Golden-borough  became 
a  wretched  borough.  Then  chose  the  monks  for  abbat  Brand  the  provost, 
by  reason  that  he  was  a  very  good  man,  and  very  wise,  and  sent  him  then 
to  Edgar  the  etheling,  by  reason  that  the  people  of  the  land  supposed  that 
he  should  become  king:  and  the  etheling  granted  it  him  then  gladly. 
When  king  William  heard  say  that,  then  was  he  very  wroth,  and  said  that 
the  abbat  had  despised  him.  Then  went  good  men  between  them,  and 
reconciled  them,  by  reason  that  the  abbat  was  a  good  man.  Then  gave  he 
the  king  forty  marks  of  gold  for  a  reconciliation  ;  and  then  thereafter, 
lived  he  a  little  while,  but  three  years.  After  that  came  every  tribulatior 
and  every  evil  to  the  minster.     God  have  mercy  on  it ! 

A.  1067.  This  year  the  king  came  back  to  England  on 
St.  Nieolas's  day,  and  on  the  same  day  Christ's  Church, 
Canterbury,  was  consumed  by  fire.  Bishop  Wulfwy  also 
died,  and  lies  buried  at  his  see  of  Dorche.'^ter.  Child  Edric 
and  the  Britons  were  unsettled  this  year,  and  fought  with 
the  men  of  the  castle  at  Hereford,  to  whom  they  did  much 
harm.  The  king  this  year  imposed  a  heavy  tax  on  the 
unfortunate  people  ;  but,  notwithstanding,  he  let  his  men 
plunder  all  the  country  which  they  passed  through  :  after 
which  he  marched  to  Devonshire  and  besieged  Exeter 
eighteen  days.  Many  of  his  army  were  slain  there  :  but  he 
had  promised  them  well  and  performed  ill :  the  citizens 
surrendered  the  city,  because  the  thanes  had  betrayed  them. 
This  summer  the  child  Edgar,  with  his  mother  Agatha,  his 
sisters  Margaret  and  Christina,  Merlesweyne  and  several 
good  men,  went  to  Scotland  under  the  protection  of  king 
Malcolm,  who  received  them  all.  Then  it  was  that  king 
Malcolm  desired  to  have  Margaret  to  wife:  but,  the  child 
Edgar  and  all  his  men  refused  for  a  long  time :  and 
she  herself  also  was  unwilling,  saying  that  she  would  have 
neither  him  nor  any  other  person,  if  God  would  allow  her  to 
serve  him  with  her  carnal  heart,  in  strict  continence,  during 
this  short  life.  But  the  king  urged  her  brother  until  he  said 
yes ;  and  indeed  he  did  not  dare  to  refuse,  for  they  were  now 
in  Malcolm's  kingdom.  So  that  the  marriage  was  now 
fulfilled,  as  God  had  foreordained,  and  it  could  not  be 
otherwise,  as  he  says  in  the  Gospel,  that  not  a  sparrow  falls 
to  the  ground,  without  his  foreshowing.  The  prescient 
Creator  knew  long  befoie  what  he  would   do  with   her 


namely  that  slie  should  increase  the  glory  of  God  in  thiH 
land,  lead  the  king  out  of  the  wrong  into  the  right  path, 
bring  him  and  his  people  to  a  better  way,  and  suppress  all 
the  bad  customs  which  the  nation  formerly  followed.  These 
things  sh3  afterwards  accomplished.  The  king  therefore 
married  her,  though  against  her  will,  and  was  pleased  with 
her  manners,  and  thanked  God  who  had  given  him  such  a 
wife.  And  being  a  prudent  man  he  turned  himself  to  God 
and  forsook  all  impurity  of  conduct,  as  St.  Paul,  the  apostle 
of  the  Gentiles,  says  :  "  Salvabitur  vir^"*  SfC.  which  means  in 
our  language  "  Full  oft  the  unbelieving  husband  is  sanctified 
and  healed  through  the  believing  wife,  and  so  belike  the  wife 
through  the  believing  husband."  The  queen  above-named 
afterwards  did  many  things  in  this  land  to  promote  the  glory 
of  God,  and  conducted  herself  well  in  her  noble  rank,  as 
always  was  her  custom.  She  was  sprung  from  a  noble  line 
of  ancestors,  and  her  father  was  Edward  Etheling,  son  of 
king  Edmund.  This  Edmund  was  the  son  of  Ethelred,  who 
was  the  son  of  Edgar,  the  son  of  Edred  ;  and  so  on  in  that 
royal  line.  Her  maternal  kindred  traces  up  to  the  emperor 
Henry,  who  reigned  at  Rome. 

This  year  Harold's  mother,  Githa,  and  the  wives  of  many 
good  men  with  her,  went  to  the  Steep  Holmes,  and  th^re 
abode  some  time  ;  and  afterwards  went  from  thence  over  sea 
to  St.  Omer's. 

This  Easter  the  king  came  to  Winchester ;  and  Easter  was 
then  on  the  tenth  day  before  the  Kalends  of  April.  Soon 
after  this  the  lady  Matilda  came  to  this  country,  and  arch- 
bishop Eldred  consecrated  her  queen  at  Westminster  on 
Whitsunday.  It  was  then  told  the  king,  that  the  people  in 
the  North  had  gathered  together  and  would  oppose  him 
there.  Upon  this  he  went  to  Nottingham,  and  built  a  castle 
there,  and  then  advanced  to  York,  where  he  built  two  castles : 
he  then  did  the  same  at  Lincoln,  and  everywhere  in  those 
parts.  Then  earl  Cospatric  and  all  the  best  men  went  into 
Scotland.  During  these  things  one  of  Harold's  sons  came 
with  a  fleet  from  Ireland  unexpectedly  into  the  mouth  of  the 
river  Avon,  and  soon  plundered  all  that  neighbourhood. 
They  went  to  Bristol,  and  would  have  stormed  the  town,  but 
the  inhabitants  opposed  them  bravely.  Seeing  they  oould 
get  nothing  from  the  town,  they  went  to  their  ships  with  th« 

144    THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.   a.b.  iocs,  wea. 

booty  thpy  had  got  by  plundering,  and  went  to  Somersetshire, 
where  they  went  up  the  country.  Ednoth,  master  of  the 
horse,  fought  with  them,  but  he  was  slain  there,  and  many 
^ood  men  on  both  sides  ;  and  thosft  who  were  left  departed 

A.  1068.  This  year  king  William  gave  the  earldom  of 
Northumberland  to  earl  Robert,  and  the  men  of  that  country 
came  against  him,  and  slew  him  and  900  others  with  him. 
And  then  Edgar  etheling  marched  with  all  the  Northum- 
brians to  York,  and  the  townsmen  treated  with  him  ;  on 
which  king  William  came  from  the  south  with  all  his  troops, 
and  sacked  the  town,  and  slew  many  hundred  persons.  He 
also  profaned  St.  Peter's  minster,  and  all  other  places,  and 
the  etheling  went  back  to  Scotland. 

After  this  came  Harold's  sons  from  Ireland,  about  Mid 
summer,  with  sixty-four  ships  and  entered  the  mouth  of  the 
Taff,  where  they  incautiously  landed.  Earl  Beorn  camt, 
upon  them  unawares  with  a  large  army,  and  slew  all  their 
bravest  men  :  the  others  escaped  to  their  ships,  and  Harold*3 
sons  went  back  again  to  Ireland. 

A.  1069.  This  year  died  Aldred  archbishop  of  York,  and 
he  lies  buried  in  his  cathedral  church.  He  died  on  the 
festival  of  Protus  and  Hyacinthus,  having  held  the  see  with 
much  honour  ten  years,  all  but  fifteen  weeks. 

Soon  after  this,  three  of  the  sons  of  Sweyne  came  from 
Denmark  with  240  ships,  together  with  earl  Osbern  and 
earl  Thorkill,  into  the  Humber  ;  where  they  were  met  by 
child  Edgar  and  earl  Waltheof,  and  Merle- Sweyne,  and 
earl  Cospatric  with  the  men  of  Northumberland  and  all  the 
landsmen,  riding  and  marching  joyfully  with  an  immense 
army  ;  and  so  tiiey  went  to  York,  demolished  the  castle,  and 
found  there  large  treasures.  They  also  slew  many  hundred 
Frenchmen,  and  carried  off  many  prisoners  to  their  ships  ; 
but,  before  the  shipmen  came  thither,  the  Frenchmen  had 
burned  the  city,  and  plundered  and  burnt  St.  Peter's  minster. 
When  the  king  heard  of  this,  he  went  northward  with  all 
the  troops  he  could  collect,  and  laid  waste  all  the  shire  ; 
whilst  the  fleet  lay  all  the  winter  in  the  Huinber,  where  the 
king  could  not  get  at  them.  The  king  was  at  York  on 
midwinter's  day,  remaining  on  land  all  the  winter,  and  at 
Easter  he  came  to  Winchester, 

A.r.1070.    THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CnRONICLE.  115 

Tliis  year  bishop  Egelric  being  at  Peterboroiigh,  wag 
accused  and  sent  to  Westminster  ;  and  his  brother  bishop 
Egehvin  was  outlawed.  And  the  same  year  Brand  abbat 
of  Peterborough  died  on  the  fifth  before  the  Kalends  of 

A.  1070.  This  year  Lanfranc  abbat  of  Caen  came  to 
England,  and  in  a  few  days  he  was  made  archbishop  of 
Canterbury.     He  was  consecrated  *  at  his  metropolis  on  the 

•  In  the  second  year  after  Lanfranc's  consecration  he  went  to  Home, 
pope  Alexander  so  greatly  honoured  him,  that  contrary  to  his  custom  lie 
rose  to  meet  him,  and  gave  him  two  palls  in  token  of  especial  favour  : 
Lanfranc  received  one  of  them  from  the  altar  after  the  Roman  manner, 
and  the  pope,  with  his  own  hands,  gave  him  the  other,  in  which  he  himself 
had  been  accustomed  to  perform  mass.  In  the  presence  of  the  pope, 
Thomas  brought  forwards  a  calumny  touching  the  primacy  of  the  see  of 
Canterbury,  and  the  subjection  of  certain  bishops.  Lanfranc  briefly  and 
clearly  states  the  conclusion  to  which  this  affair  Avas  afterwards  brought  in 
England,  in  an  epistle  to  the  aforesaid  pope  Alexander.  This  year  a 
general  council  was  held  at  Winchester,  in  which  he  deposed  Wulfric, 
abbat  of  the  new  monastery,  and  made  m.any  regulations  touching  Christian 
discipline.  A  few  days  afterwards,  he  consecrated  Osbem  at  London  as 
bishop  of  Exeter,  and  Scotland  at  Canterbury  as  abbat  of  St.  Augustine's. 

In  his  third  year  he  consecrated  Peter  at  Gloucester  as  bishop  of  Lich- 
field or  Chester.  This  year  also  a  great  council  was  held  at  a  place  called 
Pennenden  Heath  [near  Maidstone],  in  which  Lanfranc  proved  that  he 
and  his  church  held  their  lands  and  their  rights  by  sea  and  by  land,  as 
freely  as  the  king  held  his  :  excepting  in  three  cases  :  to  wit,  if  the  highway 
be  dug  up  ;  if  a  tree  be  cut  so  as  to  fall  upon  it ;  and  if  murder  be  com- 
mitted and  blood  spilt :  when  a  man  is  taken  in  these  misdeeds,  the  fine 
paid  shall  belong  to  the  king  ;  otherwise  their  vassals  shall  be  free  from 
regal  exactions. 

In  his  fourth  year  he  consecrated  Patrick  at  London  as  bishop  of  Dublin, 
in  Ireland,  from  whom  he  received  a  profession  of  obedience,  and  he 
moreover  gave  him  very  memorable  letters  to  the  kings  of  Ireland. 

In  his  fifth  year  a  general  council  was  held  at  London,  the  proceedings 
of  which  Lanfranc  committed  to  \vriting,  at  the  request  of  many. 

In  his  sixth  year  he  gave  the  bishopric  of  Rochester  to  Emost,  a  monk 
of  Christ  church,  whom  he  also  consecrated  at  London.  A  council  waa 
held  at  Winchester  :  and  the  same  year  Emost  departed  this  life. 

In  his  seventh  year,  he  gave  the  bishopric  of  Rochester  to  Gundulph, 
whom  lie  consecrated  at  Canterbury.  This  year  Thomas  archbishop  of 
York  sent  letters  to  Lanfranc,  requesting  that  he  would  send  two  bishops 
to  consecrate  a  certain  priest,  who  had  come  to  him  with  letters  from  the 
Orkneys,  to  the  intent  that  he  might  be  made  bishop  of  those  islands, 
Lanfranc  consenting  to  this,  commanded  Wolstan  bishop  of  Worcester, 
end  Peter  bishop  of  Chester,  to  go  to  York,  and  to  assist  Thomas  in  com- 
pleting the  ceremony. 

In  his  eighth  year,  a  council  was  held  at  London,  in  which  Lanfi'aiic 
deposed  Ailnoth  abbat  of  Glabiojibury. 

146         THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,    a.d.  it7o. 

fourtji  before  the  Kalends  of  September,  by  eight  bishops 
hi3  suffhigans  ;  the  rest  who  were  absent  signifying 
through  messengers,  and  by  writing,  why  they  could  not  be 

In  his  eleventh  year,  a  council  was  held  at  Gloucester,  wherein,  by  the 
king's  order,  and  with  the  consent  of  Lanfranc,  Thomas  archbishop  of 
York  consecrated  William  to  the  bishopric  of  Dvu-ham  ;  and  because  he 
could  not  be  attended  by  the  Scotch  bishops  his  suffragans,  the  bishops 
Wolstan,  Osbem,  Giso,  and  Robert  assisted  at  this  ceremony  by  the  com- 
mand of  Lanfranc.  At  this  time  Lanfranc  sent  letters  rich  in  sacred  lore 
to  bishop  Donald  in  Ireland. 

In  his  sixteenth  year  Lanfranc  consecrated  Donatus,  his  monk  at 
Canterbury,  to  the  bishopric  of  Dublin,  by  the  desire  of  the  king,  clergy, 
end  people  of  Ireland.  This  year  a  council  was  held  at  Gloucester, 
wherein  Lanfranc  deposed  Wulstcetel  abbat  of  Croyland.  He  consecrated 
Robert  to  the  bishopric  of  Chester,  and  William  to  that  of  Elmham,  in 
one  day,  at  Canterbury.  At  Winchester  also  he  consecrated  Maurice  as 
bishop  of  London,  who  brought  noble  gifts  to  his  mother  church  at  Can- 
terbiu-y  a  few  davs  afterwards. 

In  the  eightet-'iith  year  of  Lanfranc's  prelacy,  on  the  death  of  king 
William  beyond  sea,  he  acknowledged  his  son  William,  as  he  had  done  his 
father,  and  consecrated  and  crowned  him  in  St.  Peter's  chiu-ch,  which  is  ir. 
the  western  part  of  London.  The  same  year,  and  at  his  metropolitan  city 
of  Canterbury,  he  examined  and  consecrated  Godfrey  as  bishop  of 
Chichester,  Wydo  also  as  abbat  of  St.  Augustine's  and  John  as  bishop  of 
Wells.  The  next  day  Lanfranc  on  his  own  authority,  and  taking  vnth  him 
Odo  bishop  of  Bayeux  the  king's  brother,  who  was  then  at  Canterbury, 
conducted  the  abbat  Wydo  to  St.  Augustine's  and  commanded  the  brothers 
of  the  order  to  receive  him  as  their  own  abbat  and  pastor  ;  but  they,  with 
•ne  accord,  answered  that  they  would  neither  submit  to  him  nor  receive 
nim.  Thus  Lanfranc  came  leading  the  abbat,  and  when  he  found  that  the 
moi.ks  were  obstinate  in  resistance,  and  that  they  would  not  obey  him,  ho 
commanded  that  all  the  refractory  should  come  out  one  by  one.  When 
therefore  nearly  all  had  left  the  monastery,  Lanfranc  and  his  suite  led  in 
the  abbat  with  much  pomp,  placed  him  in  the  chair,  and  delivered  the 
church  up  to  him.  He  also  seized  the  prior,  Elfrin  by  name,  and  as  many 
others  as  he  thought  fit,  and  he  put  them  forth'vvith  into  claustral  imprison- 
ment at  Canterbury  ;  but  he  sent  those  who  had  the  greatest  influence,  and 
were  the  authors  of  this  scandal,  to  the  castle  to  be  confined  there.  Afler 
he  had  returned  home  having  finished  all,  he  was  informed  that  the  monks 
who  had  left  the  monastery  were  assembled,  near  St.  Mildred's  church. 
Hereupon  he  sent  to  them,  saying,  that  if  they  would,  they  might  return 
to  the  church  before  the  ninth  hoiu-,  but  that  if  they  delayed  longer,  they 
would  not  be  allowed  free  entrance,  but  he  treated  as  renegadoes.  Having 
heard  this  message  they  doubted  whether  to  return  or  to  remain,  bi  t  at  the 
hour  of  refection,  when  they  became  hungry,  many  repenting  of  their 
obstinacy  sent  to  Lanfranc  and  promised  submission.  These  he  treated 
with  lenity,  and  desired  that  tney  should  return  directly  and  confinn  by 
oath  their  profession  of  obedience  to  the  aforesaid  abbat.  Thus  they 
returaed  and  iwore  feithfulness  and  obedience  to  the  abbat  Wydo,  upoa 


there.  This  year  Thomas,  who  had  been  chosen  as  bishop 
of  York,  came  to  Canterbury,  that  he  might  be  consecrated 
there   after  the  old  form,  but  when   Lanfranc   craved    tiie 

the  relics  of  St.  Augustine.  Lanfranc  seized  those  who  remained  beliind 
and  placed  them  in  various  monasteries  of  England,  confining  them  till  he 
brought  them  to  profess  their  submission.  About  the  same  lime,  he  seized 
one  of  them  named  Alfred,  who  had  attempted  to  flee,  and  confined  him 
loaded  with  irons  at  Canterbury,  together  with  some  of  his  fellows  :  and  he 
exercised  upon  them  the  utmost  severity  of  their  order.  But  when  these 
monks  were  thought  to  be  sufficiently  humbled  and  had  promised  amend- 
ment, Lanfranc  taking  pity  on  them,  had  them  brought  from  the  several 
places  whither  he  had  banished  them,  and  reconciled  them  to  their  abbat. 

The  same  year  the  dissensions  were  renewed,  and  the  monks  plotted  the 
death  of  their  abbat,  but  one  of  them,  named  Columban,  being  taken, 
Lanfranc  caused  him  to  be  brought  to  him.  As  he  stood  there  before  him, 
Lanfranc  asked  if  he  desired  to  murder  his  abbat.  And  the  monk  forth- 
with replied,  "  Yes  !  if  I  could  I  would  certainly  kill  him."  Then  Lan- 
franc commanded  that  he  should  be  tied  up  naked  by  the  gates  of  St. 
Augustine's  and  suffpr  flagellation  before  all  the  people,  that  his  cowi 
should  then  be  torn  off,  and  that  he  should  be  driven  out  of  the  city.  Tliia 
order  was  executed,  and  thenceforth,  during  Lanfranc's  life,  sedition  waa 
repressed  by  the  dread  of  his  severity. 

In  the  nineteenth  year  of  his  prelacy,  died  the  venerable  archbishop 
Lanfranc,  and  he  was  buried  at  his  metropolitan  see  of  Canterbury,  of 
which  he  had  been  possessed  eighteen  years,  nine  months,  and  two  days. 
Hii  deeds,  his  buildings,  alms,  and  labours,  are  only  in  part  recounted  in 
the  writing  which  is  read  on  his  anniversary,  for  they  were  very  numerous. 
After  his  death  the  monks  of  St.  Augustine's,  openly  rebelling  against  their 
aforesaid  abbat  Wydo,  stirred  up  the  citizens  of  Canterbury,  who,  with  an 
armed  force,  attempted  to  slay  him  in  his  house.  But  his  family  made 
resistance,  and  when  many  had  been  wounded,  and  some  killed  on  both 
sides,  the  abbat  with  much  difficulty  escaped  unhurt  from  amongst  them, 
and  fled  for  refuge  to  the  mother  church  of  Canterbury  (Christ's  church.) 
On  the  report  of  this  disturbance  Walkelin  bishop  of  Winchester,  and 
Gundolf  bishop  of  Rochester,  suffragans  to  the  see  of  Canterbury,  with 
B<irae  noblemen  sent  by  the  king,  hastened  to  Canterbury,  that  they  might 
take  vengeance  on  the  delinquents  ;  and  when  they  had  inquired  into  the 
causes  of  the  sedition,  and  had  found  the  monks  unable  to  clear  themselves, 
they  condemned  them  to  suffer  public  punishment  because  they  had  trans- 
gressed openly.  But  the  prior  and  monks  of  Christ's  church,  moved  with 
piety,  pleaded  against  the  sentence,  lest,  if  they  were  to  receive  theii 
discipline  before  all  the  people,  they  should  henceforth  be  accounted 
infamous,  and  so  their  profession  and  office  come  to  be  despised.  Where- 
fore it  was  granted  on  their  intercession,  that  the  punishment  should  take 
place  in  the  church,  into  which  the  populace  should  not  be  admitted,  but 
those  only  who  were  appointed  to  see  it  executed.  And  two  monks  of 
Christ's  church,  Wydo  and  Norman,  were  called  in,  and  they  inflicted  the 
puniahment  at  the  command  of  the  bishops.  Then  the  rebellio\i8  monks 
were  dispersed  into  various  monasteries  of  England;  and  twentv-four  mouki 


148         THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHPvON-ICLE.    a. p.  10:0. 

confirmation  of  his  Bubjection  by  oath,  he  refused,  and  said 
that  he  was  not  obliged  to  give  it.  Then  was  the  archbishop 
Lanfranc  wroth,  and  he  commanded  the  bishops,  who  were 
there  at  his  behest  to  assist  at  the  ceremony,  and  all  the 
monks,  to  unrobe  themselves  ;  and  they  did  as  he  desired  ; 
so  this  time  Thomas  returned  home  without  consecration.  It 
happened  soon  after  this,  that  the  archbishop  Lanfranc  went 
to  Rome,  and  Thomas  with  him  :  and  when  they  were  come 
ihither,  and  had  said  all  that  they  desired  on  other  subjects, 
Tliomas  began  his  speech,  saying  how  he  had  come  to 
Canterbury,  and  how  the  archbishop  had  desired  of  him  an 
oath  of  obedience,  and  that  he  had  refused  it.  Then  tlie 
archbishop  Lanfranc  began  to  make  manifest  with  clear 
reasoning,  that  he  had  a  right  to  demand  that  which  he 
required  :  and  he  proved  the  same  with  strong  arguments 
before  the  Pope  Alexander,  and  before  all  the  council  then 
assembled :  and  thus  they  departed  home.  After  this, 
Thomas  came  to  Canterbury,  and  humbly  performed  all  that 
the  archbishop  required,  and  thereupon  he  received  the 
blessing.  This  year  earl  Waltheof  made  peace  with  the 
king.  And  during  Lent  in  the  same  year  the  king  caused  all 
the  monasteries  in  England  to  be  despoiled  of  their  treasures. 
The  same  year  king  Sweyn  came  from  Denmark  into  the 
Humber,  and  the  people  of  those  parts  came  to  meet  him  and 
made  an  alliance  with  him,  for  they  believed  that  he  would 
conquer  the  land.  Then  the  Danish  bishop  Christien,  and 
earl  Osbern,  and  their  Danish  retainers,  came  into  Ely,  and 
all  the  people  of  the  fens  joined  them,  for  they  believed  that 
they  should  conquer  the  wliole  country.  Now  the  monks  of 
Peterborougli  were  told  that  some  of  their  own  men,  namely, 

of  Christ's  church  were  substituted  in  their  place,  together  witli  the  prior, 
named  Anthony,  who  had  been  sub-prior  at  Christ's  church.  The  townsmen 
wlio  entered  the  abbat's  hall  in  amis  were  seized,  and  those  who  were  con- 
victed of  having  struck  him  lost  their  eyes. 

After  the  death  of  Lanfranc  the  see  remained  vacant  four  years,  nine 
months,  and  nine  days,  during  which  time  it  suffered  much  adversity.  At 
length,  in  the  year  of  our  Lord's  incarnation  109^5,  and  on  the  second  before 
the  Nones  of  March,  the  archbishopric  of  Canterbuiy  was  given  to  Anselm 
abbat  of  Bee,  a  good  and  an  upright  man,  of  great  learning,  and  amongst 
the  most  noted  of  his  time.  He  came  to  Canterbury  on  the  seventh  before 
*.he  Kalends  of  October,  hia  earlier  arrival  having  been  prevented  by  many 
riiftcient  causes,  and  he  was  consecrated  on  the  second  before  the  N<mea  at 

A.i).io7o.    THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.  149 

Hor(?ward  and  liis  train,  would  pillage  the  monastery,  because 
they  had  lieard  that  tlie  king  had  given  the  abbacy  to  a 
French  abbat  named  Turohl,  and  tliat  he  was  a  very  stera 
man,  and  that  he  was  come  into  Stamford  with  all  his  French 
followers.  There  was,  at  that  time,  a  church-warden  named 
Ywar  ;  who  took  all  that  he  could  by  night,  gospels,  mass- 
robes,  cassocks,  and  other  garments,  and  such  other  small 
things  as  he  could  carry  away,  and  he  came  before  day  to  the 
abbat  Turold,  and  told  him  that  he  sought  his  protection,  and 
told  how  the  outlaws  were  coming  to  Peterborough,  and  he 
said  that  he  had  done  this  at  the  desire  of  the  monks.  Then 
early  in  the  morning  all  the  outlaws  came  with  many  ships, 
and  they  endeavoured  to  enter  the  monastery,  but  the  monks 
withstood  them,  so  that  they  were  not  able  to  get  in.  Then 
they  set  fire  to  it,  and  burned  all  the  monks'  houses,  and  all 
those  in  the  town,  save  one  :  and  they  broke  in  through  the 
fire  at  Bolhithe-gate,*  and  the  monks  came  before  them  and 
desired  peace.  However  they  gave  no  heed  to  them,  but 
went  into  the  monastery,  and  climbed  up  to  the  holy  crucifix, 
took  the  crown  from  our  Lord's  head,  which  was  all  of  the 
purest  gold,  and  the  footstool  of  red  gold  from  under  his 
feet.  And  tlry  climbed  up  to  the  steeple,  and  brought  down 
the  table  f  which  was  hidden  there  ;  it  was  all  of  gold  and 
silver.  They  also  seized  two  gilt  shrines,  and  nine  of  silver, 
and  they  carried  off  fifteen  great  crosses  of  gold  and  silver. 
And  they  took  so  much  gold  and  silver,  and  so  much  trc*asure 
in  money,  robes,  and  books,  that  no  man  can  compute  the 
amount ;  saying  they  did  this  because  of  their  allegiance  to 
the  monastery  :  and  afterwards  they  betook  themselves  to 
their  ships  and  went  to  Ely,  where  they  secured  their 
treasures.  The  Danes  believed  that  they  should  overcome  the 
Frenchmen,  and  they  drove  away  all  the  monks,  leaving  only 
one  named  Leofwin  the  Long,  and  he  lay  sick  in  the  hospital. 
Then  came  the  abbat  Turold,  and  eight  score  Frenchmen 
with  him,  all  well  armed  ;  and  when  he  arrived  he  found  all 
burnt  both  within  and  without,  excepting  the  church  itself ; 
and  all  the  outlaws  were  then  embarked,  knowing  that  he 
would  come  thither.  This  happened  on  the  fourth  day  before 

•  Bull  dyke  Gate. 

t  Ingram   so  translates  the  word,  referring  to  a  Gallo-Nonnan  poein 
jMtbli&hed  by  Sharpe.     Gibson,  Lye,  and  Miss  Gurney  reiid  "  cope." 

150         THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,    a.d.  ion. 

the  Nones  of  June.  Then  the  two  kings,  William  and  Sweyn, 
made  peace  with  each  other,  on  which  the  Danes  departed 
from  Ely,  carrying  witli  them  all  the  aforesaid  treasure. 
When  they  were  come  into  the  midst  of  the  sea,  there  arose 
a  great  storm,  which  di.s))ersed  all  the  ships  in  which  the 
treasures  were :  some  were  driven  to  NorM^ay,  some  to 
Ireland,  and  others  to  Denmark,  and  all  the  spoils  that 
reached  the  latter  country,  being  the  table*  and  some  of  the 
filirines  and  crosses,  and  many  of  the  other  treasures,  they 

brought  to  one  of  the  king's  towns  called ,  and  laid  it  all 

up  in  the  church.  But  one  night,  through  their  carelessness 
and  drunkenness  the  church  was  burned,  with  all  that  was  in 
it.  Thus  was  the  monastery  of  Peterborough  burned  and 
pillaged.  May  Ahnighty  God  have  pity  on  it  in  his  great 
mercy ;  and  tlius  the  abl^at  Turold  came  to  Peterborough, 
and  the  monks  returnetl  thither  and  performed  Christian 
worship  in  the  church,  wliicii  had  stood  a  full  week  without 
biervice  of  any  kind.  When  bishop  Egelricf  heard  this,  he 
excommunicated  all  the  men  who  had  done  this  eviL  There 
was  a  great  famine  this  year ;  and  this  summer  the  fleet  from 
the  Humber  sailed  into  the  Thames,  and  lay  there  two  nights, 
and  it  afterwards  held  on  its  course  to  Denmark.  And  earl 
Baldwin  died,  and  his  son  Arnulf  succeeded  him  ;  and  earl 
William  I  and  the  French  king  should  have  been  his  support : 
but  earl  Robert  came  and  slew  his  kinsman  Arnulf,  and  the 
earl  ;  put  the  king  to  flight,  and  slew  many  thousands  of  his 

A.  1071.  This  year  earl  Edwin  and  earl  Morcar  fled,  and 
wandered  through  the  woods  and  fields.  Then  earl  Morcar 
took  ship  and  went  to  Ely  ;  and  earl  Edwin  was  slain 
treacherously  by  his  own  men  :  and  bishop  Egelwine,§  and 
Siward  Barn,  and  many  hundreds  with  them,  came  into  Ely. 
And  when  king  William  heard  this,  he  called  out  a  fleet  and 
army  ;  and  he  surrounded  that  land,  and  he  made  a  bridge 
and  entered  in,  his  fleet  lying  off  the  coast.  Then  all  the 
outlaws  surrendered  ;  these  were,  bishop  Egelwine  and  earl 
Morcar,  and  all  who  were  with  them,  excepting  only 
Hereward,  and  his  followers  whom  he  led  off  with  great 
valour.  And  the  king  seized  their  sliips,  and  arms,  and  much 

•  Or  cope  :  see  the  last  notM-  t  Of  Selsey. 

/  i^Hi-Osbeme.  $  Of  Durham. 

A.D.  1071-1074.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.    ir,i 

treasure  ;  and  he  disposed  of  the  men  as  he  would  ;  and  he 
Bent  bishop  Egelwine  to  Abingdon,  where  he  died  early  ia 
the  winter. 

A.  1072.  This  year  king  William  led  an  army  and  a  fleet 
against  Scotland,  and  he  stationed  the  ships  along  the  coast 
and  crossed  the  Tweed  with  his  array;  but  he  found  nothing 
to  reward  his  pains.  And  king  Malcolm  came  and  treated 
with  king  William,  and  delivered  hostages,  and  became  his 
liege-man ;  and  king  William  returned  home  with  his  forces. 
Bishop  Egelric  died  this  year  ;  he  had  been  consecrated  to 
the  archbishopric  of  York,  of  which  he  was  unjustly 
deprived,  and  the  see  of  Durham  was  given  to  him  ;  this  he 
held  as  long  as  he  chose,  and  then  resigned  it  and  went  to 
the  monastery  of  Peterborough,  and  there  he  spent  twelve 
years.  Then  after  king  William  had  conquered  England, 
he  removed  Egelric  from  Peterborough,  and  sent  him  to 
Westminster,  and  he  died  on  the  Ides  of  October,  and  he  ia 
buried  in  the  abbey,  in  the  aisle  of  St.  Nicholas. 

A.  1073.  This  year  king  William  carried  an  army  of 
English  and  French  over  sea,  and  conquered  the  province  of 
Maine :  and  the  English  did  great  damage,  for  tiiey  destroyed 
the  vineyards  and  burned  the  towns,  and  they  laid  waste  that 
province,  the  whole  of  which  submitted  to  William  ;  and 
they  afterwards  returned  home  to  England. 

A.  1074  This  year  king  William  went  over  sea  to 
Normandy ;  and  child  Edgar  came  into  Scotland  from 
Flanders  on  St.  Grimbald's  mass-day.  King  Malcolm 
and  Margaret  his  sister  received  him  there  with  much 
pomp.  Also  Philip,  king  of  France,  sent  him  a  letter 
inviting  him  to  come,  and  offering  to  give  him  the  castle 
of  Montreuil,  as  a  place  to  annoy  his  enemies  from.  After 
this,  king  Malcolm  and  his  sister  Margaret  gave  great 
presents  and  much  treasure  to  him  and  his  men,  skins 
adorned  with  purple,  sable-skin,  grey-skin  and  ermine-skin- 
pelisses,  mantles,  gold  and  silver  vessels,  and  escorted  them 
out  of  his  dominions  with  much  ceremony.  But  evil  befell 
them  at  sea  ;  for  they  had  hardly  left  the  shore,  when  such 
rough  weather  came  on,  and  the  sea  and  wind  drove  them 
with  such  force  upon  the  land,  that  their  ships  went  to  pieces 
and  they  saved  their  lives  with  much  difficulty.  They  lost 
Dearly  all  their  riches  and  some  of  their  men  were  taken  ]ij 

152    THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.  a.d.  wi,  1075. 

the  French  :  but  the  boldest  of  them  escaped  back  tO  Scat- 
land,  some  on  foot  and  some  mounted  on  wretched  horsea. 
King  Malcolm  advised  Edgar  to  send  to  king  William 
beyond  the  sea,  and  request  his  friendship.  Edgar  did  so, 
and  the  king  acceded  to  his  request  and  sent  to  fetch  him. 
Again,  king  Malcolm  and  his  sister  made  them  handsome 
presents,  and  escorted  them  with  honour  out  of  their 
dominions.  The  sheriff  of  York  met  him  at  Durham,  and 
went  all  the  way  with  him,  ordering  him  to  be  provided  with 
meat  and  fodder  at  all  the  castles  which  they  came  to,  until 
they  reached  the  king  beyond  the  sea.  There  king  WilHam 
received  him  with  much  pomp,  and  he  remained  at  the  court, 
enjoying  such  privileges  as  the  king  granted  him. 

A.  1075.  This  year  king  William  gave  the  daughter  of 
William  Fitz-Osberne  in  marriage  to  earl  Ralph  :  the  said 
Ralph  was  a  Welchman  on  his  mother's  side,  and  his  father 
was  an  Englishman  named  Ralph,  and  born  in  Norfolk. 
Then  the  king  gave  the  earldom  of  Norfolk  and  Suffolk  tc 
his  son,  who  brought  his  wife  to  Norwich,  but 

There  was  that  bride-ale 
The  source  of  man's  bale. 

For  earl  Roger  and  earl  Waltheof  were  there,  and  bishops 
and  abbats,  and  they  took  counsel  to  depose  the  king  of 
England.  And  this  was  soon  reported  to  the  king  then  in 
Normandy,  and  it  was  told  him  withal  that  earl  Roger  and 
earl  Ralph  were  the  heads  of  the  conspiracy,  and  that  they 
had  brought  over  the  Britons  to  their  side,  and  had  sent 
eastward  to  Denmark  for  a  fleet  to  assist  them.  And  earl 
Roger  departed  to  his  earldom  in  the  west,  and  gathered  his 
people  together  in  rebellion  against  the  king,  but  he  was 
checked  in  his  attempt.  And  earl  Ralph  also  being  in  his 
earldom  would  have  marched  forth  with  his  people  ;  but  the 
garrisons  of  the  castles  of  England,  and  the  inhabitants  of 
the  country  came  against  him,  and  prevented  his  effecting 
any  thing,  on  which  he  took  ship  at  Norwich  :  and  his  wife 
remained  in  the  castle,  and  held  it  till  she  had  obtained  terms, 
and  then  she  departed  from  England  with  all  her  adherents. 
And  after  this  the  king  came  to  England,  and  he  took  his 
kinsman  earl  Roger  and  put  him  in  prison ;  and  earl 
Waltheof  went  over  the  sea  and  betrayed  himself   but  ho 

A.D.  1075.1076.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.    153 

Mked  forgiveness  and  offered  a  ransom.  The  king  let  him 
off  lightly  until  he  came  to  England,  when  he  had  him 
seized.  And  soon  afterwards  two  hundred  ships  arrived 
from  Denmark,  commanded  by  two  chieftains,  Canute  the 
son  of  Swejn,  and  earl  Hacco,  but  they  durst  not  risk  a 
battle  with  king  William,  but  chose  rather  to  go  to  York, 
where  they  broke  into  St.  Peter's  minster,  and  having  taken 
thence  much  treasure,  went  away  again.  They  then  crossed 
over  the  sea  to  Flanders,  but  all  who  had  been  concerned  in 
the  act  perished,  namely  earl  Hacco  and  many  others  with 
him.  And  the  lady  Edgitha  died  at  Winchester  seven  nights 
before  Christmas,  and  the  king  caused  her  to  be  brought  to 
Westminster  with  great  pomp,  and  to  be  laid  by  her  lord 
king  Edward.  And  the  king  was  at  W^estininster  during 
Christmas,  and  there  all  the  Britons  who  had  been  at  the 
bridal  feast  at  Norwich  were  brought  to  justice  ;  some  were 
blinded,  and  others  banished.  Thus  were  the  traitors  to 
William  subdued. 

1076.  Tliis  year  Sweyn  king  of  Denmark  died,  and  Harold 
his  son  succeeded  to  the  kingdom.  And  the  king  gave 
Westminster  to  Vitalis,  who  had  before  been  abbat  of  Bernay.* 
Earl  Waltheof  was  beheaded  at  Winchester  on  the  mass-day 
of  St.  Petronilla,  f  and  his  body  was  carried  to  Croyland, 
where  it  now  lies.  And  the  king  went  over  sea  and  led  his 
army  into  Brittany,  and  besieged  the  castle  of  Dol,  and  the 
Britons  defended  it  till  the  king  of  France  came  up,  and  then 
WilKam  departed,  having  lost  both  men  and  horses  and 
much  treasure. 

•  Or  Bemej^es.     A  cell  to  the  abbey  of  Fescarnp,  in  Normandy. 

t  "II.  Kal.  Jun.  or  the  31st  of  May.  This  notice  of  St.  Petronilla, 
whose  name  and  existence  seem  scarcely  to  have  been  known  to  the  Latin 
historians,  we  owe  exclusively  to  the  valuable  iVIS.  c.  t.  b.  iv.  Yet  if  ever 
female  saint  deserved  to  be  commemorated  as  a  conspicuous  example  of 
early  piety  and  Christian  zeal,  it  must  be  Petronilla.  She  was  no  less  a 
person  than  the  daughter  of  St.  Peter  himself;  wlio,  being  solicited  to 
marry  a  nobleman  at  Rome  of  the  name  of  Flaccus,  and  on  her  refusai 
allowed  three  days  to  deliberate,  after  passing  the  whole  time  in  fasting  arv3 
prayer,  and  receiving  the  sacrament  at  the  hands  of  Nicomedes  the  prie^ 
expired  on  the  third  day  !  This  is  no  Romish  lecjend  of  modem  gro\vt*s, 
for  her  name  appears  in  the  martyrology  of  Bede,  and  in  the  mos* 
venerable  records  of  primitive  Christianity." — Ingram.  And  yet,  tlw 
reader,  who  shall  receive  even  the  existence  of  Petronilla  in  any  other  light 
thaii  as  a  fable,  must  possess  a  credulity  which  will  enable  him  to  realixo 
ftii  the  impostures  mnth  which  ecclesiastical  history  abounds. 

151    THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,   a.d.  lorr-ioso. 

1077.  This  year  a  peace  was  made  between  the  king  of 
France  and  William  king  of  England,  but  it  lasted  only  a 
little  while.  And  this  year,  one  night  before  the  assumption 
of  St.  Mary,  there  was  a  more  dreadful  fire  in  London  than 
had  ever  happened  since  the  town  was  built.  And  the  moon 
was  eclipsed,  three  nights  before  candlemas  :  the  same  year 
died  Egelwig  abbat  of  Evesham,  on  the  fourteenth  day 
before  the  Kalends  of  March,  which  was  the  mass-day  of  St. 
Juliana  ;  and  Walter  became  bishop  in  his  stead.  Bishop 
Herman  also  died  on  the  tenth  day  before  the  Kalends  of 
March.  He  was  bishop  in  Berkshire,  Wiltshire,  and  Dorset- 
shire. Also  in  this  year  king  Malcolm  won  the  mother  of 
Malslaythe  and  all  his  best  men  and  all  his  treasure  and  his 
oxen  and  himself  hardly  escaped  ....  There  was  also  this 
year  a  dry  summer,  and  wild-fire  burned  many  towns,  and 
many  cities  were  ruined  by  it. 

A.  1078. 

A.  1079.  This  year  king  William's  son  Robert,  fled  from 
his  father  to  his  uncle  Robert  in  Flanders,  because  liis  father 
would  not  let  him  govern  his  earldom  in  Normandy  ;  wliich 
he  himself,  and  with  his  consent  Philip  king  of  France,  had 
given  to  him.  The  best  men  of  that  land  had  sworn 
allegiance  to  him  and  taken  him  for  their  lord.  And  the 
same  year  king  William  fought  against  his  son  Robert 
without  the  borders  of  Normandy  near  a  castle  called 
Gerberoy,  and  there  king  WilHam  was  wounded,  and  tlie 
horse  on  which  he  sat  was  killed,  and  he  that  brought  him 
another  horse,  namely,  Tookie  Wiggodson,  was  killed  with  a 
dart,  and  his  son  William  was  also  wounded,  and  many 
men  were  slain,  but  Robert  returned  to  Flanders.  We  will 
not  say  more  at  present  of  the  harm  that  he  did  to  his 

This  year,  between  the  two  festivals  of  St.  Mary,  king 
Malcolm  invaded  England  with  a  large  army,  and  laid  waste 
Northumberland  as  far  as  the  Tyne ;  and  he  slew  many  hun- 
dred men,  and  carried  home  much  money  and  treasure  and 
many  prisoners. 

A.  1080.  This  year  Walcher  bishop  of  Durham  was  slain 
at  a  gemot,  and  a  hundred  French  and  Flemings  with  him  : 
Walcher  himself  was  born  in  Lorraine.  The  Northumbrianj 
j,^rpetrated  this  in  the  month  of  May. 

A.D.  1081-1033.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.     155 

A.   108L  This  year  the  king  led  an  army  into  Wales,  ana 
there  he  set  free  many  hundred  persons. 

A.  1082.  This  year  the  king  arrested  bishop  Odo.  AihI 
there  was  a  great  famine  this  year. 

A.  1083.  This  year  a  quarrel  arose  in  Glastonbury  be- 
tween the  abbat  Thurstan  and  his  monks.  It  was  first 
caused  by  the  abbat's  unwise  conduct,  in  that  he  treated  his 
monks  ill  in  many  respects,  but  the  monks  were  lovingly- 
minded  towards  him,  and  begged  him  to  govern  them  in 
right  and  in  kindness,  and  tliey  would  be  faithful  and  obe- 
dient to  him.  But  the  abbat  would  none  of  this,  and 
wrought  them  evil,  and  tlireatened  worse.  One  day  the 
abbat  went  into  the  chapter-house,  and  spoke  against  the 
monks,  and  would  have  taught  them  amiss  ;*  and  lie  sent 
for  laymen,  and  they  came  in  all  armed  upon  the  monks  in 
the  chapter-house.  Then  the  monks  were  greatly  terrified 
and  knew  not  what  to  do,  and  some  ran  for  refuge  into  the 
church  and  locked  the  doors  from  within ;  but  the  others 
followed  them,  and  would  have  dragged  them  forth  when 
they  durst  not  come  out.  Rueful  things  happened  there  on 
that  day,  for  the  French  broke  into  the  choir  and  threw 
darts  towards  the  altar  Avhere  the  monks  were  collected, 
and  some  of  their  servants  went  upon  the  upper  floor f  and 
shot  down  arrows  towards  the  chancel,  so  that  many  arrows 
stuck  in  the  crucifix  which  stood  above  the  altar,  and  the 
wretched  monks  lay  around  the  altar,  and  some  crept  under 
it,  and  they  called  earnestly  upon  God  and  besought  his 
mercy,  since  they  could  obtain  no  mercy  at  the  hands  of 
men.  What  can  we  say,  but  that  they  shot  without  ceasing, 
and  others  broke  down  the  doors,  and  rushed  in,  and  they 
slew  some  of  the  monks  and  wounded  many,  so  that  the 
blood  ran  down  from  the  altar  on  the  steps,  and  from  the 
steps  to  the  floor  ?  Three  were  smitten  to  death  and  eigh- 
"^een  wounded.  And  the  same  year  Matilda  the  wife  of  king 
William  died  on  the  day  after  the  feast  of  All  Saints.  And 
the  same  year  after  Christmas  the  king  caused  a  great  and 
heavy  tax  to  be  raised  throughout  England,  even  seventy- 
two  pence  upon  every  hide  of  land. 

•  He  wished  to  substitute  the  chant  of  William  of  Feschamp  for  that 
called  the  Gregorian. 

+  Probably  alon.n;  the  open  galleries  in  the  upper  story  of  the  choii, 
•onunonly  called  the  triforium. 

156    THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,   a.d.  los*.  1035. 

A.  1084.  This  year  Wulfwold  abbat  of  Chertsey  iied  on 
the  1 3th  day  before  the  Kalends  of  May. 

A.  1085.  This  year  men  said  and  reported  as  certain,  that 
Canute  king  of  Denmark,  the  son  of  king  Sweyn,  was  coming 
hither,  and  that  he  designed  to  conquer  this  land,  with  the 
assistance  of  Robert  earl  of  Flanders,  whose  daughter  he 
had  married.  When  king  William,  who  was  then  in  Nor- 
mandy, heard  tliis,  for  England  and  Normandy  were  both 
his,  he  hastened  hither  with  a  larger  army  of  horse  and  foot, 
from  France  and  Brittany,  than  had  ever  arrived  in  this 
land,  so  that  men  wondered  how  the  country  could  feed 
them  all.  But  the  king  billeted  the  soldiers  upon  his  sub- 
jects throughout  the  nation,  and  they  provided  for  them, 
every  man  according  to  the  land  that  he  possessed.  And 
the  people  suffered  much  distress  this  year:  and  the  king 
caused  the  country  near  the  sea  to  be  laid  waste,  that  if  his 
enemies  landed  they  might  the  less  readily  find  any  plunder. 
Afterwards  when  he  had  received  certain  information  that 
they  had  been  stopped,*  and  that  they  would  not  be  able  to 
proceed  in  this  enterprise,  he  let  part  of  his  forces  return  to 
their  own  homes,  and  he  kept  part  in  this  laud  through  the 
winter.  At  midwinter  the  king  was  at  Gloucester  with  liis 
witan ;  and  he  held  his  court  there  five  days ;  and  afterwards 
the  archbishop  and  clergy  held  a  synod  during  three  days ; 
and  Maurice  was  there  chosen  to  the  bishopric  of  London, 
William  to  that  of  Norfolk,  and  Robert  to  that  of  Cheshire ; 
t,hey  were  all  clerks  of  the  king.  After  this  the  king  had  a 
great  consultation,  and  spoke  very  deeply  with  his  witan 
concerning  this  land,  how  it  was  held  and  what  were  its 
tenantry.  He  then  sent  his  men  over  all  England,  into 
every  shire,  and  caused  them  to  ascertain  how  many  hun- 
dred hides  of  land  it  contained,  and  what  lands  the  king 
possessed  therein,  what  cattle  there  were  in  the  several 
counties,  and  how  much  revenue  he  ought  to  receive  yearly 
from  each.  He  also  caused  them  to  write  down  how  much 
land  belonged  to  his  archbishops,  to  his  bishops,  his  abbats, 
and  his  earls,  and,  that  I  may  be  brief,  what  property  every 

•  Because  there  was  a  mutiny  in  the  Danish  fleet;  which  was  earned 
to  such  a  height,  that  the  king,  after  his  return  to  Denmark,  was  slain  by 
his  own  soldiers.     Vide  Antiq.  Celto^cand.  p.  22li.      See  also  our  Chron* 

k;l<^  A.D.  1087. — INGRAM. 

A.D.  1088,1087.   THE  xiNGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.     157 

inhabitant  of  all  England  possessed  in  land  or  in  cattle,  and 
how  much  money  this  was  wortli.  So  very  narrowly  did  l;e 
cause  the  survey  to  be  made,  that  there  was  not  a  single 
hide  nor  a  rood  of  land,  nor — it  is  shameful  to  relate  that 
which  he  thought  no  shame  to  do — was  there  an  ox,  or  a 
cow,  or  a  pig  passed  by,  and  that  was  not  set  down  in  the 
accounts,*  and  then  all  these  writings  were  brought  to  him. 

A.  1086.  This  year  the  king  wore  his  crown  and  held  his 
court  at  Winchester  at  Easter,  and  he  so  journeyed  forward 
that  he  was  at  Westminster  during  Pentecost,  and  there  he 
dubbed  his  son  Henry  a  knight.  And  afterwards  he  tra- 
velled about,  so  that  he  came  to  Salisbury  at  Lammas ;  and 
liis  witiin,  and  all  the  land-holders  of  substance  in  England, 
whose  vassals  soever  they  were,  repaired  to  him  there,  and 
they  all  submitted  to  him,  and  became  his  men,  and  swore 
oaths  of  allegiance,  that  they  would  be  faithful  to  him 
against  all  others.  Thence  he  proceeded  to  the  Lsle  of 
Wight  because  he  was  to  cross  over  to  Normandy ;  and 
this  he  afterwards  did;  but  first,  according  to  his  custom, 
he  extorted  immense  sums  from  his  subjects,  upon  every 
pretext  he  could  find,  whether  just  or  otherwise.  Then  he 
went  over  to  Normandy,  and  king  Edward's  kinsman  Edgar 
ethehng  left  liim,  because  he  received  no  great  honour  from 
him  :  may  Almighty  God  give  him  glory  hereafter.  And 
the  etheling's  sister  Christina  went  into  the  monastery  of 
Komsey,  and  took  the  holy  veil.  And  the  same  was  a  very 
heavy  year,  and  very  disastrous  and  sorrowful ;  for  there  was 
a  pestilence  among  the  cattle,  and  the  corn  and  fruits  were 
checked;  and  the  weather  was  worse  than  may  easily  be 
conceived:  so  violent  was  the  thunder  and  lightning,  that 
numy  persons  were  killed :  and  things  ever  grew  worse  and 
worse  with  the  people.  May  Almighty  God  mend  them, 
when  such  is  his  will  I 

^  A.  1087.  The  year  1087  after  the  birth  of  Christ  our 
Saviour,  and  the  one  and  twentieth  of  king  William's  reign, 
during  wiiich  he  governed  and  disposed  of  the  realm  of  Eng- 
land even  as  God  permitted  him,  was  a  very  grievous  time 
of  scarcity  in  this  land.     There  was  also  so  much  illness, 

•  This  is  the  famous  Doomsday  Book,  or  Rotulus  'A^intonije,  ctilled  also 
Liber  Wintonice.  At  the  end  of  it  is  the  date,  Annx  millesimo  octoyesimo 
iSixio  ab  incarnulione  Dei,  vigesimo  vero  reyni  Willelmi,  ^c. 

158         THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.    a.d.  io87. 

that  almost  every  other  man  was  afflicted  with  the  worst 
of  erils,  that  is,  a  fever ;  and  this  so  severe,  that  many  died 
of  it.  And  afterwards,  from  the  badness  of  the  weathei 
which  we  have  mentioned  before,  there  was  so  great  a  famine 
throughout  England,  that  many  hundreds  died  of  hunger. 
Oh,  how  disastrous,  how  rupful  were  those  times !  when 
the  wretched  people  were  brouglit  to  the  point  of  death  by 
the  fever,  then  the  cruel  famine  came  on  and  finished  them. 
Who  would  not  deplore  such  times,  or  who  is  so  hard-hearted 
that  he  will  not  weep  for  so  much  misery  ?  But  such  things 
are,  on  account  of  the  sins  of  the  people,  and  because  they 
will  not  love  God  and  righteousness.  Even  so  was  it  in 
those  days  ;  there  was  little  righteousness  in  this  land 
amongst  any,  excepting  the  monks  alone,  who  fsired  well. 
The  king  and  the  chief  men  loved  much,  and  over  much, 
to  amass  gold  and  silver,  and  cared  not  how  sinfully  it  was 
gotten,  so  that  it  came  into  their  hands.  The  king  sold  out 
his  lands  as  dear  as  dearest  he  might,  and  then  some  other 
man  came  and  bid  more  than  the  first  had  given,  and  the 
king  granted  them  to  him  who  offered  tlie  larger  sum ;  then 
came  a  third  and  bid  yet  more,  and  the  king  made  over  the 
lands  to  him  who  offered  most  of  all ;  and  he  cared  not  how 
iniquitously  his  sheriffs  extorted  money  from  the  miserable 
people,  nor  how  many  unlawful  things  they  did.  And  the 
more  men  spake  of  rightful  laws,  the  more  lawlessly  did 
they  act.  They  raised  oppressive  taxes,  and  so  many  were 
their  unjust  deeds,  it  were  hard  to  number  them.  And  the 
same  year,  before  harvest,  St.  Paul's  holy  minster,  the  resi- 
dence of  the  bishops  of  London,  w  as  burnt,  together  with 
many  otlier  monasteries,  and  the  greater  and  handsomer  part 
of  the  whole  city.  At  the  same  time  likewise  almost  all  the 
principal  towns  of  England  were  burnt  down.  Oh,  how  sad 
and  deplorable  was  this  year,  which  brought  forth  so  many 
calamities  I 

The  same  year  also,  before  the  issumption  of  St.  Mary, 
king  William  marched  with  an  army  out  of  Normandy  into 
France,  and  made  war  upon  his  own  lord  king  Philip,  and 
slew  a  great  number  of  his  people,  and  burned  the  town  of 
Mante,  and  all  the  holy  monasteries  in  it,  and  two  holy  men 
who  served  God  as  anchorites  were  burned  there.  This 
done  king  William  returned  into  Normandy.     Rueful  deeda 


he  did,  and  ruefully  he  suffered.  Wherefore  ruefully  ?  Hij 
fell  sick  and  became  grievously  ill.  What  can  I  say  ?  The 
sharpness  of  death,  that  spareth  neither  rich  nor  poor,  seized 
upon  him.  He  died  in  Normandy  the  day  after  the  nativity 
of  St.  Mary,  and  he  was  buried  in  Caen,  at  St.  Stephen's 
monastery,  which  he  had  built  and  had  richly  endowed. 
Oh,  how  false,  how  unstable,  is  the  good  of  this  world! 
He,  who  had  been  a  powerful  king  and  the  lord  of  many 
territories,  possessed  not  then,  of  all  his  lands,  more  than  seven 
feet  of  ground ;  and  he,  who  was  erewhile  adorned  with  gold 
and  with  gems,  lay  then  covered  with  mould.  He  left  three 
sons :  Eobert  the  eldest  was  earl  of  Normandy  after  him ; 
the  second,  named  William,  wore  the  crown  of  England  after 
his  father's  death ;  and  his  third  son  was  Henry,  to  whom  he 
bequeathed  immense  treasures.  ,^ 

If  any  would  know  what  manner  of  man  king  William 
was,  the  glory  that  he  obtained,  and  of  how  many  lands  he 
was  lord ;  then  Avill  we  describe  him  as  we  have  known  him, 
we,  who  have  looked  upon  him,  and  who  once  lived  in  his 
court.*  This  king  William,  of  whom  we  are  speaking,  was 
a  very  wise  and  a  great  man,  and  more  honoured  and  more 
powerful  than  any  of  his  predecessors.  He  was  mild  tQ 
those  good  men  who  loved  God,  but  severe  beyond  mea- 
sure towards  those  who  withstood  his  will.  He  founded  a 
noble  monastery  on  the  spot  where  God  permitted  him  to 
conquer  England,  and  he  established  monks  in  it,  and  he 
made  it  very  rich.  In  his  days  the  great  monastery  at  Can- 
terbury was  built,  and  many  others  also  throughout  Eng- 
land; moreover  this  land  was  filled  with  monks  who  lived 
after  the  rule  of  St.  Benedict;  and  such  was  the  state  of 
religion  in  his  days  that  all  that  would,  might  observe  that 
which  was  prescribed  by  their  respective  orders.  King 
William  was  also  held  in  much  revei'ence :  he  wore  his 
crown  three  times  every  year  when  he  was  in  England :  at 
Easter  he  wore  it  at  Winchester,  at  Pentecost  at  "\Vestmin 
ster,  and  at  Christmas  at  Gloucester.  And  at  these  times, 
all  the  men  of  England  were  with  him,  archbishops,  bishops, 
abbats,  and  earls,  thanes,  and  knights.  So  also,  was  he  a  very 
Btem  and  a  wrathful  man,  so  that  none  durst  do  anything 

♦  From  this  we  learn  that  this  part  of  the  Chronicle  was  written  by  a 
oontemporary  and  eye-witness  of  the  facts  which  he  relates. 

IGO         THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,    a.d.  io87. 

against  his  will,  and  lie  kept  in  prison  those  earls  who  acted 
against  his  pleasure.  He  removed  bishops  from  their  sees, 
and  abbats  from  their  offices,  and  he  imprisoned  thanes,  and 
at  length  he  spared  not  his  own  brother  Odo.  This  Odo 
"vas  a  very  powerful  bishop  in  Normandy,  his  see  was  that 
of  Bayeux,  and  he  was  foremost  to  serve  the  king.  He 
had  an  earldom  in  England,  and  when  William  was  in 
Noi'mandy  he  was  the  first  man  in  this  country,  and  him 
did  he  cast  into  prison.  Amongst  other  things  the  good 
order  that  William  established  is  not  to  be  forgotten ;  it 
was  such  that  any  man,  who  was  himself  aught,  might  tra- 
vel over  the  kingdom  with  a  bosom-full  of  gold  unmolested ; 
and  no  man  durst  kill  another,  however  great  the  injury  lie 
might  have  received  from  him.  He  reigned  over  England, 
and  being  sharp-sighted  to  his  own  interest,  he  surveyed  the 
kingdom  so  thoroughly  that  there  was  not  a  single  hide  of 
land  throughout  the  whole,  of  which  he  knew  not  the  pos- 
sessor, and  how  much  it  was  worth,  and  this  he  afterwards 
entered  in  his  register.*  The  land  of  the  Britons  f  was 
under  his  sway,  and  he  built  castles  therein;  moreover  he 
had  full  dominion  over  the  Isle  of  Man  (Anglesey) :  Scot- 
land also  was  subject  to  him  from  his  great  strength ;  tlie 
land  of  Normandy  was  his  by  inheritance,  and  he  possessed 
the  earldom  of  Maine ;  and  had  he  lived  two  years  longer 
he  would  hive  subdued  Ireland  by  his  prowess,  and  that 
without  a  battle.  Truly  there  was  much  trouble  in  these 
times,  and  very  great  distress ;  he  caused  castles  to  be  built, 
and  oppressed  the  poor.  The  king  was  also  of  great  stern- 
ness, and  he  took  from  his  subjects  many  marks  of  gold,  and 
many  hundred  pounds  of  silver,  and  this,  either  with  or 
without  right,  and  with  little  need.  He  was  given  to 
avarice,  and  greedily  loved  gain.  He  made  large  forests 
for  the  deer,  and  enacted  laws  therewith,  so  that  whoever 
killed  a  hart  or  a  hind  should  be  blinded.  As  he  forbade 
killing  the  deer,  so  also  the  boars;  and  he  loved  the  tall 
stags  as  if  he  were  their  father.     He  also  appointed  con- 

*  This  is  certainly  an  evident  allusion  to  the  compilation  of  Doomsday 
Book  already  described,  a.d.  1085,  as  Gibson  o'jserves;  and  it  is  equally 
cli-;ir  to  me,  that  the  conposition  of  this  jhrt  of  the  Chronicle  is  by  a 
lilToroiit  hand. — iNoaAtf* 

T  Waiea. 


cerniiig  the  hares,  tliat  they  should  go  free.  Tlie  rich  com- 
phiiiied  and  tke  poor  murmured,  but  he  was  so  sturdy  that 
he  recked  nought  of  them ;  they  must  will  all  tliat  the  king 
willed,  if  they  would  live ;  or  would  keep  their  lands ;  or 
would  hold  their  possessions ;  or  would  be  maintained  in 
their  rights.  Alas !  that  any  man  should  so  exalt  himself, 
and  carry  himself  in  his  pride  over  all  !  May  Almighty 
God  show  mercy  to  his  soul,  and  grant  him  the  forgive- 
ness of  his  sins !  We  have  written  concerning  him  these 
things,  both  good  and  bad,  that  virtuous  men  might  follow 
after  the  good,  and  wholly  avoid  the  evil,  and  might  go  in 
the  way  that  leadeth  to  the  kingdom  of  heaven. 

We  may  write  of  many  events  which  happened  during  this 
year.  In  Denmark,  the  Danes  who  were  formerly  accounted 
the  most  loyal  of  people,  turned  to  the  greatest  possible  per- 
fidy and  treachery',  for  they  chose  king  Canute,  and  submit- 
ted to  him,  and  swore  oaths  of  allegiance,  and  afterwards 
they  shamefully  murdered  him  in  a  church.*  It  also  came 
to  pass  in  Spain,  that  the  heathen  men  went  forth,  and  made 
war  upon  the  Christians,  and  brought  great  part  of  the 
country  into  subjection  to  themselves.  But  the  Christian 
king,  w^hose  name  was  Alphonso,  sent  to  all  countries  and 
begged  assistance.  And  allies  flocked  to  him  from  every 
Christian  land,  and  they  went  forth,  and  slew  or  drove  away 
all  the  heathens,  and  they  won  their  land  again  by  the  help 
of  God.  The  same  year  also  many  great  men  died  in  this 
land  :  Stigand  bishop  of  Chichester,  and  the  abbat  of  St. 
Augustine's,  and  the  abbats  of  Bath  and  of  Pershore,  and  the 
lord  of  them  all  William  king  of  England,  concerning  whom 
we  have  spoken  above. 

After  his  death,  his  son  William,  of  the  same  name  with 
his  father,  took  to  himself  the  government,  and  was  conse- 
crated king  in  Westminster  by  archbishop  Lanfranc  three 
days  before  Michaelmas  :  and  all  the  men  of  England  acknow- 
ledged him,  and  swore  oaths  of  allegiance  to  him.  This 
done,  the  king  went  to  Winchester  and  examined  the 
treasury,  and  the  hoards  which  his  father  had  amassed  ;  gold 
and  silver,  vessels  of  plate,  palls,  gems,  and  many  other  valu- 

•  A  church  at  Odensee,  dedicated  to  St,  Alban,  whose  relic«  had  been 
Drought  from  England  by  this  Canute. 


162         THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,    a.d.  loss. 

ables  that  are  hard  to  be  numbered.  The  king  diJ  as  his 
father  before  he  died  commanded  hira  ;  he  distributed  trea- 
sures amongst  all  the  monasteries  of  England,  for  the  sake 
of  his  father's  soul :  to  some  he  gave  ten  marks  of  gold,  and 
to  others  six,  and  sixty  pennies  to  every  country  church,  and 
a  hundred  pounds  of  money  was  sent  into  every  county  to 
be  divided  among  the  poor  for  his  soul's  sake.  And  before 
he  died  he  had  also  desired  that  all  who  had  been  imprisoned 
during  his  reign  should  be  released.  And  the  king  was  at 
London  during  midwinter. 

A.  1088.  Tliis  year  the  land  was  much  disturbed,  and 
filled  with  treason,  so  that  the  principal  Frenchmen  here 
would  have  betrayed  their  lord  the  king,  and  have  had  his 
brother  Robert  instead,  who  was  earl  of  Normandy.  Bishop 
Odo  was  the  chief  man  in  the  conspiracy,  together  with 
bishop  Gosfrith,  and  William  bishop  of  Durham.  The  king 
esteemed  the  bishop  so  highly,  that  the  affairs  of  all  England 
were  directed  after  his  counsel,  and  according  to  his  pleasure, 
but  the  bishop  purposed  to  do  by  him  as  Judas  Iscariot  did 
by  our  Lord.  And  earl  Roger  was  concerned  in  this  con- 
spiracy, and  many  others  with  him>  all  Frenchmen.  This 
plot  was  concerted  during  Lent ;  and  as  soon  as  Easter  came 
they  marched  forth,  and  plundered,  and  burned,  and  laid 
waste  the  lands  of  the  crown  ;  and  they  ruined  the  estates  of 
those  who  remained  firm  in  their  allegiance.  And  each  of 
the  head  conspirators  went  to  his  own  castle,  and  manned 
and  victualled  it,  as  best  he  might.  Bishop  Gosfrith  and 
Robert  the  peace-breaker  went  to  Bristol,  and  having  plun- 
dered the  town,  they  brought  the  spoils  into  the  castie  ;  and 
afterwards  they  sallied  forth  and  plundered  Bath,  and  all  the 
surrounding  country,  and  they  laid  waste  all  the  lordship 
of  Berkeley.  And  the  chief  men  of  Hereford  and  all  that 
county,  and  the  men  of  Shropshire,  with  many  from  Wales, 
entered  Worcestershire,  and  went  on  plundering  and  burning, 
till  they  approached  the  county  town,  and  they  were  resolved 
to  burn  this  also,  and  to  plunder  the  cathedral,  and  to  seize 
the  king's  castle  for  themselves.  The  worthy  bishop  Wul- 
stan  seeing  this,  was  much  distressed  in  mind,  because  the 
castle  was  committed  to  his  keeping.  Nevertheless  his  re* 
tainers,  few  as  they  were,  marched  out,  and  through  the 
mercy  of  God,  and  the  good  desert  of  the  bishop,  they  slew 


or  tcok  captive  tivo  hundred  men,  and  put  all  the  rest  \o 
flight.  The  bishop  of  Durham  did  as  much  harm  as  he 
could  in  all  the  northern  parts  :  one  of  the  conspirators 
named  Roger,  threw  himself  into  Norwich  castle,  and  spread 
devastation  throughout  that  country  :  Hugo  also  was  in  no 
respect  less  formidable  to  Leicestershire  and  Northampton. 
Bishop  Odo,  with  whom  these  commotions  originated,  de- 
parted to  his  earldom  of  Kent,  which  he  ravaged,  and  he 
wholly  laid  waste  the  lands  of  the  king  and  the  archbishop, 
and  brought  all  the  plunder  into  his  castle  at  Rochester. 
When  the  king  had  heard  all  this,  and  with  what  treason 
they  were  acting  towards  him,  he  was  greatly  disturbed  in 
mind  ;  and  he  sent  for  the  English,  and  laid  his  necessities 
before  them,  and  entreated  their  assistance.  He  promised 
them  better  laws  than  had  ever  been  in  this  land,  and  forbade 
all  unjust  taxes,  and  guaranteed  to  his  subjects  their  woods 
and  hunting.  But  these  concessions  were  soon  done  away. 
Howbeit  the  English  came  to  tlie  aid  of  their  lord  the  king, 
and  they  then  marched  towards  Rochester,  desiring  to  seise 
bishop  Odo,  for  they  thought  that  if  they  had  him  who  was 
the  head  of  the  conspiracy  in  their  power,  they  might  with 
greater  ease  subdue  the  others.  Then  they  came  to  Tun- 
bridge  castle,  in  wliicli  were  the  knights  of  bishop  Odo  and 
many  others,  who  resolved  to  hold  out  against  William.  But 
the  English  came  on,  and  stormed  the  castle,  and  the  garrison 
capitulated.  They  then  proceeded  towards  Rochester  be- 
lieving that  the  bishop  was  there  :  but  the  king  was  told 
that  he  was  departed  to  his  castle  at  Pevensey,  and  the  king 
and  his  troops  went  after  him,  and  he  besieged  that  castle 
full  six  weeks  with  a  very  large  army. 

In  the  meantime  Robert  earl  of  Normandy,  the  king's 
brother,  gathered  together  a  great  multitude,  and  thought 
that  he  should  win  England  with  the  aid  of  the  disaffected  of 
this  country.  And  he  sent  some  of  his  troops  to  this  land, 
intending  to  follow  them  himself.  But  the  Enghsh  who 
guarded  the  sea  attacked  these  men,  and  slew  and  drowned 
more  than  any  one  can  number.  At  length  provisions  be- 
came scarce  in  the  castle,  on  which  the  insurgents  prayed  for 
a  truce  and  surrendered  the  place  to  the  king,  and  the  bishop 
took  an  oath  that  he  would  depart  from  England,  and  never 
rfctum  unless  the  king  sent  for  him,  and  that  he  vrould  ais» 

M  2 

164    THE  ANGLO-SAXO^^  CHRONICLE,  a.d.  ios9.  looo. 

g^ve  up  Rochester  castle.  After  tliis  the  bishop  proceeded 
thither  that  he  might  deliver  up  that  fortress,  aud  the  king 
sent  his  men  with  him.  but  then  the  soldiers  who  were  in  the 
castle  arose,  and  seized  the  bishop,  and  the  king's  men,  whom 
they  put  into  confinement.  There  were  very  good  knights 
in  this  castle  :  Eustace  the  younger,  the  three  sons  of  earl 
Ivoger,  and  all  the  best  born  of  this  land,  and  of  Normandy. 
When  tlie  king  knew  this,  he  set  forth  with  all  the  troops 
theft  with  him,  and  he  sent  over  all  England  and  commanded 
tliat  every  man  of  mark,  French  or  English,  from  town  and 
from  country,  should  come  and  join  him.  Many  were  those 
who  flocked  to  him,  and  he  marched  to  Rochester  and  be- 
sieged the  castle  till  the  garrison  capitulated.  Bishop  Odo 
and  those  who  were  with  him  departed  over  sea,  and  thus  the 
bishop  lost  the  station  he  held  in  this  land.  The  king  after- 
wards sent  an  army  to  Durham,  and  besiwged  the  castle,  and 
the  bishop  capitulated,  and  surrendered  it,  and  he  gave  up 
his  bishopric  and  went  to  Normandy.  Many  Frenchmen 
^Iso  left  their  lands,  and  went  over  sea,  and  the  king  gave 
tlieir  estates  to  those  who  had  held  fast  to  him. 

A.  1089.  This  year  the  venerable  father  and  patron  of 
monks,  archbishop  Lanfranc,  departed  tliis  life,  but  we  trust 
that  he  has  entered  into  the  kingdom  of  heaven.  There 
was  also  a  great  earthquake  throughout  England  on  the  3rd 
day  before  the  Ides  of  August.*  And  it  was  a  very  late 
year  both  as  to  the  corn,  and  fruits  of  all  kind,  so  that  many 
pien  reaped  their  corn  about  Martinmas,  and  even  later. 

A.  1090.  Things  being  in  the  state  we  have  describcil, 
as  regarding  the  king,  liis  brother,  and  his  people,  William 
considered  how  he  might  take  the  surest  vengeance  on  his 
brother  Robert,  harass  him  most,  and  win  Normandy  from 
him.  To  this  end,  he  gained  the  castle  and  port  of  St.  Valeiy 
by  stratagem  or  bribery,  and  also  Albemarle  castle,  and  he 
j^laced  his  knights  in  them,  and  they  did  much  harm,  ravag- 
ing and  burning  the  country.  After  this  he  got  possession 
of  more  castles  in  that  land,  and  in  these  also  he  stationed  his 
ki lights.  When  Robert  earl  of  Normandy  found  that  his 
sworn  liege-men  revolted  and  gave  up  their  castles  to  his 
frrcat  injury,  he  sent  to  his  lord  Philip  king  of  France,  v/'Ijo 

♦  The  11th  of  August. 


came  into  Norniindy  with  a  large  army;  and  tlie  king  and 
the  earl  with  an  innumerable  force  besieged  a  castle  defended 
by  the  king  of  England's  soldiers  :  but  king  William  of  Eng- 
land sent  to  Philip  king  of  France,  and  he,  for  love  of  Wil- 
liam or  for  his  great  bribes,  deserted  his  vassal  earl  Robert 
and  his  land,  and  returned  to  France,  leaving  things  as  they 
were.  During  all  these  transactions,  England  was  greatly 
oppressed  by  unlawful  taxes,  and  many  other  grievances. 

A.  1091.  This  year  king  William  held  his  court  at  Westmin- 
ster at  Christmas,  and  the  following  Candlemas  he  departed 
from  England  to  Normandy,  bent  on  his  brother's  ruin  :  but 
whilst  he  was  in  that  country,  peace  was  made  between  them, 
on  condition  that  the  earl  should  give  up  Feschamp,  the  earldom 
of  Eu,  and  Cherbourg,  to  William,  and  withal  that  the  king's 
men  should  be  unmolested  in  those  castles  of  which  they  had 
possessed  themselves  in  the  earl's  despite.  And  the  king,  on 
his  side,  promised  to  reduce  to  their  obedience  the  many 
castles  conquered  by  their  father,  which  had  since  revolted 
from  the  earl,  and  also  to  establish  him  in  the  possession  of 
all  their  father's  territories  abroad,  excepting  those  places 
which  the  earl  had  then  given  up  to  the  king.  Moreover  all 
who  had  lost  their  lands  in  England  on  account  of  the  earl 
were  to  regain  them  by  this  treaty,  and  the  earl  also  was  to 
receive  certain  estates  in  England  then  specified.  It  was 
also  agreed  that  if  the  earl  died  leaving  no  legitimate  son  the 
king  should  be  heir  of  all  Normandy,  and  in  like  manner  if 
the  king  died,  that  the  earl  should  be  heir  of  all  England. 
Twelve  of  the  chief  men  on  the  part  of  the  king,  and  twelve 
on  that  of  the  earl,  guaranteed  this  treaty  by  oath  ;  yet  it  was 
observed  but  a  short  time.  During  this  peace  Edgar  etheling 
v/as  dispossessed  of  those  lands  which  the  earl  had  granted  him, 
and  he  departed  and  went  from  Normandy  into  Scotland,  to 
the  king  his  brother-in-law,  and  his  sister.  Whilst  king  Wil- 
liam was  out  of  England,  Malcolm  king  of  Scotland  invaded 
this  country,  and  ravaged  great  part  of  it,  till  the  good  men  to 
whom  the  keeping  of  the  land  was  entrusted,  sent  their  troops 
against  liim  and  drove  him  back.  When  king  William  heard 
this  in  Normandy,  he  hastened  to  return,  and  he  came  to  Eng- 
land and  his  brother  earl  Robert  with  him.  And  they  called 
out  a  fleet  and  army,  but  almost  all  the  ships  were  lost,  a  few 
days  before  jMichaelmas.   ere  they  reached   Sccuand.     And 


1092, 1003 

.he  king  and  his  brother  proceeded  with  the   army  :  and 

■when  king  Malcolm  heard  that  thej  sought  to  attack  him,  he 
marched  with  his  array  out  of  Scotland  into  Lothian  in 
England,  and  remained  there.  And  when  king  William 
approached,  earl  Robert  and  Edgar  etheling  mediated  a 
peace  between  the  kings,  on  condition  that  king  Malcolm 
should  repair  to  our  king,  and  become  his  vassal,  and  in  all 
tlie  like  subjection  as  to  his  father  before  him  ;  and  this  he 
confirmed  by  oath.  And  king  William  promised  him  all  the 
lands  and  possessions  that  he  held  under  his  father.  By  this 
peace  Edgar  etheling  was  reconciled  to  the  king.  And  the 
kings  separated  in  great  friendship,  but  this  lasted  during  a 
short  time  only.  Earl  Robert  abode  here  with  the  king  till 
Christmas  drew  near,  and  in  this  time  he  found  little  good 
fuith  as  to  the  fullilment  of  the  treaty,  and  two  days  before 
the  feast  he  took  ship  from  the  Isle  of  Wight  and  sailed  to 
Normandy,  and  Edgar  etheling  with  liim. 

A.  1092.  This  year  king  William  went  northward  to 
Carlisle  with  a  large  army,  and  he  repaired  the  city,  and 
built  the  castle.  And  he  drove  out  Doltin,  who  had  before 
governed  that  country ;  and  having  placed  a  garrison  in  the 
castle,  he  returned  into  the  south,  and  sent  a  great  number 
of  rustic  Englishmen  thither,  with  their  wives  and  cattle, 
that  they  might  settle  there  and  cultivate  the  land. 

A.  1093.  This  year,  in  Lent,  king  William  was  very  sick 
at  Gloucester,  insomuch  that  he  was  universally  reported  to 
be  dead :  and  he  made  many  good  promises  in  his  illness ; 
that  he  would  lead  his  future  life  in  righteousness — that  the 
churches  of  God  he  would  guard  and  free — and  never  mort 
sell  them  for  money — and  that  he  would  have  all  just  laws 
in  his  kingdom.  And  he  gave  the  archbishopric  of  Canter- 
bury, which  he  had  hitherto  kept  in  his  own  hands,  to 
Anselm,  who  was  before  this  abbat  of  Bee,  and  the  bishopric 
of  Lincoln  to  his  chancellor  Robt  vt ;  and  he  granted  lands  to 
many  monasteries,  but  afterwards,  when  recovered,  he  took 
tliem  back,  and  he  neglected  all  the  good  laws  that  he  had 
promised  us.  After  this  the  king  of  Scotland  sent  desirinj 
that  the  stipulated  conditions  might  be  performed ;  and  kinj 
William  summoned  him  to  Gloucester,  and  sent  hostages  to 
liim  in  Scotland,  and  afterwards  Edgar  etheling  and  other.? 
r^ict  him,  and  brou;;ht  him  with  much  lionoiir  to  the  court* 

A.D.  1095, 1094.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.    167 

But  when  he  came  there,  he  could  neither  obtain  a  confer 
ence  with  our  king  nor  tlie  performance  of  tlie  condition? 
formerly  promised  him,  and  therefore  they  departed  in  great 
Cimiity:  and  king  Malcolm  returned  home  to  Scotland,  and 
as  soon  as  he  came  thither,  he  assembled  his  troops  and 
invaded  England,  ravaging  the  country  with  more  fury  than 
behoved  him :  and  Robert,  earl  of  Northumberland,  with  his 
men,  lay  in  wait  for  him,  and  slew  him  unawares.  He  was 
killed  by  Morasl  of  Bambrough,  the  earl's  steward,  and  king 
Malcolm's  own  godfather:*  his  son  Edward,  who,  had  he 
lived,  would  have  been  king  after  his  father,  was  killed  with 
him.  When  the  good  queen  Margaret  heard  that  her  most 
beloved  lord,  and  her  son,  were  thus  cut  off,  she  was  grieved 
in  spirit  unto  death,  and  she  went  with  her  priest  into  the 
church,  and  having  gone  through  all  befitting  rites,  she 
prayed  of  God  that  she  might  give  up  the  ghost.  And  then 
the  Scots  chose f  Dufenal,  the  brother  of  Malcolm,  for  their 
king,  and  drove  out  all  the  English  who  had  been  with  king 
Malcolm.  When  Duncan,  the  son  of  king  Malcolm,  heard 
all  this,  for  he  was  in  king  William's  court,  and  had  re- 
mained here  from  the  time  that  his  father  gave  him  as  an 
hostage  to  our  king's  father,  he  came  to  the  king,  and  did 
such  homage  as  the  king  required ;  and  thus,  with  his  con- 
sent, he  departed  for  Scotland,  with  the  aid  that  he  could 
muster,  both  English  and  French,  and  he  deprived  his  kins- 
man Dufenal  of  the  throne,  and  was  received  as  king.  But 
then  some  of  the  Scotch  again  gathered  themselves  together, 
and  slew  nearly  all  his  men,  and  he  himself  escaped  with 
few  others.  They  were  afterwards  reconciled  on  this  con- 
dition, that  Duncan  should  never  more  bring  English  or 
Frenchmen  into  that  country. 

A.   1094.  This  year,  at  Christmas,  king  William  held  hia 

*  Ingram  translates  the  original  "  godsib"  baptismal  friend,  and  adds 
the  following  note,  "  literally  a  gossip ;  but  such  are  the  'changes  which 
words  undergo  in  their  meaning  as  well  as  in  their  form,  that  a  title  of 
lionour,  formerly  implying  a  spiritual  relationship  in  God,  is  now  applied 
only  to  those  whose  conversation  resembles  the  contemptible  tittle-tattle  of 
a  christening: — Gibson  translates  it  a  '  susceptor,'  i.  e.  an  undertaker." 

+  "  From  this  expression  it  is  evident,  that  though  preference  wa« 
naturally  and  properly  given  to  hereditary  claims,  the  monarchy  of  S.'x>t- 
land,  as  well  as  oi  Kugland,  was  in  principle  elective.  The  doctriiie  of 
hereditaryj  of  diviu**-  ai  indefeaaiblw  ru^t.  jg  Qf  modem  grovth.** — Imujumu 

168         THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,    a. b.  1094. 

court  at  Gloucester ;  and  there  came  messengers  to  him  out 
of  Normandy,  from  his  brother  Robert,  and  they  said  that 
his  brother  renounced  all  peace  and  compact  if  the  king 
would  not  perform  all  that  they  had  stipulated  in  the  treaty ; 
moreover  they  called  him  perjured  and  faithless  unless  he 
would  perform  the  conditions,  or  would  go  to  the  place 
where  the  treaty  had  been  concluded  and  sworn  to,  and 
there  clear  himself  Then  at  Candlemas  the  king  went  to 
Hastings,  and  whilst  he  waited  there  for  a  fair  wind,  he 
caused  the  monastery  on  the  field  of  battle*  to  be  conse- 
crated ;  and  he  took  the  staff  from  Herbert  Losange,  "j"  bishop 
of  Thetford. — After  this,  in  the  middle  of  Lent,  he  went 
over  sea  to  Normandy.  When  he  came  thither  he  and  liis 
brother,  earl  Robert,  agreed  that  they  would  meet  in  peace, 
and  they  did  so,  to  the  end  that  they  might  be  reconciled, 
liut  afterwards,  when  they  met,  attended  by  the  same  men 
who  had  brought  about  the  treaty,  and  had  sworn  to  see  it 
executed,  these  charged  all  the  breach  of  faith  upon  the 
king ;  he  would  not  allow  this,  neither  would  he  observe  the 
treaty,  on  which  they  separated  in  great  enmity.  And  the 
king  then  seized  the  castle  of  Bures,  and  took  the  earl's  men 
who  were  in  it,  and  he  sent  some  of  them  over  to  this  coun- 
try. And  on  the  other  hand  the  earl,  with  the  assistance  of 
the  king  of  France,  took  the  castle  of  Ai'gences,  in  wliich  he 
seized  Roger  the  Poitou  and  seven  hundred  of  the  king's 
soldiers ;  and  he  afterwards  took  the  castle  of  Hulme ;  and 
frequently  did  each  burn  the  towns  and  take  captive  the 
i)eople  of  his  rival.  Then  the  king  sent  hither  and  ordered 
out  20,000  Englishmen  to  aid  him  in  Normandy,  but  when 
they  reached  the  sea  they  were  desired  to  return,  and  to  give 
to  the  king's  treasury  the  money  that  they  had  received; 
this  was  half  a  pound  for  each  man,  and  they  did  so.  And 
in  Normandy,  after  this,  the  earl,  with  the  king  of  France, 
and  all  the  troops  that  they  could  collect,  marched  towards 
Eu,  where  king  William  then  was,  purposing  to  besiege  him 
therein,  and  thus  they  proceeded  until  they  came  to  Lune- 

•  Battle  Abbey. 

f  Commonly  culled  Herbert  de  Losinga.  His  letters  are  of  much  his- 
torical interest :  they  were  supposed  to  be  lost,  »«ntil  they  were  recenily 
ci-i-'-rovered  by  Robert  Anstruther  in  tlie  Brussels  lihraiy,  aiid  putUalied 
8yo,  iJruxellLj,  apud  Vandale,  et  Londini  apud  D.  NutU 


Tille,  and  thei-e  the  king  of  France  furned  off  through 
treachery,  and  on  this  the  whole  army  dispersed.  Li  the 
meantime  king  William  sent  for  his  brother  Henry,  who 
was  in  the  castle  of  Damfront,  and  because  he  could  not  pass 
through  Normandy  in  security,  he  sent  ships  for  him,  with 
Hugo,  earl  of  Chester.  And  when  they  should  have  made 
I'or  Eu,  where  the  king  was,  they  directed  their  course  in- 
stead to  England,  and  landed  at  Hampton*  on  the  eve  of 
All  Saints'  day;  and  they  then  remained  ija  this  country, 
and  were  in  London  at  Christmas. 

The  same  year  also  the  Welsh  gathered  themselves  to- 
gether, and  made  war  upon  the  French  in  Wales,  or  in  the 
neighbouring  parts,  where  they  had  been  before  deprived  of 
their  lands,  and  they  stormed  many  fortresses  and  castles, 
and  slew  tlie  men,  and  afterwards  their  numbers  increased 
so  much,  that  they  divided  themselves  into  many  bodies; 
Hugo,  earl  of  Shropshire,  fought  with  one  division  and  put 
it  to  flight,  but  nevertheless  the  others  abstained  not,  during 
the  whole  year,  from  committing  every  outrage  in  their 
l)ower.  This  year  also  the  Scots  conspired  against  their 
king  Duncan,  and  slew  him,  and  they  afterwards  took  his 
uncle  Dufenal  a  second  time  for  their  king ;  through  whose 
instructions  and  instigation  Duncan  had  been  betrayed  to 
his  death. 

A.  1095.  This  year  king  William  was  at  Whitsand  during 
the  first  four  days  of  Christmas,  and  after  the  fourth  day  he 
set  sail  and  landed  at  Dover.  And  the  king's  brother  Henry 
remained  in  this  country  till  Lent,  and  then  he  went  over 
sea  to  Normandy,  with  much  treasure  to  be  employed  in  the 
king's  service  against  their  brother,  earl  Robert  :  and  he 
gained  ground  upon  the  earl  continually,  and  did  much  damage 
to  his  lands  and  subjects.  Then  at  Easter  tlie  king  held  his 
court  at  Winchester,  and  Robert  earl  of  Northumberland 
would  not  repair  thither  ;  therefore  the  king's  anger  was 
greatly  stirred  up  against  him,  and  he  sent  to  him,  and 
sternly  commanded  that  if  he  would  remain  in  peace  he 
should  come  to  his  court  at  Pentecost.  This  year  Eastei 
fell  on  the  8th  before  the  Kalends  of  April,  and  after  EAster^ 

♦  Now  called  Southampton,  to  distinguish  it  from  Northampton;  bul 
the  common  people,  in  both  neighbourhoods,  geneniUy  sav  "  H&aapton'*  U 
thiaday. — Ingram. 

170         THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.    a.d.  loo.^ 

on  ttie  night  of  the  feast  of  St.  Ambrose,  the  2nd  before  the 
Nones  of  April,  there  was  seen  all  over  the  country  a  great 
multitude  of  stars  falling  from  heaven  during  nearly  the  whole 
of  the  night,  not  one  or  two  at  a  time,  but  so  thickly  that  no 
man  might  number  them.  After  this,  at  Pentecost,  the  king 
was  at  Windsor,  and  all  his  witan  with  him,  excepting  the 
earl  of  Northumberland,  for  the  king  would  neither  give 
hostages  nor  pledge  liis  troth  that  he  should  come  and  go  in 
security.  On  this  the  king  called  out  an  army,  and  marched 
against  the  earl  into  Northumberland,  and  as  soon  as  he 
came  thither  he  seized  almost  all  the  chief  men  of  the  earl's 
court  in  a  certain  fortress,  and  he  put  them  in  confinement. 
And  he  besieged  Tinmouth  castle  until  he  took  it,  and  there 
he  seized  the  earl's  brother,  and  all  who  were  with  him  ; 
thence  he  proceeded  to  Bambrough,  and  there  he  besieged 
tlie  earl ;  and  when  the  king  found  that  he  could  not  reduce 
him,  he  caused  a  castle  to  be  built  over  against  Bambrough, 
and  called  it  in  his  speech,  Malveisin,  which  is  in  English, 
"the  evil  neighbour,"  and  he  garrisoned  it  strongly,  and 
afterwards  he  departed  southward.  Then  one  night,  soon 
after  the  king's  return  into  the  south,  the  earl  went  out  o£' 
Bambrough  towards  Tinmouth :  but  those  in  the  new  castle, 
being  aware  of  his  design,  pursued  and  attacked  him,  and 
they  wounded  him,  and  afterwards  took  him  prisoner,  and  some 
of  his  followers  were  slain,  and  some  taken  alive.  Li  the 
meantime  the  king  was  told  that  the  Welsh  had  stormed  a 
certain  castle  in  Wales,  called  Montgomery,  and  had  slain 
earl  Hugo's  men  who  defended  it ;  on  this  he  commanded 
another  army  to  be  called  out  in  haste,  and  after  Michaelmas 
he  proceeded  into  Wales.  He  divided  his  forces,  and  his 
troops  made  their  way  through  all  parts  of  the  country,  and 
met  at  Snow  don,  on  All  Saints'  day.  But  the  Welsh  ever 
fled  before  him  to  the  mountains  and  moors,  so  that  no  man 
could  get  near  them,  and  the  king  at  length  returned  home- 
wards, because  he  could  do  no  more  there  that  winter.  \MieD 
the  king  came  back,  he  commanded  his  people  to  take  Robert 
earl  of  Northumberland,  and  lead  him  to  Bambrough,  and  to 
put  out  both  his  eyes,  unless  the  besieged  would  surrende 
the  castle,  which  was  defended  by  his  wife,  and  his  steward 
Morel,  who  was  also  his  kinsman.  On  this,  the  castle  wa.-. 
given  up,  and  Morel  was  received  at  William's  court ;  and 

A.D.  1096.    THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.  171 

through  hira  many  were  discovered,  both  cleri^y  jDd  laity, 
who  had  aided  this  rebellion  with  their  counsel.  Then  the 
king  ordered  some  of  them  to  be  imprisoned  before  Clirist' 
mas,  and  he  straightly  commanded  throughout  the  kingdom, 
that  all  wlio  held  lands  of  him  should  be  at  his  court,  on 
that  festival,  as  they  would  retain  his  protection.  And  the 
king  had  earl  Robert  brought  to  Windsor,  and  confined  there 
in  the  castle.  This  year  also,  a  little  before  Easter,  the 
pope's  legate  came  to  England ;  this  was  Walter,  bishop  of 
Albano,  a  man  of  a  very  virtuous  life,  and  at  Pentecost  he 
presented  archbishop  Anselm  with  his  pall  from  pope  Urban, 
and  he  received  it  at  his  metropolitan  city  of  Canterbury. 
And  bishop  Walter  remained  h^re  great  part  of  this  year 
and  on  his  return  the  Romescot,*  which  had  not  been  paid  for 
many  years  before,  was  sent  with  him.  This  year  also  the 
weather  was  very  unseasonable,  so  that  the  fruits  of  the 
earth  were  much  injured  over  all  the  country. 

A.  1096.  This  year  king  William  held  his  Christmas 
court  at  Windsor;  and  William  bishop  of  Durham  died 
there  on  New  Year's  day.  And  the  king  and  all  his  witan 
were  at  Salisbury  on  the  octaves  of  the  Epiphany.  There 
Geoifry  Bainard  accused  William  of  Eu,  the  king's  relation, 
saj-ing  that  he  had  been  concerned  in  the  conspiracy  against 
the  king,  and  for  this  cause  he  fought  with  him  and  over- 
came him  in  single  combat,  and  after  he  was  vanquished  the 
king  commanded  that  his  eyes  should  be  put  out ;  and  the 
king  also  caused  his  steward  named  William,  who  was  his 
aunt's  son,  to  be  hanged  on  the  gallows.  Then  also  Eoda 
earl  of  Champagne,  the  king's  uncle,  and  many  others,  were 
deprived  of  their  lands,  and  some  were  brought  to  London, 
and  there  executed.  At  Easter,  this  year,  there  was  a  very 
great  stir  in  this  country  and  in  many  others  also,  through 
Urban,  who  was  called  pope,  though  he  was  not  in  posses- 
sion of  the  see  of  Rome ;  and  an  innumerable  multitude  of 
men,  with  their  wives  and  children,  departed  to  go  and  con- 
quer the  heathen  nations.  The  king  and  his  brother,  earl 
Robert,  were  reconciled  in  consequence  of  this  expedition,  so 
that  the  king  went  over  sea,  and  received  from  the  earl  all 
Normandy  for  a  sum  of  money,  according  tc  contract.  Aiid 
thereupon  the  earl  departed,  and  with  him  went  the  earls  of 
*  Commonly  called  Peter's  pence. 

172         THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,    a.d.  1007. 

Flanders  and  of  Boulogne,  and  many  other  headmen.*  And 
earl  Robert  and  those  who  accompanied  him  abode  in  Apulia 
that  winter.  But  of  those  who  went  by  Hungary,  many  thou- 
sands perished  miserably  there,  or  on  the  road,  and  many,  rueful 
and  hunger-bitten,  toiled  homewards  against  winter.  These 
were  very  hard  times  to  all  the  English,  as  well  because  of 
tlie  manifold  taxes,  as  of  the  very  grievous  famine  which  sorely 
afflicted  the  land.  This  year  also  the  nobles  who  had  charge 
of  this  country  frequently  sent  forth  armies  into  Wales,  and 
thus  they  greatly  oppressed  many,  and  for  no  purpose,  but 
with  much  loss  of  men  and  of  money. 

A.  1097.  This  year  king  William  was  in  Normandy  at 
Christmas,  and  beft^re  Easter  he  sailed  for  this  land,  intend- 
ing to  hold  liis  court  at  Winchester,  but  he  was  kept  at  sea 
by  bad  weather  till  Easter  eve ;  and  Arundel  was  the  first 
place  to  which  he  came,  therefore  he  held  his  court  at  Wind- 
sor. After  this,  he  marched  into  Wales  with  a  large  army, 
and  his  troops  penetrated  far  into  the  country  by  means  of 
some  Welshmen  who  had  come  over  to  him,  and  were  his  guides. 
And  William  remained  there  from  Midsummer  till  near  Au- 
gust, to  his  great  loss  of  men  and  horses  and  many  other  things. 

When  the  Welsh  had  revolted  from  the  king,  they  chose 
several  leaders  from  among  themselves,  one  of  these  was 
named  Cadwgan,  he  was  the  most  powerful  of  them  all,  and 
w}is  the  son  of  king  Griffin's  brother.  The  king,  seeing 
that  he  could  not  effect  his  purpose,  returned  into  England, 
and  he  forthwith  caused  castles  to  be  built  on  the  marches. 
Then  at  ^Michaelmas,  on  the  4th  before  the  Nones  of  Octo- 
ber, an  uncommon  star  appeared  shining  in  the  evening,  and 
soon  going  down  :  it  was  seen  in  tlie  south-west,  and  the 
light  which  streamed  from  it  seemed  very  long,  shining  to- 
wards the  south-east ;  and  it  appeared  after  this  manner 
nearly  all  the  week.  Many  allowed  that  it  was  a  comet. 
Soon  after  this,  Anselm  archbishop  of  Canterbury  obtained 
permission  from  the  king,  though  against  his  inclination,  to 
leave  this  country  and  go  over  sea,  because  it  seemed  to  hiiu 
that  in  this  nation  little  was  done  according  to  right,  or  after 
his  desires.     And  at  Martinmas  the  king  went  over  sea  to 

*  "  Headmen  or  chiefs."  The  term  is  still  retained  with  a  slight  varia- 
tion in  the  north  of  Europe,  as    the  Uelman  I'latotf,  of  celcLiated  momury.' 

A.©.  1007 1099.   THE  ANGLO-SxiXON  CHRONICLE.    173 

Normandy ;  but  whilst  he  waited  for  a  fnir  mnd,  his  train 
did  ius  much  injury  in  the  county  in  which  they  were  de- 
tiiined,  as  any  prince's  retinue,  or  even  an  army  could  have 
committed  in  a  peaceable  land. 

This  year  was  in  all  respects  a  very  heavy  time,  and  the 
weather  was  singularly  bad  at  the  seasons  wlien  men  should 
till  their  lands  and  gather  in  the  harvest ;  and  the  people 
had  nevertheless  no  respite  from  unjust  taxes.  Many  shires, 
moreover,  which  are  bound  to  duty  in  works  at  London, 
were  greatly  oppressed  in  making  the  wall  around  the  tower, 
in  repairing  the  bridge  which  had  been  almost  washed  away, 
and  in  building  the  king's  hall  at  Westminster.  These 
hardships  fell  upon  many.  This  year  also,  at  Michaelmas, 
Edgar  etheling,  with  the  king's  aid,  led  an  army  into  Scot- 
land, and  won  that  country  by  hard  fighting,  and  drove  out 
the  king  Dufnal,  and  established  his  kinsman  Edgar  the 
son  of  king  Malcolm  and  queen  Margaret,  as  king  in  fealty 
to  William,  and  then  he  returned  into  England. 

A.  1098.  This  year  king  AYilliam  was  in  Normandy  at 
Christmas ;  and  Walkelin  bishop  €f  Winchester,  and  Bald- 
win abbat  of  St.  Edmund's,  both  died  during  this  festival. 
Tliis  year  also  died  Turold  abbat  of  Peterborough.  More- 
over in  the  summer  of  tliis  year  a  spring  of  blood  burst  out 
at  Finchamstead,  in  Berksliire,  according  to  the  declaration 
of  many  men  of  credit,  who  said  that  tliey  had  seen  it.  And 
earl  Hugo  was  slain  in  Anglesey  by  foreign  pirates ;  his 
brother  Kobert  succeeded  him,  having  obtained  this  of  the 
king.  Before  Michaelmas-day  the  heaven  appeared  as  it 
were  on  fire,  almost  all  the  night.  Tliis  was  a  year  of  much 
distress,  caused  by  the  manifold  oppressive  taxes ;  nearly  all 
the  crops  in  the  marsh  lands  failed  also  from  the  great  rains, 
which  ceased  not  the  whole  year. 

A.  1099.  This  year  king  WiUiam  was  in  Normandy  at 
"Ihristmas  ;  and  at  Easter  he  came  hither  ;  and  at  Penteco^st 
^  held  his  court  for  the  first  time  in  the  new  building  at 
^"estminster,  and  there  he  gave  the  bishopric  of  Durham  to 
ms  chaplain  Panulf,  who  had  long  been  the  chief  manager 
jjid  director  of  all  the  king's  councils  held  in  England.  And 
i^on  afterwards  William  went  over  sea,  and  drove  earl  Elias 
ir(>m  Maine,  and  brought  thai;-  province  into  subjection  ;  and 
at  jVIichaelmas  he  returned  U  this  land.     This  year  also,  on 

174         THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.    a.d.  iioo. 

St.  Martin's  day,  there  was 'so  very  high  a  tide,  and  the 
damage  was  so  great  in  consequence,  that  men  remembered 
not  the  like  to  have  ever  happened  before,  and  th*^  same  day 
was  the  first  of  the  neAV  moon.  And  Osmond  bisho^j  of  S'^silis- 
bury  died  during  Advent. 

A.  1100.  This  year,  at  Christmas,  king  William  held  his 
court  in  Gloucester  ;  and  at  Easter  in  Winchester  ;  and  at 
l^entecost  in  Westminster.  And  at  Pentecost  blood  was 
observed  gushing  from  the  earth,  at  a  certain  town  of 
Berkshire,  even  as  many  asserted  who  declared  that  they 
luid  seen  it.  And  after  this,  on  the  morning  after  Lammas-day, 
king  William  was  shot  with  an  arrow  by  his  own  men,  as  he 
was  hunting,  and  he  was  carried  to  Winchester  and  buried 
there.*  Tliis  was  in  the  thirteenth  year  from  his  accession. 
lie  was  very  powerful,  and  stern  over  his  lands  and  subjects, 
and  towards  all  his  neighbours,  and  much  to  be  dreaded,  and 
through  the  counsels  of  evil  men  wliich  were  always  pleasing 
to  him,  and  through  his  own  avarice,  he  was  ever  vexing  the 
people  with  armies  and  with  cruel  taxes  ;  for  in  his  days  all 
justice  sank,  and  all  unrighteousness  arose,  in  the  sight  of 
God  and  the  world.  He  trampled  on  the  church  of  God, 
and  as  to  the  bishoprics  and  abbacies,  the  incumbents  of 
which  died  in  his  reign,  he  either  sold  them  outright,  or 
kept  them  in  his  own  hands,  and  set  them  out  to  renters ;  for 
he  desired  to  be  the  heir  of  every  one,  churchman  or  layman, 
so  that  the  day  on  which  he  was  killed  he  had  in  his  own 
hands  the  archbishopric  of  Canterbury,  the  bishoprics  of 
V/inchester  and  Salisbury,  and  eleven  abbacies,  all  let  out  to 
farm,  and  in  fine,  however  long  I  may  delay  mention  of  it,| 
all  that  was  abominable  to  God  and  oppressive  to  men  was 
common  in  this  island  in  William's  time  :  and  therefore  he 
was  hated  by  almost  all  his  people,  and  abhorred  by  God  as 
his  end  showeth,  in  that  he  died  in  the  midst  of  his 
unrighteousness,  without  repentance  or  any  reparation  made 
for  lus  evil  deeds.  He  was  slain  on  a  Thursday,  and  buried 
the  next  morning  :  and  after  he  was  buried,  the  witan  wlio 
were  then  near  at  hand,  chose  his  brother  Henry  as  king, 

•  His  monument  is  still  to  be  seen  there,  a  plain  gravestone  of  black 
marble,  of  the  common  shape  c«lled  "  dos  d'ane,"  sach  as  are  now 
frequently  seen,  though  of  inferior  materials,  in  the  church-yards  of  vili  ige% 
»md  are  only  one  remove  from  the  grassy  sod. — Ingram. 

t  liigram  renders  this,  "  though  1  may  l>e  tedious." 

A.D.  1100, 1101.   THE  ANQLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.    175 

ai  (1  he  forthwitli  gave  the  bishopric  of  Winchester  to  William 
Gilfard,  and  then  went  to  London  ;  and  on  tjie  Sunday 
following  he  made  a  promise  to  God  and  all  the  people, 
before  the  altar  at  Westminster,  that  he  would  abolish  the 
injustice  which  prevailed  in  his  brother's  time,  and  that  he 
would  observe  the  most  equitable  of  the  laws  established  in 
the  days  of  any  of  the  kings  before  him  :  and  after  this 
Maurice  bishop  of  London  consecrated  him  as  king,  and  all 
the  m.en  of  this  land  submitted  to  him,  and  swore  oaths  and 
became  his  liege-men.  And  soon  afterwards,  the  king,  by 
the  advice  of  those  about  him,  caused  Ranulf  bishop  of 
Durham  to  be  taken  and  brought  into  the  Tower  of  London, 
and  confined  there.  Then  before  IVIichaelmas  Anselm 
archbishop  of  Canterbury  came  to  this  land  ;  king  Henry 
having  sent  for  him  by  the  advice  of  his  witan,  because  he  had 
left  the  country  on  account  of  the  injustice  done  him  by  king 
^Villiam.  And  soon  afterwards  the  king  took  for  his  wife 
Maud  the  daughter  of  Malcolm  king  of  Scotland  and  of  the 
flood  queen  Margaret  king  Edward's  kinswoman,  of  the  true 
royal  line  of  England  ;  and  on  Martinmas  day  she  was  given 
to  him  with  great  pomp  at  W^estminster,  and  archbishop 
Anselm  wedded  her  to  Henry,  and  afterwards  consecrated 
her  as  queen.  And  soon  after  this  Thomas  archbishop  of 
York  died.  This  year  also,  in  the  autumn,  earl  Robert  came 
home  into  Normandy,  and  Robert  earl  of  Flanders  and 
Eustace  earl  of  Boulogne  also  returned  from  Jerusalem,  and 
on  earl  Robert's  arrival  in  Normandy  he  was  joyfully 
received  by  all  the  people,  excepting  those  in  the  castles 
which  were  garrisoned  with  king  Henry's  men,  and  against 
these  he  had  many  contests  and  struggles. 

A.  1101.  This  year,  at  Christmas,  king  Henry  held  his 
court  at  Westminster,  and  at  Easter  at  Winchester.  And 
!?(>on  afterwards  the  chief  men  of  this  land  entered  into  a 
league  against  the  king,  both  from  their  own  great  treachery, 
and  through  Robert  earl  of  Normandy  who  had  hostile 
designs  upon  this  land.  And  then  the  king  sent  out  ships  to 
annoy  and  liinder  his  brother ;  but  some  of  them  failed  at 
time  of  need,  and  deserted  from  the  king,  and  submitted  to 
earl  Robert.  At  Midsummer  the  king  posted  himself  with 
all  his  troops  at  Pevensey  to  oppose  his  brother,  and  he 
waited  for  him  there.     And  in  the  meantime  earl  Robert 

176    THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,   a.d.  iioi,  1102. 

landed  ::t  Portsmouth  twelve  nights  before  Lammas,  and  the 
king  marched  against  him  with  all  his  forces  ;  but  the  chief 
men  interfered  and  made  peace  between  them,  on  conditio*^ 
that  the  king  should  give  up  all  those  places  in  Normandy 
which  he  then  detained  from  his  brother  by  force  of  arms  ; 
and  that  all  who  had  lost  their  lands  in  England  on  the  earl's 
account  should  have  them  again,  and  that  earl  Eustace 
should  also  have  his  father's  estates  in  this  country,  and  that 
earl  Robert  should  receive  yearly  3000  marks  of  silver  from 
England ;  and  it  was  stipulated  by  tliis  treaty  that  wliichever 
of  the  brothers  outlived  the  other,  he  should  inherit  all 
England  together  with  Normandy,  unless  the  deceased  left 
legitimate  issue.  And  twelve  men  of  the  highest  rank  on 
either  side  confirmed  this  treaty  by  oath  :  and  the  earl 
afterwards  remained  here  till  after  Michaelmas ;  and  his  men 
did  much  harm  wherever  they  went,  whilst  the  earl  stayed  in 
this  land.  This  year  also,  at  Candlemas,  bishop  Kanulf 
escaped  by  night  from  the  Tower  of  London,  in  which  he 
was  confined,  and  went  to  Normandy.  It  was  at  his  sugges- 
tion chielly,  that  earl  Robert  was  incited  to  invade  this 

A.  1102.  This  year  king  Henry  was  at  Westminster 
during  tlie  feast  of  the  Nativity,  and  at  Easter  he  was  at 
Winchester.  And  soon  afterwards  a  difference  arose  between 
the  king  and  Robert  of  Belesme,  who  held  the  earldom  of 
Shrewsbury  in  this  country,  which  his  father  earl  Roger  had 
enjoyed  before  him,  and  who  had  other  great  possessions 
both  here  and  abroad  ;  and  the  king  went  and  besieged 
Arundel  Castle,  and  when  he  found  that  he  should  not  be 
able  to  take  it  speedily,  he  caused  castles  to  be  built  before 
it,  and  garrisoned  with  his  men  ;  and  then  he  led  all 
his  troops  to  Bridgenorth,  and  remained  there  till  he  had 
reduced  the  castle,  and  deprived  earl  Robert  of  his  lands, 
and  he  took  from  him  all  that  he  possessed  in  England ;  so 
the  earl  departed  over  sea,  and  the  king's  soldiers  were 
disbanded  and  returned  home.  On  the  Michaelmas  following 
the  king  was  at  Westminster,  with  all  the  head  men  of  tliis 
land,  both  clergy  and  laity  ;  and  archbishop  Anselm  held  a 
synod,  at  which  many  decrees  were  made  touching  the 
Christian  religion  ;  and  many  abbats,  both  French  and 
English,  lost  their  staffs  and  their  abbacies,  because  they 

A.I.  II02-1104.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.    17; 

tad  obtained  them  unlawfully,  or  had  lived  unnghteously 
therein.  And  the  same  year,  in  Pentecost  week,  there  came 
robbers,  some  from  Auvergne,  some  from  France,  and  some 
from  Flanders,  and  they  brake  into  the  monastery  of  Peter- 
borough, and  carried  otf  much  treasure  of  gold  and  silver  : 
crosses,  chalices,  and  candlesticks. 

A.  1103.  This  year  king  Henry  was  at  Westminster  at 
Christmas.  And  soon  afterwards  the  bishop  William  G  iifard 
departed  from  this  land,  because  he  would  not  against  riglit 
receive  consecration  from  Gerard  arclibishop  of  York.  And 
at  Easter  the  king  held  his  court  at  Winchester  ;  and  after- 
wards, Anselm  archbishop  of  Canterbury  journeyed  to  Rome, 
as  he  and  the  king  had  agreed.  This  year  also  earl  Robert 
of  Normandy  came  to  tliis  land,  to  speak  w4th  the  king,  and 
before  he  departed  hence  he  gave  up  the  3000  marks  which 
king  Henry  should  have  paid  him  yearly  according  to  the 
treaty.  This  year  blood  was  seen  gushing  out  of  the  earth 
at  Hampstead,*  in  Berksliire.  This  w^as  a  year  of  much 
distress  from  the  manifold  taxes,  and  also  from  a  mortality 
among  the  cattle,  and  from  the  failure  of  the  crops,  both  of 
the  corn  and  all  fruits  of  trees.  In  the  morning  also  of  St. 
Lawrence's  day,  the  wind  did  so  much  damage  to  all  the 
fruit  of  this  land,  that  no  man  remembered  the  like  to  have 
ever  happened  before.  The  same  year  died  Matthias  abbat 
of  Peterborough,  w^ho  had  not  lived  more  than  one  year  after 
he  was  made  abbat.  After  Michaelmas,  on  the  12th  before  the 
Kalends  of  November,  he  was  received  in  procession  as  abbat, 
and  the  same  day  the  year  following  he  died  at  Gloucester, 
and  there  he  was  buried. 

A.  1104.  This  year,  at  Christmas,  king  Henry  held  his 
court  at  Westminster,  at  Easter  at  Winchester,  at  Pentecost 
again  at  Westminster.  This  year  the  first  day  of  Pentecost 
was  on  the  Nones  of  June,  and  on  the  Tuesday  after,  at  mid- 
day, there  appeared  four  circles  of  a  white  colour  round  the 
sun,  one  under  the  other  as  if  they  had  been  painted.  All 
who  saw  it  wondered,  because  they  never  remembered  such 
before.  An  alliance  was  afterwards  formed  between  Robert 
earl  of  Normandy  and  Robert  of  Belesme,t  whom  king 
Henry  had  deprived  of  his  estates,  and  di'iven  out  of  Eng- 

•  Fiiichaixistea>d.  f  Hence  the  English  tame  BeVsuayH 


178    THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,   a.d.  1104.1106. 

land,  and  from  this,  the  king  of  England  and  the  earl  o\ 
Kormandy  became  at  variance.  And  the  king  sent  his 
people  over  sea  into  Normandy,  and  the  head  men  of  that 
country  received  them,  and  admitted  them  into  their  castles 
in  treachery  to  their  lord  the  earl,  and  they  greatly  annoyed 
the  earl  by  plundering  and  burning  his  territories.  This 
year  also,  William  earl  of  Moreton  (Mortaigne)  departed  to 
Normandy,  and  being  there,  he  took  arms  against  the  king, 
on  which  the  king  confiscated  all  his  possessions  and  estates 
in  this  country.  It  is  not  easy  to  describe  the  misery  of  this 
land,  which  it  suffered  at  this  time  through  the  various  and 
manifold  oppressions  and  taxes  that  never  ceased  or  slack- 
ened :  moreover  wherever  the  king  went  his  train  fell  to 
j)lundering  his  wretched  people,  and  withal  there  was  much 
burning  and  manslaughter.  By  all  this  was  the  anger  of 
God  provoked,  and  this  unhappy  nation  harassed. 

A.  1105.  This  year,  at  Christmas,  king  Henry  held  his 
court  at  Windsor,  and  the  following  Lent  he  went  over  sea 
to  Normandy  against  his  brother  earl  Robert.  And  whilst 
he  remained  there  he  won  Caen  and  Bayeux  from  his  brother, 
and  almost  all  the  castles  and  chief  men  of  that  land  became 
gui>ject  to  him  ;  and  in  the  autumn  he  came  again  to  this 
country.  And  all  that  he  had  conquered  in  Normandy  re- 
mained to  him  afterwards  in  peace  and  subjection,  excepting 
those  places  which  lay  in  the  neighbourhood  of  William  earl 
of  Moreton,*  and  which  he  harassed  continually  as  much  as 
harass  he  might,  in  revenge  for  the  loss  of  his  estates  in 
England.  Then  before  Christmas  Robert  de  Belesme  came 
hither  to  the  king.  This  was  a  year  of  great  distress  from 
<  lie  failure  of  the  fruits,  and  from  the  manifold  taxes  wliich 
never  ceased,  either  before  the  king  went  abroad,  while  he 
was  there,  or  again  after  his  return. 

A.  1106.  This  year  at  Christmas,  king  Henry  was  at 
Westminster,  and  there  he  held  his  court,  and  during  this 
festival  Robert  de  Belesme  departed  from  the  king  in  enmity, 
and  left  this  country  tor  Normandy.  After  this,  and  before 
Lent,  the  king  was  at  Northampton,  and  his  brother  earl 
Robert  of  Normandy  came  to  him  there  ;  and  because  the 

•  "  De  Moritonio"  is  the  Latin  title ;  the  town  of  Mortaigne  ia  Nor- 
n&nd)  is  tlie  plai-e  trom  which  it  is  tak«;n. 


king  would  not  give  uy  chat  which  he  had  won  from  the  earl 
in  Normandy,  they  separated  in  enmity,  and  tlie  earl  soon 
went  again  over  sea.  In  the  first  week  of  Lent,  on  tlie 
evening  of  Friday,  tho  14th  before  tlie  Kalends  of  March,  a 
strange  star  appeared,  and  it  was  seen  a  while  every  evening 
for  a  longtime  afterwards.  This  star  appeared  in  the  south- 
west, it  seemed  small  and  dim,  but  the  light  that  stood  f]*om 
it  was  very  bright,  and  like  an  exceedingly  long  beam  shining 
to  the  north-east  ;  und  one  evening  it  seemed  as  if  a  beam 
from  over  against  the  star  darted  directly  into  it.  Some 
persons  said  that  th.;y  observed  more  unknown  stars  at  this 
time,  but  we  do  not  A^rite  this  as  a  certainty  because  we  saw 
tliem  not  ourselves.  One  night,  the  morrow  being  the  day 
of  our  Lord's  supper,  that  is,  the  Thursday  before  Easter, 
two  moons  appeared  before  day  in  the  heavens,  the  one  in 
the  east  and  the  other  in  the  west,  both  full  ;  and  the  same 
day  was  the  14th  of  the  moon.  At  Easter  the  king  was  at 
Bath,  and  at  Pentecost  at  Salisbury,  because  he  would  not 
hold  his  court  over  sea  during  his  absence  from  this  country. 
After  this  before  August,  the  king  went  into  Normandy,  and 
almost  all  the  inhabitants  bowed  to  his  will,  excepting  Robert 
de  Belesme,  and  the  earl  of  Mortaigne,  and  a  few  other 
chiefs  who  yet  held  with  the  earl  of  Normandy  :  the  king 
tlierefore  came  v/ith  an  army,  and  besieged  a  castle  of  the 
earl  of  Mortaigne  called  Tinchebrai.  Whilst  the  king  wag 
besieging  this  castle,  Robert  earl  of  Normandy  and  his  army 
came  upon  him  on  Michaelmas  eve,  and  with  him  were 
Robert  de  Belesme  and  William  earl  of  Mortaigne,  and  all 
who  wished  well  to  their  cause,  but  strength  and  victory 
were  with  the  king.  The  earl  of  Normandy  was  taken, 
together  with  the  earl  of  Mortaigne  and  Robert  de  Stutte- 
ville ;  and  they  were  afterwards  sent  to  England,  and  kept 
in  confinement ;  Robert  de  Belesme  was  put  to  flight,  and 
William  Crispin  was  taken,  with  many  others  ;  Edgar  ethel- 
ing  who  had  gone  over  from  the  king  to  the  earl  a  short 
time  before,  was  also  taken  ;  but  the  king  afterwards  let  him 
depart  unhurt.  After  this,  the  king  subdued  the  whole  of 
Normandy,  and  brought  it  under  his  own  will  and  power. 
This  year  also  there  was  a  very  terrible  and  sinful  war 
between  the  emperor  of  Saxony  and  his  son,  during  which 
the  father  died,  and  the  son  succeeded  to  the  empire. 

N  2 

180    THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.   a.d.  1107-1109. 

A.  1107.  This  year  king  Henry  was  in  Normandy  at 
Christmas  and  reduced  that  land,  and  having  settled  the 
government,  he  came  to  England  the  following  Lent ;  and  he 
held  his  court  at  Windsor  at  Easter,  and  at  Pentecost  he  held 
.t  at  Westminster.  And  in  the  beginning  of  August  he  was 
again  at  Westminster,  and  there  he  gave  away  bishoprics 
and  abbacies,  disposing  of  such  as  were  without  elders  and 
pifstors,  both  in  England  and  Normandy ;  the  number  of 
these  was  so  great  that  no  man  remembered  that  so  many 
were  ever  before  given  away  at  one  time.  And  amongst 
others  who  then  received  abbacies,  Ernulf  prior  of  Canter- 
bury obtained  that  of  Peterborough.  This  was  about  the 
seventh  year  of  king  Henry's  reign,  and  the  one  and  fortieth 
year  that  the  French  ruled  in  this  land.  Many  said  that 
they  saw  various  tokens  in  the  moon  this  year,  and  his*  light 
waxing  and  waning  contrary  to  nature.  This  year  died 
Maurice  bishop  of  London,  and  Robert  abbat  of  St.  Ed- 
mund's Bury,  and  Richard  abbat  of  Ely.  This  year  also 
Edgar  king  of  Scotland  died  on  the  Ides  of  January,  and  his 
brother  Alexander  succeeded  to  the  kingdom  with  king 
Henry's  consent. 

A.  1108.  This  year,  at  Christmas,  king  Henry  was  at 
Westminster  ;  and  at  Easter  at  Winchester  ;  and  at  Pente- 
cost again  at  Westminster.  After  this,  before  August,  he 
went  into  Normandy.  And  Philip  king  of  France  dying  on 
the  Nones  of  August,  his  son  Louis  succeeded  him,  and  there 
were  afterwards  many  battles  between  the  kings  of  France 
and  of  England,  whilst  Henry  remained  in  Normandy.  This 
year  also  Gerard  archbishop  of  York  di'=*d  before  Pentecost, 
and  Thomas  was  afterwards  appointed  as  his  successor. 

A.  1109.  This  year  king  Henry  was  in  Normandy  both  at 
Christmas  and  at  Easter  ;  and  before  Pentecost  he  came 
hither  and  held  his  court  at  Westminster,  at  which  place  the 
stipulations  were  ratified,  and  the  oaths  sworn,  relative  t<; 
the  marriage  of  his  daughter  with  the  emperor.  There  wjipr 
much  thunder  this  year,  and  that  very  terrible.  And  An- 
Belm  archbishop  of  Canterbury  died  on  the  11th  before  the 
Kalends  of  April,  and  the  first  day  of  Easter  was  on  the 
greater  Litany. 

•  The  moon  is  of  the  masculine  gender,  and  the  sun  fe:niuine,  ir 
Anglo-Saxon,  as  in  German,     See  a.d.  1110 

A.T).  1110,  nil.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.    181 

A.  1110.  This  year,  at  CLristmas,  king  Henry  lield  his 
court  at  Westminster  ;  and  at  Easter  he  was  at  Marlbo- 
rough ;  and  at  Pentecost  lie  held  liis  court  for  the  first  time 
in  the  New  Windsor.  This  year,  before  Lent,  the  king  sent 
his  daughter  with  manifold  treasures  over  sea,  and  gave  her 
to  the  emperor.  On  the  fifth  night  of  the  month  of  May  the 
moon  appeared  shining  brightly  in  the  evening,  and  after- 
wards his  light  waned  by  little  and  little,  and  early  in  tlie 
night  he  was  so  wholly  gone  that  neither  light,  nor  circle, 
nor  anything  at  all  of  him  was  to  be  seen,  and  thus  it  con- 
tinued till  near  day,  and  then  he  appeared  shining  full  and 
bright ;  he  was  a  fortnight  old  the  same  day  :  the  sky  was 
very  clear  all  the  night,  and  the  stars  shone  very  brightly  all 
over  the  heavens,  and  the  fruit  trees  were  greatly  injured  by 
that  night's  frost.  After  this,  in  the  month  of  June,  there 
appeared  a  star  in  the  north-east,  and  its  light  stood  before  it 
to  the  south-west,  and  it  was  seen  tlius  for  many  nights,  and 
ever  as  the  night  advanced  it  mounted  upwards  and  was 
seen  going  off  to  the  north-west.  This  year  Pliilip  de  Brause,* 
and  William  Mallet,  and  William  Baynard,  were  deprived  of 
their  lands.  This  year  also  died  earl  Elias,  who  held  Maine 
in  fee-tail  f  of  king  Henry ;  but  on  his  death  the  earl  of  An- 
jou  took  possession  of  that  province,  and  kept  it  against  the 
king's  will.  This  was  a  year  of  much  distress  from  the 
taxes  which  the  king  raised  for  his  daughter's  dowry,  and 
from  the  bad  weather  by  which  the  crops  were  greatly  in- 
jured, and  nearly  all  the  fruit  on  the  trees  destroyed  through- 
out the  country. — This  year  men  first  began  to  work  at  the 
new  monastery  of  Chertsey. 

A.  1111.  This  year  king  Henry  wore  not  his  crown  at 
Christmas,  nor  at  Easter,  nor  at  Pentecost.  And  in  August 
he  was  called  over  sea  to  Normandy,  by  the  hostility  of  cer- 
tain of  his  enemies  on  the  marches  of  France,  and  principally 
by  that  of  the  earl  of  Anjou,  who  held  Maine  against  him  : 
and  after  his  arrival  many  were  the  intrigues  and  great  the 

•  This  is  the  term  used  by  Miss  Gumey.  Dr.  Ingram  renders  it 
Braiose  ;  the  Anglo-Saxon  is  Brause  ;  the  Latin,  Braiosa.  Is  not  the 
modem  name  Bracy  derived  from  this  root  ? 

+  That  is,  the  territory  was  not  a  fee-simple,  but  sulject  to  taillnge,  or 
taxation ;  and  that  particular  species  is  probably  here  mtended,  which  ia 
called  in  old  French  *'  en  queuage,"  an  expression  not  very  dittere3>{  Aom 
that  in  the  text  above. — Inguah. 

182    THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,   a.d  1112-1114 

burning  and  plundering  carried  on  hj  either  party  against 
the  other. — This  year  Robert  earl  of  Flanders  died  and  his 
son  Baldwin  succeeded  him.  The  winter  was  very  long  tliis 
year,  a  heavy  and  a  severe  time,  by  which  the  fruits  of  tlie 
earth  were  much  injured  ;  and  there  was  the  greatest  pesti- 
lence among  the  cattle  ever  remembered. 

A.  1112.  All  this  year  king  Henry  remained  in  Nor- 
mandy, on  account  of  tlie  war  in  which  he  was  engaged  with 
France,  and  with  the  earl  of  Anjou,  who  held  Maine  against 
him.  And  whilst  he  was  there  he  deprived  the  earl  of  Ev- 
reux  and  William  Crispin  of  their  lands,  and  drove  them  out 
of  Normandy  :  and  he  restored  to  Philip  de  Brause  the  es- 
tates wliich  had  been  taken  from  him,  and  he  caused  Robert 
de  Belcsme  to  be  seized  and  put  into  prison.  This  was  a 
very  good  year  as  to  the  crops,  the  trees  and  fields  being  very 
fruitful  ;  but  it  was  a  very  heavy  and  a  sorrowful  time,  by 
reason  of  a  dreadful  pestilence  among  men. 

A.  1113.  This  year  king  Henry  was  in  Normandy  at 
Christmas,  at  Easter,  and  at  Pentecost.  And  in  the  summer 
he  sent  hither  Robert  de  Belesme,  to  be  confined  in  Wareham 
castle,  and  he  himself  came  to  this  land  soon  afterwards. 

A.  1114.  This  year,  at  Christmas,  king  Henry  held  his 
court  at  Windsor,  and  he  held  no  court  again  this  year. 
And  at  Midsummer  he  entered  Wales  with  an  army,  and  the 
Welsh  came  and  treated  with  the  king,  and  he  caused  castles 
to  be  built  in  that  country.  And  in  September  he  went  over 
sea  to  Normandy.  Li  the  end  of  May,  this  year,  a  strange 
star  with  a  long  light  was  seen  shining  for  many  nights. 
TM<E  year  also  there  was  so  great  an  ebb  of  the  tide  every 
where  in  one  day,  as  no  man  remembered  before,  so  that 
men  went  through  the  Thames  both  riding  and  walking,  east 
of  London  bridge.  This  year  there  were  very  high  winds  in 
the  month  of  October,  and  more  especially  on  the  night  of 
the  octaves  of  St.  Martin,  as  was  apparent  in  all  woods  and 
towns.  Tliis  year  also  the  king  gave  the  archbishopric  of 
Canterbury  to  Ralph  bishop  of  Rochester  ;  and  Thomas  [II.  j 
archbishop  of  York  died,  and  the  king's  chaplain  Thurstan 
succeeded  him.  At  this  time  the  king  went  towards  the  sea, 
and  he  would  have  gone  over  but  he  was  detained  by  tho 
weather.  In  the  meanwhile  he  sent  his  writ  to  Ernulf  ab- 
bat  of  Peterborough,  desiring  him  to  come  to  him  with  speed. 

A.D.  1114-1116.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.    183 

for  that  he  would  speak  with  him  on  sometliing  of  import- 
ance. On  Ernulfs  arrival,  the  king  and  the  archbisho[)S 
and  bishops,  and  the  English  nobility  who  attended  tlie  king, 
forced  him  to  accept  the  bishopric  of  Rochester  ;  he  with- 
stood them  long,  but  his  resistance  availed  nothing.  And 
the  king  commanded  the  archbishop  to  take  him  to  Canter- 
bury, and  to  consecrate  him  as  bishop  whether  he  would  or 
not.  This  was  done  in  the  town  called  Burne*  on  the  17th 
before  the  Kalends  of  October.  When  the  monks  of  Pet(M-- 
borough  heard  this,  they  were  so  sorry  as  never  before,  be- 
cause Ernulf  was  a  very  good  and  a  mild  man,  and  did  much 
good  within  the  monastery  and  out  of  it  whilst  he  remained 
there.  May  Almighty  God  be  ever  with  him !  Soon  after- 
wards, at  the  request  of  the  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  the 
king  gave  that  abbacy  to  a  monk  of  Sieyes  named  John. 
And  soon  after  this  the  king  and  the  archbishop  sent  him  to 
Rome  for  the  archbishop's  pall,  and  with  him  a  monk  named 
Warner,  and  the  archdeacon  John  the  archbishop's  nephew, 
and  they  sped  well  on  their  journey.  This  was  done  on  the 
11th  before  the  Kalends  of  October,  at  the  town  called  Ruge- 
nor  (Rowner,  near  Gosport),  and  the  same  day  the  king  took 
ship  at  Portsmouth. 

A.  1115.  This  year,  during  Christmas,  king  Henry  was 
in  Normandy,  and  whilst  he  was  there  he  caused  all  the 
chief  men  of  Normandy  to  do  homage  and  swear  oaths  of 
allegiance  to  his  son  William,  whom  he  had  by  his  queen; 
and  afterwards  in  the  month  of  July  he  returned  hither. 
This  year  the  winter  was  so  severe  with  snow  and  with 
frost,  that  no  man  then  living  remembered  a  harder:  and 
it  occasioned  much  disease  among  the  cattle.  This  year 
pope  Paschal  sent  hither  a  pall  to  archbishop  Ralph,  and 
he  received  it  with  much  pomp  at  his  see  of  Canterbury. 
Anselm  an  abbat  of  Rome,  the  nephew  of  archbishop  Aii- 
selm,  and  John  abbat  of  Peterborough,  brought  the  pall 
from  Rome. 

A.  1116.  This  year,  at  Christmas,  king  Henry  was  at 
St.  Alban's,  and  tliere  he  caused  the  monastery  to  be  con- 
secrated; and  at  Easter  he  was  at  Wudiham.j     This  year 

*  "  East  Boume,  in  Sussex,  where  the  king  was  waiting  for  a  fair  wind 
to  carry  him  over  sea." — Inglj^ml     '•'  Sittingbum."—  Mis»  Gu&n£t. 
•k  Odiliam. 

184         THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,    a.d.  1117. 

also,  the  winter  being  severe  and  long,  it  was  a  very  heavy 
time  for  the  cattle  and  all  things.  And  soon  after  Easter 
the  king  went  over  sea,  and  much  treachery  was  practisui, 
and  there  was  plundering  and  taking  of  castles  between 
France  and  Normandy.  The  chief  cause  of  enmity  was 
that  king  Henry  aided  his  nephew  earl  Theobald  de  Blois, 
who  was  then  at  war  with  his  lord  Louis  king  of  France. 
This  was  a  very  calamitous  year,  the  crops  being  spoiled  by 
the  heavy  rains,  which  came  on  just  before  August  and 
lasted  till  Candlemas.  Mast  also  was  so  scarce  this  year 
that  none  was  to  be  heard  of  in  all  this  land,  or  in  Wales : 
moreover  this  land  and  nation  were  many  times  sorely  op- 
pressed by  the  taxes  which  the  king  raised  both  within  the 
towns  and  out  of  them.  This  year  also  the  whole  of  the 
monastery  of  Peterborough  was  burnt,  with  all  the  houses, 
excepting  the  chapter-house  and  the  dormitory  :  and  the 
greater  part  of  the  town  was  burnt  also.  All  this  happened 
on  a  Friday,  being  the  2nd  day  before  the  Nones  of  August. 

A.  1117.  All  this  year  king  Henry  abode  in  Normandy, 
because  of  the  war  with  the  king  of  France  and  his  other 
neighbours:  then  in  the  summer  the  king  of  France,  and 
the  earl  of  Flanders  with  him,  entered  Normandy  with  an 
army  and  remained  in  the  country  one  night,  and  went  away 
again  in  the  morning  without  fighting.  And  Normandy  was 
greatly  oppressed  by  taxes  and  by  the  levies  of  troops  that 
king  Henry  raised  to  oppose  them.  This  nation  also  v/as 
sorely  aggrieved  in  like  manner,  to  wit,  by  the  manifold 
taxes.  This  year  also  there  was  a  violent  storm  of  thunder 
and  lightning,  rain  and  hail,  on  the  night  before  the  Kalends 
of  December ;  and  on  the  3rd  nigljt  before  the  Ides  of  Decem- 
ber the  moon  appeared  for  a  long  time  as  it  were  bloody,  and 
then  it  was  darkened.  Also,  on  the  night  of  the  17th  before 
the  Kalends  of  January  the  heaven  appeared  very  red,  as  if 
it  were  burning.  And  on  the  octave  of  St.  John  the  Evan- 
gelist's day  there  was  a  great  earthquake  in  Lombardy,  by 
which  many  monasteries,  towers,  and  houses  were  thrown 
down,  and  the  inhabitants  suffered  greatly.  This  was  a  very 
bad  year  for  tlie  corn,  through  the  rains  which  ceased  scarcely 
at  all.  And  Gilbert  abbat  of  Westminster  died  on  tlie  8th 
befors  the  Ides  of  December,  and  Farit*  abbat  of  Abingduu 

*  1  iricius  is  the  Latin  name.     li  be  tlie  same  who  WTOte  ti)6  i»f«  ol 

A.D.  1118, 1119.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.    185 

died  on  tlie  7th  before  the  Kalends  of  March.  Aiid  in  th6 
same  year 

A.  1118.  All  this  year  king  Henry  was  in  Normandy, 
Deing  at  war  with  the  king  of  France,  and  with  the  earl  ot 
Aiijoii,  and  with  the  earl  of  Flanders.  And  the  earl  ot 
Flanders  was  Avounded  in  Normandy,  on  which  he  returned 
to  Flanders.  The  king  was  greatly  impoverished  by  this 
war,  and  lost  much  money  and  land,  and  he  was  most 
liarassed  by  liis  own  men,  who  continually  revolted  and  be- 
trayed him,  and  went  over  to  his  enemies,  and  treacherously 
gave  up  their  castles  in  the  king's  despite.  England  paid 
dearly  for  all  this  by  the  manifold  taxes  which  ceased  not  all 
this  year.  This  year,  one  evening  in  Epiphany  week,  there 
^as  dreadful  lightning  which  caused  many  deaths.  And 
queen  Matilda  died  at  Westminster  on  the  Kalends  of  May, 
and  was  buried  there.  And  Robert  earl  of  Mellent  died 
also  this  year.  This  year  also,  on  St.  Thomas's  day,  there 
was  so  exceedingly  high  a  wind  that  none  who  then  lived 
remembered  a  greater,  and  this  might  be  seen  everywhere 
from  the  state  of  the  houses  and  of  the  trees.  Pope  Paschal 
also  died  this  year,  and  John  of  Gaeta,  whose  other  name 
was  Gelasius,  succeeded  to  the  popedom. 

A.  1119.  All  this  year  king  Henry  remained  in  Normandy, 
and  was  greatly  perplexed  by  the  war  with  the  king  of  France, 
and  by  the  treachery  of  liis  own  men,  who  were  continually 
revolting  from  him,  till  at  length  the  two  kings  with  their 
forces  met  in  Normandy.  The  king  of  France  was  there  put 
to  flight  and  all  his  best  men  taken,  and  many  of  king 
Henry's  vassals  who  with  the  garrisons  of  their  castles  had 
been  against  him,  now  submitted,  and  were  reconciled  to 
him,  and  some  of  the  castles  he  took  by  force.  This  year, 
William  the  son  of  king  Henry  and  of  queen  Matilda  went 
to  Normandy  to  his  father,  and  the  daughter  of  the  earl  of 
Anjou  was  there  given  and  wedded  to  liim.  On  Michaelmas 
eve  there  was  a  great  earthquake  in  some  parts  of  this  land ; 
and  it  was  felt  most  in  Gloucestershire  and  Worcestershire. 
The  same  year  pope  Gelasius  died  on  this  side  of  the  moun- 
tains, and  he  was  buried  at  Cluny  ;  and  the  archbishop  ot 
Vienne   was   chosen   pope,    his    name   was    Calixtus.       He 

bif*hi)j)  AMheJra,  published  in  the  end  of  my  edition  of  Aldlielm'g  woik*? 
lAidhtlrni  Opera,  Oxon.  Lond.  et  Cant.  1845.] 

185    THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,   a. d.  1119-1121, 

afterwards  came  to  Rlieims,  in  France,  on  the  feast  of  St. 
Luke  the  evangelist,  and  held  a  council  there.  And 
Thurstan  archbishop  of  York  journeyed  thither,  and  because 
he  received  consecration  from  the  pope,  against  right,  and  to 
the  prejudice  of  the  see  of  Canterbury,  and  against  the 
king's  will,  Henry  wliolly  forbade  his  return  to  England  ; 
and  being  thus  deprived  of  his  archbishopric,  he  proceeded 
with  the  pope  towards  Rome.  This  year  also  Baldwin  earl 
of  Flanders  died  of  the  wound  which  he  had  received  in 
Normandy,  and  was  succeeded  by  Charles  the  son  of  his 
aunt  and  of  St.  Canute,  king  of  Denmark. 

A.  1120.  This  year  peace  was  made  between  the  kings  of 
England  and  of  France,  and  after  this  all  king  Henry's  own 
men  in  Normandy  made  their  peace  with  him ;  also  the  earls 
of  Flanders  and  of  Ponthieu.  Then  the  king  ordered  and 
disposed  of  his  castles  and  land  in  Normandy  after  his  own 
will ;  and  so,  before  Advent,  he  returned  to  England.  And 
the  king's  two  sons  William  and  Richard  were  drowned  in 
tlie  passage,  together  with  Richard  earl  of  Chester,  and 
Ottuel  his  brother  ;  and  very  many  of  the  king's  court, 
stewards,  and  chamberlains,  and  butlers,  and  other  men  in 
olfice,  and  an  innumerable  multitude  of  all  ranks,  were  also 
h)st.  The  manner  of  their  death  was  a  twofold  grief  to  their 
friends,  first  because  they  lost  their  lives  so  suddenly,  and 
next  that  few  of  their  bodies  were  ever  found.  And  this 
year  that  remarkable  light  twice  came  upon  our  Lord's 
sepulchre  at  Jerusalem,  once  at  Easter,  and  again  on  the 
Assumption  of  St.  Mary,  according  to  the  report  of  men  of 
credit,  who  came  from  thence.  And  Thurstan  archbishop  of 
York  was  reconciled  to  the  king  through  the  pope,  and  he 
came  to  this  land,  and  was  put  in  possession  of  his  arch- 
bishopric, though  much  against  the  will  of  the  archbishop  of 

A.  1121.  This  year,  at  Christmas,  king  Henry  was  at 
Bramton,  and  before  Candlemas  Athelis  was  given  him  to 
wife  at  Windsor,  and  afterwards  consecrated  queen ;  she  was 
tlie  daughter  of  the  duke  of  Louvain.  And  the  moon  was 
eclipsed  on  the  night  before  the  Nones  of  April,  being  the 
fourteenth  day  of  the  moon.  And  the  king  was  at  Berkley 
at  Easter,  and  the  Pentecost  following  he  held  a  p:reat  couii; 
at  Westminster,  and  in  the  summer  he  entered  Wales  with 

A.D.  1121-1123.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.    187 

an  army,  and  the  Welsh  came  to  meet  him,  and  made  a 
treaty  with  him  on  his  own  terms.  This  year  the  earl  of 
Aiijou  returned  from  Jerusahyn  to  his  own  land,  and  after 
this  he  sent  hither  to  fetch  away  his  dangliter  who  had  been 
married  to  the  king's  son  William.  And  on  the  night  of 
Cliristmas  eve  there  was  a  very  high  wind  throughout  tliis 
land,  as  might  be  seen  plaitdy  in  its  effects. 

A.  1122.  This  year  king  Henry  was  at  Norwich  at 
Christmas,  and  at  Easter  he  was  at  Northampton.  And  tlie 
town  of  Gloucester  was  burned  the  Lent  before,  for  while 
the  monks  were  singing  mass,  the  deacon  having  begun  the 
gospel  '•'•  PrcBteriens  Jesiis,^^  the  fire  fell  on  the  top  of  tlie 
steeple,*  and  burned  the  whole  monastery,  and  all  the  treasures 
in  it,  excepting  a  few  books  and  three  vestments  :  this  haj)- 
pened  on  the  eighth  before  the  Ides  of  March.  And  there 
was  a  very  high  wind  on  the  Tuesday  after  Palm  Sunday, 
tlie  eleventh  before  the  Kalends  of  April :  after  this  many 
strange  tokens  were  noticed  throughout  England,  and  many 
ghosts  were  seen  and  heard.  And  on  the  night  of  the  eighth 
before  the  Kalends  of  August,  there  was  a  great  earthquake 
throughout  Somersetshire  and  Gloucestershire.  Again  on 
the  sixth  before  the  Ides  of  September,  St.  Mary's  day, 
there  was  a  very  high  wind,  which  continued  from  nine  in 
the  morning  till  dark  night.  The  same  year  Ralph  arch- 
bisliop  of  Canterbury  died  on  the  thirteenth  before  the 
Kalends  of  November.  After  this  many  shipmen  were  at 
sea,  and  on  the  water,  and  said  that  they  saw  a  fire  in  the 
north-east,  large  and  broad,  near  the  earth,  and  that  it  grew 
in  height  unto  the  welkin,  and  the  welkin  divided  into  four 
parts  and  fought  against  it,  as  it  would  have  quenched  it  ; 
nevertheless  the  fire  flamed  up  to  heaven.  They  observed 
this  fire  at  day-break,  and  it  lasted  until  it  was  light  every 
where :  this  was  on  the  seventh  before  the  Ides  of  l3ecember, 

A.  1123.  This  year  king  Henry  was  at  Dunstable  at 
Christmas,  and  the  messengers  from  the  earl  of  Anjou  came 
to  him  there,  and  he  proceeded  thence  to  Woodstock,  and  his 

*  By  steeple  we  are  here  to  understand  not  a  spire,  but  a  tower  ;  spires 
not  bijing  then  invented.  1  believe  'siear '  is  the  word  in  Saxon  to  express 
^)\»i  we  mean  by  a  spire  ;  'stepel,'  or  'steopel,'  signifying  only  a  sleep, 
loity,  or  perpendicular  structure  ;  and  our  old  antiquarians  very  properly 
Bftke  a  distinction  between  a  spire-steeple  and  a  tower-steeple." — Imgjum. 

188         THE  ANGLaSAXON  CHRONICLE,    a.d.  1123. 

bishops  and  all  his  court  with  him.  Now  it  fell  out  on  a 
Wednesday,  being  the  fourth  before  the  Ides  of  January, 
that  the  king  rode  in  his  deer-park,  and  Roger  bishop  of 
Salisbury  was  on  one  side  of  him,  and  Robert  Bloet  bishop 
of  Lincoln  on  the  other  ;  and  they  rode  there  talking.  Then 
the  bishop  of  Lincoln  sank  down,  and  said  to  the  king, 
*'  My  lord  king  !  I  am  dying,"  and  the  king  alighted  from  liis 
hoi^se,  and  took  him  between  his  arms,  and  bade  them  bear 
him  to  his  inn,  and  he  soon  lay  there  dead  ;  and  they  took 
his  body  with  much  pomp  to  Lincoln,  and  Robert  bishop  of 
Chester,*  who  was  called  Pecceth,  buried  him  befOTe  St. 
Mary's  altar.  Soon  after  this  the  king  sent  his  writs  over 
all  England,  and  desired  his  bishops,  his  abbats,  and  his 
thanes,  that  they  should  all  come  to  the  meeting  of  his  witan 
at  Gloucester,  on  Candlemas-day,  and  they  obeyed ;  and 
when  they  were  there  assembled  the  king  bade  them  choose 
to  themselves  whomsoever  they  would  as  archbishop  of 
Canterbury,  and  that  he  would  confirm  their  choice.  Then 
the  bishops  spake  among  themselves,  and  said  that  they 
would  never  more  have  a  man  of  any  monastic  order  as 
archbishop  over  them.  And  they  all  with  one  accord  went 
to  the  king,  and  entreated  that  they  might  choose  one  of  the 
clergy  for  their  archbishop,  and  to  this  the  king  consented. 
All  this  had  been  set  on  foot  by  tlie  bishop  of  Salisbury,  and 
by  the  bishop  of  Lincoln  before  he  died,  for  they  never  loved 
the  rule  of  monks,  but  were  ever  against  monks  and  their 
rule.  And  the  prior  and  monks  of  Canterbury  and  all 
others  of  the  monastic  order  who  were  there,  resisted  this 
proceeding  two  full  days,  but  in  vain,  for  the  bishop  of 
Salisbury  f  was  very  powerful,  and  swayed  all  England,  and 
he  was  against  them  with  all  his  might.  Then  they  chose  a 
clerk  named  William  of  Curboil,  he  was  a  canon  of  a 
monastery  called  Cliiche  ;  J  and  they  brought  him  before  tlie 
king,  who  gave  him  the  archbishopric,  and  he  was  received 

*  Or  Lichfield.  Peter,  the  bishop  of  that  see  in  1075  removed  it  to 
Chester,  where  it  remained  for  a  short  period.  Hence  the  bishops  are 
frequently  styled  bishops  of  Chester.  The  present  bishopri'c  of  Chester 
was  not  founded  till  1541. 

t  Ro<2;er,  bishop  of  Salisbury,  was  Lord  Chief  Justice,  Lord  Chanceii'.^r, 
and  Lord  Treasurer. 

t  "St.  Osythe,  in  Essex  ;  a  priory  rebuilt  a.  1118,  for  canons  of  the 
Aivgvurtiiie  order,  of  which  there  are  considerable  remains." — Inoium. 


by  all  the  bishops  ;  but  the  monks  and  carls,  and  ihnost  all 
tlie  thanes  who  were  there,  would  not  acknowledge  him. 
At  this  same  time  the  messengers  of  the  earl  departed  from 
the  king  dissatisfied,  notliing  regarding  his  gifts.  At  this 
time  also  a  legate  arrived  from  Rome  ;  his  name  was  Henry, 
and  he  was  abbat  of  the  monastery  of  St.  John  of  Angelo. 
He  came  for  the  Romescot ;  and  told  tlie  king  that  a  clerk 
had  no  right  to  be  set  over  monks,  and  that  therefore  they 
had  formerly  chosen  the  archbishop  in  the  chaptei;,  as  was 
befitting  ;  but,  for  love  of  the  bishop  of  Salisbury,  the  king 
would  not  undo  his  act.  Soon  afterwards,  the  archbishop 
went  to  Canterbury,  and  was  received,  though  unwillingly, 
and  he  was  forthwith  consecrated  there  by  the  bishop  of 
London,  and  Ernulf  bishop  of  Rochester,  and  William 
GifiTard  bishop  of  Winchester,  and  Bernard  bishop  of  Wales 
(St.  David's),  and  Roger  bishop  of  Salisbury.  Then  early 
in  Lent  the  archbishop  journeyed  to  Rome  for  his  pall,  and 
Bernard  bishop  of  Wales,  and  Sefred  abbat  of  Glastonbury, 
and  Anselm  abbat  of  St.  Edmund's,  and  John  archdeacon  of 
Canterbury,  and  GiiFard  who  was  the  king's  court-chaplain, 
went  with  him.  Thurstan  archbishop  of  York  went  to  Rome 
at  the  same  time  by  order  of  the  pope,  and  he  arrived  three 
days  before  the  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  and  was  received 
with  much  honour.  Then  came  the  archbishop  of  Canter- 
bury, and  it  was  a  full  week  before  he  could  obtain  an 
audience  of  the  pope,  because  the  pope  had  been  given  to 
understand  that  he  had  received  the  archbishopric  in  opposi- 
tion to  the  monks  of  the  monastery,  and  against  right  ;  but 
that  which  overcometh  all  the  world,  namely  gold  and 
silver,*  overcame  Rome  also,  and  the  pope  relented  and  gave 

•  "  How  fortunate  for  the  -RTiter  that  the  pope  and  his  cardinals  did  not 
understand  Saxon  !  The  boldness  of  this  remark  might  otherwise  have 
procured  him  the  distinguished  honour  of  an  excommunication.  Matthew 
Paris  has  a  similjir  remark,  but  less  openly  expressed,  respecting  the 
venality  of  the  Roman  see  :  '  qucB  nulli  deexe  consuevit,  dummodo  albi 
aliquid  vol  rubei  intercedat.  An.  1103.'  Dr.  Ingram  might  have  quoted 
an  equally  elegant  compliment  paid  to  the  cardinals,  "  quorum  nares 
odor  hicri  questus  causa  infcecavit,''  by  Alan  of  Tewkesbury,  if  the  ortho- 
dox editor  of  the  Brussels  edition  of  Vita  Sancti  Thomae  had  not  carefully 
expunged  the  passage  :  I  have  only  done  justice  to  historical  accuracy  by 
restoring  the  ofterusive  worda  in  "  Vita  Sancti  Thonug,  vol.  i.  p.  359,  eJiU 
Oavn.  et  Lond.  ** 

190    THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.   a.d.  1123.  im. 

Iiim  hl,=»  pall,  and  the  archbishop  swore  obedience  in  all  things 
that  he  should  impose,  on  the  heads  of  St.  Peter  and  St. 
Paul,  and  the  pope  then  sent  him  home  with  liis  blessing. 
Wliilst  the  archbishop  was  abroad,  the  king  gave  the 
bishopric  of  Bath  to  the  queen's  chancellor,  named  Godfrey ; 
he  was  of  Louvain  :  this  was  done  at  Woodstock  on  the 
Annunciation  of  St.  Mary.  Soon  afterwards  the  king  went 
to  Winchester,  where  he  remained  during  the  festival  of 
Easter  ;  and  while  there  he  gave  the  bishopric  of  Lincoln  to 
a  clerk  named  Alexander,  who  was  a  nephew  of  the  bishop 
of  Salisbury,  and  he  did  this  all  for  love  of  that  bishop. 
Tlien  the  king  proceeded  to  Portsmouth,  and  stayed  there  over 
Pentecost  week  ;  and  as  soon  as  he  had  a  fair  wind  he  sailed 
for  Normandy,  having  committed  all  England  to  the  care 
and  administration  of  Roger  bishop  of  Salisbury.  The  king 
was  in  Normandy  all  this  year,  and  a  great  war  broke  out 
between  him  and  his  thanes,  for  earl  Waleram  of  Mellent, 
and  Amalric,  and  Hugh  of  Montfort,  and  William  of  Romare, 
and  many  others  revolted  from  him  and  held  their  castles 
against  him  ;  and  the  king  on  his  part  opposed  them  with 
vigour,  and  the  same  year  he  won  from  Waleram  his  castle 
of  Pont-Audemer,  and  from  Hugh  that  of  Montfort,  and 
after  this  his  aifairs  continued  to  prosper  more  and  more.  The 
same  year,  before  the  bishop  of  Lincoln  came  to  his  see, 
nearly  the  whole  town  of  Lincoln  was  burnt,  with  a  great 
number  of  persons,  both  men  and  women,  and  so  much  harm 
was  done  that  no  man  could  tell  another  how  great  the 
damage  was.  This  happened  on  the  fourteenth  before  the 
Kalends  of  June. 

A.  1124.  All  this  year  king  Henry  was  in  Normandy, 
being  detained  there  by  his  great  wars  with  Louis  king  of 
France,  and  the  earl  of  Anjou,  and  with  his  own  subjects 
most  of  all.  Then  it  befell  on  the  day  of  the  annunciation  of 
St.  iNIary,  that  Waleram  earl  of  Mellent  was  going  from  one 
of  his  castles  called  Beaumont,  to  another,  Watteville,  and 
Amalric  the  steward  of  the  king  of  France,  and  Hugh  the 
son  of  Gervais,  and  Hugh  of  Montfort,  and  many  other  gc^)d 
knights  went  with  him.  Then  the  king's  knights  from  all 
the  neighbouring  castles  came  against  them,  and  fought  with 
them,  and  put  them  to  flight,  and  they  took  the  earl  Waleram, 
(yid  Hugh  the  son  of  Gervais,  and  Hugh  of  Montfort,  and 

<iT>.ii24.    THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.         191 

^ve  and  twenty  othor  kniglits,  and  brouglit  them  to  the  king  ; 
fi\d  the  king  caused  earl  VValeram  and  Hugh  the  son  of 
Nervals  to  be  confined  in  the  castle  of  Rouen,  and  he  pent 
ilugh  of  Montfort  to  England,  and  caused  him  to  be  put  in 
•4rong  bonds  in  that  of  Gloucester,  and  as  many  of  the  others 
as  he  thought  fit  he  sent  north  and  south  to  his  castles  for 
confinement.  Then  the  king  went  on,  and  won  all  earl 
Waleram's  castles  in  Normandy,  and  all  the  others  which  his 
enemies  held  against  him.  All  this  was  on  account  of  the 
son  of  Robert  earl  of  Normandy  named  William.  The  same 
William  had  married  the  younger  daughter  of  Fulk  earl  of 
Anjou,  and  for  this  cause  the  king  of  France,  and  all  the 
farls  and  great  men  held  with  him,  and  said  that  the  king 
did  wrongfully  keep  his  brother  Robert  in  confinement,  and 
that  he  had  unjustly  driven  his  son  William  out  of  Nor- 
mandy. This  year  there  was  much  unseasonable  weather 
which  injured  the  corn  and  all  fruits  in  England,  so  that, 
i>etween  Christmas  and  Candlemas,  one  acre's  seed  of  wheat, 
that  is,  two  seedlips,  sold  for  six  shillings,  and  one  of  barley, 
that  is,  three  seedlips,  for  six  shillings,  and  one  acre's  seed  of 
oats,  being  four  seedlips,  for  four  shillings.  It  was  thus, 
because  corn  was  scarce,  and  the  penny*  was  so  bad,  that 
the  man  who  had  a  pound  at  the  market,  could  hardly,  for 
any  thing,  pass  twelve  of  these  pennies.  The  same  year,  the 
holy  bishop  of  Rochester  Ernulf,  who  had  been  abbat  of 
Peterborough,  died  on  the  Ides  of  March.  After  this  died 
Alexander  king  of  Scotland,  on  the  9th  before  the  Kalends  of 
May,  and  his  brother  David,  then  earl  of  Northamptonshire, 
succeeded  him,  and  held  at  the  same  time  both  the  kingdom 
of  Scotland  and  the  English  earldom.  And  the  pope  of 
Rome  called  Calixtus  died  on  the  19th  before  the  Kalends  of 
tJanuary,  and  Honorius  succeeded  to  the  popedom.  Tlie 
.same  year,  after  St.  Andrew's  day,  and  before  Christmas, 
Ralph  Basset,  and  the  king's  thanes  held  a  witenagemot  at 
Iluncothoe,  in  Leicestersliire,  and  there  they  hanged  more 
thieves  than  had  ever  before  been  executed  within  so  short 
a  time,  being  in  all  four  and  forty  men  ;  and  they  depi-ived 
BIX  men  of  their  eyes  and  certain  other  members.|     Many 

♦  The  pennies  were  of  silver  at  this  time. 

f  **  Of  here  aegon  and  of  here  stanes," — Original  tesU 

192         THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,    a. b.  1125. 

men  of  truth  said  that  several  of  them  suffered  with  great 
injustice,  but  our  Lord  God  Almighty,  who  seeth  and 
knoweth  all  hidden  things,  seeth  that  the  miserable  people  is 
oppressed  with  all  unrighteousness  ;  first  men  are  bereaved 
of  their  property,  and  then  they  are  slain.  Full  heavy  a 
year  was  this  ;  he  wlio  had  any  property  was  bereaved  of  it 
by  heavy  taxes  and  assessments,  and  he  who  had  none, 
starved  with  hunger. 

A.  1125.  Before  Christmas,  this  year,  king  Henry  sent 
from  Normandy  to  England,  and  commanded  that  all  the 
mint-men  of  England  sliould  be  deprived  of  their  limbs, 
nameiy  of  their  right  hands  and  of  certain  other  members. 
And  this  because  a  man  might  have  a  pound,  and  yet  not  be 
able  to  spend  one  penny  at  a  market.  And  Roger  bishop  of 
Salisbury  sent  over  all  England,  and  desired  all  of  them  to 
come  to  Winchester  at  Christmas  ;  and  when  they  came 
thither  liis  men  took  them  one  by  one,  and  cut  off  their  right 
hands.  All  this  was  done  within  the  twelve  days,  and  with 
much  justice,  because  they  had  ruined  this  land  with  the  great 
quantity  of  bad  metal  which  they  all  bought.  This  year  the 
pope  of  Rome  sent  John  of  Crema,  a  cardinal,  to  this  land.  He 
first  came  to  the  king  in  Normandy,  and  the  king  received  him 
with  much  honour,  and  commended  him  to  William  archbishop 
of  Canterbury,  who  conducted  him  to  Canterbury ;  and  he  was 
there  received  with  much  pomp,  and  a  great  procession,  and 
he  sang  the  high  mass  at  Christ's  altar  on  Easter  day ;  and  then 
he  journeyed  over  all  England,  to  all  the  bishoprics  and 
abbacies,  and  he  was  honourably  received  every  where,  and 
all  gave  him  great  and  handsome  gifts  ;  and  in  September 
he  held  his  council  in  London  full  three  days,  (beginning)  on 
the  Nativity  of  St.  Mary,  with  the  archbishops,  bishops,  and 
abbats,  and  the  clergy  and  laity,  and  he  sanctioned  the  laws 
which  archbishop  Anselm  had  made,  and  he  enacted  many 
others,  though  they  remained  in  force  but  a  little  while. 
Thence  he  went  over  sea  soon  after  Michaelmas,  and  so  to 
Rome.  William  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  and  Thurstan 
archbishop  of  York,  and  Alexander  bishop  of  Lincoln,  and 
John  bishop  of  Lothian  (Glasgow),  and  Geoffrey  abbat  of 
St  Alban's  accompanied  him,  and  were  received  with  great 
honour  by  the  pope  Honorius,  and  they  remained  there  the 
whole  winter.     The  same  year  there  was  so  great  a  flood  on 

A.i>.  1126. 1127.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.    103 

St.  Lawrence's  day,  that  many  towns  were  deluged,  and  men 
drowned,  the  bridges  were  broken  up,  and  the  corn  fiehls  and 
meadows  spoiled  ;  and  there  was  famine  and  disease  upon 
men  and  cattle  ;  and  it  was  so  bad  a  season  lor  all  fruits  as 
had  not  been  for  many  years  before.  The  same  year  John 
abbat  of  Peterborough  died  on  the  2nd  before  the  Ides  of 

A.  1126.  This  year  king  Henry  was  in  Normandy  till 
after  harvest  ;  and  he  came  to  this  land  between  the  nativity 
of  St.  Mary,  and  Michaelmas,  accompanied  by  the  queen, 
and  by  his  daughter  whom  he  had  before  given  in  marriage 
to  the  emperor  Henry  of  Lorrain.  He  brought  with  him 
the  earl  Waleram,  and  Hugh  the  son  of  Gervais,  and  he 
imprisoned  the  earl  at  Bridge-north,  and  he  afterwards  sent 
him  to  Wallingford,  and  he  sent  Hugh  to  Windsor,  and 
caused  him  to  be  kept  in  strong  bonds.  And  after  Michael- 
mas David  king  of  Scotland  came  hither,  and  king  Henry 
received  him  w4th  much  honour,  and  he  abode  through  the 
year  in  this  land.  The  same  year  the  king  caused  his 
brother  Robert  to  be  taken  from  Roger  bishop  of  Salisbury, 
and  delivered  to  his  son  Robert  earl  of  Gloucester,  and  he 
caused  him  to  be  removed  to  Bristol,  and  put  into  the  castle. 
All  this  was  done  through  the  advice  of  his  daughter,  and  of 
her  uncle  David  king  of  Scotland. 

A.  1127.  This  year,  at  Christmas,  king  Henry  held  his 
court  at  Windsor,  and  David,,  king  of  Scotland,  was  there, 
and  all  the  head  men  of  England,  both  clergy  and  laity. 
And  the  king  caused  the  archbishops,  bishops,  abbats,  earls, 
and  ail  the  thanes  who  were  present,  to  swear  to  place  Eng- 
land and  Normandy,  after  his  death,  in  the  hands  of  his 
daughter  the  princess,  who  had  been  the  wife  of  the  emperor 
of  Saxony.  And  then  he  sent  her  to  Normandy,  accom- 
y^anied  by  her  brother  Robert,  earl  of  Gloucester^  and  by 
Brian,  the  son  of  the  earl  Alan  Fergan ;  and  he  caused  her 
to  be  wedded  to  the  son  of  the  earl  of  Anjou,  named 
Geoffrey  Martell.  Howbeit  this  displeased  all  the  French 
and  the  English,  but  the  king  did  it  to  have  the  alliance*  of 

*  Mis3  Gumey  renders  this  "  to  obtain  peace  from,'  following  Gibson 
wlio  turns  '  sibbe'  into  Latin  by  pacem,  which  Ingrair.  justly  disjxpprove* 
of,  on  the  ground  that  the  powerful  Henry  would  hardly  fear  so  small  « 
potentate  as  the  earl  of  Anjou. 

194         THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,    a.d.  1127. 

the  earl  of  Anjou  and  aict  aa^ainst  his  nephew  William.  The 
same  year  Charles,  earl  of  Flanders,  was  slain  in  Lent  by  his 
own  men,  as  he  lay  before  the  altar  in  a  church,  and  prayed 
to  God  during  mass.  And  the  king  of  France  brought 
William,  the  son  of  the  earl  of  Normandy,  and  gave  him  the 
earldom,  and  the  men  of  Flanders  received  him.  The  same 
William  had  before  taken  to  wife  the  daughter  of  the  earl  of 
Anjou,  but  they  were  afterwards  divorced  because  of  their 
nearness  of  kin,  and  this  through  the  interference  of  Henry, 
king  of  England;  he  afterwards  married  the  sister  of  the 
king  of  France,  and  on  this  account  the  king  gave  him  the 
earldom  of  Flanders.  The  same  year  Henry  gave  the  abbacy 
of  Peterborough  to  an  abbat  named  Henry  of  Poitou,  who 
was  in  possession  of  the  abbacy  of  St.  Jean  d'Angeli ;  and 
all  the  archbishops  and  bishops  said  that  this  grant  was 
against  right,  and  that  he  could  not  have  in  hand  two  ab- 
bacies. But  the  same  Henry  made  the  king  believe  that  ho 
had  given  up  his  abbey  on  account  of  the  great  disquietude 
of  the  land,  and  that  he  had  done  so  by  the  order  and  with 
the  leave  of  the  pope  of  Rome,  and  of  the  abbat  of  Cluny, 
and  because  he  was  legate  for  collecting  the  Rome-scot. 
Nevertheless  it  was  not  so,  but  he  wished  to  keep  both 
abbeys  in  his  own  hands,  and  he  did  hold  them  as  long  as  it 
was  the  will  of  God.  Li  his  clerical  state  he  was  bishop  of 
Soissons,  afterwards  he  was  a  monk  at  Cluny,  then  prior  of 
the  same  monastery,  and  next  he  was  prior  of  Sevigny ; 
after  this,  being  related  to  the  king  of  England  and  to  the 
earl  of  Poitou,  the  earl  gave  him  the  abbey  of  St.  Jean 
d'Angeli.  Afterwards,  by  his  great  craft,  he  obtained  the 
archbishopric  of  Besan^on,  and  kept  possession  of  it  three 
day;  and  then  lost  he  it  right  worthily,  in  that  he  had 
gotten  it  with  all  injustice.  He  then  obtained  the  bishopric 
of  Saintes,  which  was  five  miles  from  his  own  abbey,  and  he 
kept  this  for  nearly  a  week,  but  here  again  the  abbat  of 
Clugny  displaced  him,  as  he  had  before  removed  him  from 
Besan9on.  Now  he  bethought  liimself,  that  if  he  could  be 
sheltered  in  England,  he  might  have  all  his  will,  on  whicli 
he  besought  the  king,  and  said  to  him  that  he  was  an  old 
man,  and  completely  broken,  and  that  he  could  not  endure 
the  wrongs  and  oppressions  of  that  land,  and  he  asked  the 
king  himself,  and  through  all  his  friends,  by  name  for  the 


abbacy  of  Peterborough.  And  the  king  granted  it  to  him, 
forasmuch  as  he  was  Iiis  kinsman,  and  in  that  he  had  been 
one  of  the  first  to  swear  oaths,  and  to  bear  witness,  when  the 
son  of  the  earl  of  Normandy  and  the  daughter  of  the  earl  of 
Anjou  were  divorced  on  the  plea  of  kindred.  Thus  vex- 
atiously  was  the  abbacy  of  Peterborough  given  away  at  Lon- 
don, between  Christmas  and  Candlemas ;  and  so  Henry 
went  with  the  king  to  Winchester,  and  thence  he  came  to 
Peterborough,  and  there  he  lived  even  as  a  drone  in  a  hive ; 
as  the  drone  eateth  and  di'aggeth  forward  to  himself  all  that 
is  brought  near,  even  so  did  he ;  and  thus  he  sent  over  sea 
all  that  he  could  take  from  religious  or  from  seculai*,  both 
within  and  without ;  he  did  there  no  good,  nor  did  he  leave 
any  there.  Let  no  man  think  lightly  of  the  marvel  that  we 
are  about  to  relate  as  a  truth,  for  it  was  full  well  known 
over  all  the  country.  It  is  this;  that  as  soon  as  he  came 
there,*  it  was  on  the  Sunday,  when  men  sing  "  Exurge 
quare  0  Domine;"  several  persons  saw  and  heard  many 
hunters  hunting. — These  hunters  were  black,  and  large,  and 
loathly,  and  their  hounds  were  all  black,  with  wide  eyes,  and 
ugly,  and  they  rode  on  black  horses  and  on  black  bucks. 
This  was  seen  in  the  very  deer-park  of  the  town  of  Peter- 
borough, and  in  all  the  woods  from  the  same  town  to  Stam- 
ford; and  the  monks  heard  the  blasts  of  the  horns  which 
they  blew  in  the  night.  Men  of  truth  kept  in  the  night 
their  watch  on  them,  and  said  that  there  might  well  be  about 
twenty  or  thirty  horn-blowers.  This  was  seen  and  heard 
from  the  time  that  the  abbat  came  thither,  all  that  Lent, 
until  Easter.  Such  was  his  entrance,  of  his  exit  we  can  say 
nothing  yet :  God  knoweth  it. 

A.  1128.  All  tliis  year  king  Henry  was  in  Normandy,  on 
account  of  the  war  between  him  and  his  nephew  the  earl  oi 
Flanders ;  but  the  earl  was  wounded  in  battle  by  a  servant, 
and  being  so  wounded  he  went  to  the  monastery  of  St.  Ber- 
lin, and  forthwith  he  was  made  a  monk,  and  lived  five  days 
after,  and  then  died,  and  was  buried  there:  God  rest  his 
soul !      He  was  buried  on  the  6th  before  the  Kalends  of 

•  *  Thaer'  in  the  original,  not  *  thider.*  Dr.  Ingram  remarks,  that  this 
IB  the  first  instance  of  the  negligent  use  of  the  wcrd  '  there'  for  "  thither.' 
But  use  is  second  nature,  and  in  conversation  at  Jeast,  the  fcjsaer  of  these 
•otda  has  entirely  supersedsd  the  latter. 


196         THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,    a. d.  1129. 

August.  The  same  year  died  Randulph  PasseflamLard 
bishop  of  Durham,  and  he  was  buried  there  on  the  Nones 
of  September.  And  this  year  the  aforesaid  abbat  Henry 
went  home  to  his  own  monastery  in  Poitou,  with  the  king's 
leave.  He  had  given  the  king  to  understand  that  he  would 
wholly  quit  that  monastery,  and  that  country,  and  abide 
with  him  in  England,  and  at  his  monastery  at  Peterborough. 
But  so  it  was  not,  for  he  spake  thus  guilefully,  wishing  to 
remain  there  a  twelvemonth  or  more,  and  then  to  return 
again.  May  Almighty  God  have  mercy  upon  this  wretched 
place  !  The  same  year  Hugh  of  the  Temple  came  from 
Jerusalem  to  the  king  in  Normandy,  and  the  king  received 
him  with  much  honour,  and  gave  him  much  treasure  in  gold 
and  silver,  and  afterwards  he  sent  him  to  England,  and 
there  he  was  well  received  by  all  good  men,  and  all  gave 
him  treasures ;  and  in  Scotland  also :  and  they  sent  in  all  a 
great  sum  of  gold  and  silver  by  him  to  Jerusalem.  And  He 
invited  the  people  out  to  Jerusalem,  and  there  went  with 
liim  and  after  him  so  great  a  number,  as  never  before  since 
the  first  expedition  in  the  days  of  pope  Urban.  Yet  this 
availed  little :  he  said  that  there  was  a  furious  war  between 
the  Christians  and  the  heathens,  and  when  they  came  there 
it  was  nothing  but  leasing.  Thus  were  all  these  people 
miserably  betrayed. 

A.  1129.  This  year  the  king  sent  to  England  after  earl 
Waleram,  and  after  Hugh  the  son  of  Gervase ;  and  there 
they  gave  him  hostages,  and  Hugh  went  home  to  France 
his  own  country,  and  Waleram  remained  with  the  king,  and 
the  king  gave  him  all  his  lands,  excepting  his  castle  alone. 
Then  the  king  came  to  England  in  harvest,  and  the  earl 
came  with  him,  and  they  were  as  great  friends  as  they  had 
been  enemies  before.  Then  soon,  by  the  king's  counsel  and 
consent,  William  archbishop  of  Canterbury  sent  over  all 
England,  and  commanded  the  bishops,  and  abbats,  and  arch- 
deacons, and  all  the  priors,  monks,  and  canons  of  all  the 
^ells  of  England,  and  all  who  had  the  charge  and  oversight 
if  the  Christian  religion,  that  they  should  come  to  London 
at  Michaelmas,  to  hold  conference  upon  all  God's  rights. 
^Vhen  they  came  thither,  the  meeting  began  on  the  Monday 
and  lasted  till  the  Friday,  and  it  came  out  that  it  was  all 
concerning  the  wives  of  archdeacons  and  priests,  that  they 

A.D.1130.    THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.         197 

should  part  with  them  by  St.  Andrew's  day ;  and  that  he 
wlio  woiihl  not  do  this,  shouhl  forego  liis  church,  his  house, 
and  his  home,  and  never  be  permitted  again  to  claim  them. 
Tliis  was  ordered  by  William  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  and 
all  the  bishops  of  England :  and  the  king  gave  them  leave  to 
depart,  and  so  they  went  home,  and  these  decrees  were  in  no 
respect  observed,  for  all  kept  their  wives,  by  the  king's  per- 
mission, even  as  before.  The  same  year  William  Giffard 
bishop  of  Winchester  died,  and  was  buried  there  on  the  8th 
before  the  Kalends  of  February ;  and  after  Michaelmas  the 
king  gave  the  bishopric  to  his  nephew  Henry  abbat  of  Glas- 
tonbury, and  he  was  consecrated  by  William  archbishop  of 
Canterbury  on  the  fifteenth  before  the  Kalends  of  December. 
The  sam«  year  died  pope  Honorius,  and  before  he  was  well 
dead,  two  popes  were  chosen.  The  one  was  named  Peter, 
he  was  a  monk  of  Clugny,  and  descended  from  the  greatest 
men  of  Rome,  and  the  Romans  and  the  duke  of  Sicily  held 
with  him ;  the  other  was  named  Gregory,  he  was  a  clerk, 
and  he  was  driven  from  Rome  by  the  other  pope  and  his 
kinsmen,  and  he  was  acknowledged  by  the  emperor  of  Sax- 
ony, by  the  king  of  France,  by  Henry  king  of  England,  and 
by  all  on  this  side  of  the  mountains.  There  was  now  so  great 
a  division  in  Christendom,  that  the  like  had  never  been 
before.  May  Christ  appoint  good  counsel  for  his  miserable 
people !  The  same  year  there  was  a  great  earthquake  on 
St.  Nicholas's  night,  a  little  before  day. 

A.  1130.  This  year  the  monastery  of  Canterbury  was 
consecrated  by  archbishop  William,  on  the  4th  before  the 
Nones  of  May.  The  following  bishops  were  there :  John  of 
Rochester,  Gilbert  Universal  of  London,  Henry  of  Win- 
chester, Alexander  of  Lincoln,  Roger  of  Salisbury,  Simon 
of  Worcester,  Roger  of  Coventry,  Godfrey  of  Bath,  Ever- 
ard  of  Norwich,  Sigefrid  of  Chichester,  Bernard  of  St. 
David's,  Owen  of  Evreux,  in  Normandy,  and  John  of  Sie- 
zes.  On  the  fourth  day  after  this,  king  Henry  was  at  Ro- 
chester, and  nearly  the  whole  town  was  burnt  down ;  and 
archbishop  William  and  the  aforesaid  bishops  consecrated 
St.  Andrew's  monastery  And  king  Henry  went  over  sea 
to  Normandy  during  harvest.  The  same  year  Henry  abba/ 
of  Angeli  came  to  Peterborough  after  Easter,  and  said  that 
he   had  wholly  given  up  that  monastery.     After  him.  tiie 

198         THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,    a.d.  im. 

abbat  of  Clugny  named  Peter  came  to  England  with  the 
king's  leave,  and  he  was  received  with  much  honour  wher- 
ever he  went ;  he  came  to  Peterborough,  and  there  the  abbat 
Henry  promised  that  he  would  obtain  for  him  the  monastery 
of  Peterborough,  and  that  it  should  be  annexed  to  Clugny 
but  as  it  is  said  in  the  proverb : 

"  The  hedge  still  stands 
That  parts  the  lands." 

May  Almighty  God  frustrate  evil  counsels  !  And  soon 
afterwards  the  abbat  of  Clugny  went  home  to  his  own 
country.  Tliis  year  was  Angus  slain  by  the  Scottish  army, 
and  a  great  number  of  persons  with  him.  There  was  God's 
right  wrought  upon  Mm,  for  that  he  was  all  forsworn. 

A.  1131.  This  year,  on  a  moonlight  night*  after  Christ- 
mas, during  the  first  sleep,  the  northern  half  of  the  heaven 
was,  as  it  were,  a  burning  fire ;  so  that  all  who  saw  it  were 
more  afearedj  than  ever  they  were  before;  this  happened  on 
the  3rd  before  the  Ides  of  January.  The  same  year  there 
was  so  great  a  pestilence  amongst  animals  over  all  England, 
as  had  not  been  in  the  memory  of  man;  it  chiefly  fell  on 
cattle  and  on  swine,  so  that  in  the  town  where  ten  or  twelve 
ploughs  had  been  going,  not  one  remained,  and  the  man,  who 
had  possessed  two  or  three  hundred  swine,  had  not  one  left 
him.  After  this  the  hens  died ;  and  flesh-meat  became 
scarce,  and  cheese  and  butter.  God  mend  the  state  of 
things  when  such  is  his  will !  And  king  Henry  came  home 
to  England  before  harvest,  after  the  feast  of  St.  Peter  ad  vin- 
cula.  The  same  year  before  Easter  the  abbat  Henry  went 
from  Peterborough  over  sea  to  Normandy,  and  there  he 
spoke  with  the  king,  and  told  him  that  the  abbat  of  Clugny 
had  commanded  him  to  come  over,  and  resign  to  him  the 
abbey  of  Angely ;  and  that  then,  with  his  leave,  he  would 
return  home  :  and  so  he  went  to  his  own  monastery  and 
abode  there  till  Midsummer-day.  And  on  the  day  after  the 
feast  of  St.  John,  the  monks  chose  an  abbat  from  among 
themselves,  and  brought  him  into  the  church  in  procession ; 
they  sang  Te  Deum  laudamus,  rang  the  bells,  and  set  him 
on  the  abbat's  seat,  and  did  all  obedience  to  him,  even  tm 

•  "  Luna  spl  end  ante." — Gibs.     "  Monday  night." — iMutuji. 
«  The  original  An^ilo-Saxon  has  it  so* '  otfuerd.* 

A.D.  1131-1135.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.    199 

they  would  Xj  their  abbat ;  and  the  earl  and  all  the  chief 
men  and  the  monks  drove  the  other  abbat  Henry  out  of  the 
nonastery,  and  well  they  might,  for  in  five  and  twenty  years 
they  had  never  known  a  good  day.  All  lis  great  craftiness 
failed  liim  here,  and  now  it  belioved  him  to  creep  into  any 
corner,  and  to  consider  if  perchance  there  yet  remained  some 
slippery  device,  by  which  he  might  once  more  betray  Christ 
and  all  Christian  people.  Then  went  he  to  Cliigny,  and 
there  they  kept  him,  so  that  he  could  go  neither  east  nor 
west ;  the  abbat  of  Clugny  saying  that  they  had  lost  St. 
John's  minster  through  him,  and  his  great  sottishness  ; 
wherefore  seeing  he  could  give  no  better  compensation,  he 
promised  and  swore  on  the  holy  relics,  that  if  he  might  pro- 
ceed to  England  he  would  obtain  for  them  the  monastery  of 
Peterborough,  and  would  establish  there  a  prior  of  Clugny, 
a  churchwarden,  a  treasurer,  and  a  keeper  of  the  robes,  and 
that  he  w^ould  make  over  to  them  all  things  both  within  and 
without  the  monastery.  Thus  he  went  into  France  and 
abode  there  all  the  year.  May  Christ  provide  for  the 
wretched  monks  of  Peterborough,  and  for  that  miserable 
place,  for  now  do  they  stand  in  need  of  the  help  of  Christ 
and  of  all  Christian  people. 

A.  1132.  This  year  king  Henry  returned  to  this  land; 
then  the  abbat  Henry  came,  and  accused  the  monks  of  Peter- 
borough to  the  king,  because  he  desired  to  subject  that  mon- 
astery to  Clugny ;  so  that  the  king  was  well  nigh  beguiled, 
and  sent  for  the  monks ;  but  by  God's  mercy,  and  through 
the  bishops  of  Salisbury  and  Lincoln,  and  the  other  great 
men  who  were  there,  he  found  out  that  the  abbat  dealt 
treacherously.  When  he  could  do  no  more,  he  wished 
that  his  nephew  might  be  abbat  of  Peterborough,  but  this 
was  njt  the  will  of  Christ.  It  was  not  very  long  after 
this  that  the  king  sent  for  him,  and  made  him  give  up  the 
abbey  of  Peterborough,  and  depart  out  of  the  country,  and 
the  king  granted  the  abbacy  to  a  prior  of  St.  Neot's  named 
Martin,  and  he  came  to  the  monastery,  right  worshipfuUy 
attended,  on  St.  Peter's  day. 

A.  1135.  This  year,  at  Lammas,  king  Henry  went  over 
sea  :  and  on  the  second  day,  as  he  lay  asleep  in  the  ship,  the 
day  was  darkened  universally,  and  the  sun  became  as  if  it 
were  a  moon  three  nights  old.  with  the  stars  sliining  round  it 

200         THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.    a.d.  1137. 

at  mid-day.  Men  greatly  marvelled,  and  great  fear  ^ell  on 
them,  and  they  said  that  some  great  event  should  follow  there- 
after— and  so  it  was,  for  the  same  year  the  king  died  in  Nor- 
mandy, on  the  day  after  the  feast  of  St.  Andrew.  Soon  did 
this  land  fall  into  trouble,  for  every  man  greatly  began  to  rob 
his  neighbour  as  he  might.  Then  king  Henry's  sons  and 
his  friends  took  his  body,  and  brought  it  to  England,  and 
buried  it  at  Reading.  He  was  a  good  man,  and  great  wab 
the  awe  of  him ;  no  man  durst  ill  treat  another  in  his  time  : 
he  made  peace  for  men  and  deer.  Whoso  bare  his  burden 
of  gold  and  silver,  no  man  durst  say  to  him  ought  but  good. 
In  the  meantime  his  nephew  Stephen  de  Blois  had  arrived  in 
England,  and  he  came  to  London,  and  the  inhabitants  re- 
<3eived  him,  and  sent  for  the  archbishop,  William  Corboil, 
who  consecrated  him  king  on  midwinter-day.  In  this  king's 
time  was  all  discord,  and  evil-doing,  and  robbery  ;  for  the 
powerful  men  who  had  kept  aloof,  soon  rose  up  against  him ; 
the  first  was  Baldwin  de  Redvers,  and  he  held  Exeter  against 
the  king,  and  Stephen  besieged  him,  and  afterwards  Baldwin 
made  terms  with  him.  Then  the  others  took  their  castles, 
and  held  them  against  tlie  king,  and  David,  king  of  Scotland, 
bfitook  him  to  Wessington  [Derbysliire],  but  notwithstanding 
liis  array,  messengers  passed  between  them,  and  they  came 
together,  and  made  an  agreement,  though  it  availed  little. 

A.  1137.  This  year  king  Stephen  went  over  sea  to  Nor- 
mandy, and  he  was  received  there  because  it  was  expected 
that  he  would  be  altogether  like  his  uncle,  and  because  he 
had  gotten  possession  of  his  treasure,  but  this  he  distributed 
and  scattered  foolishly.  King  Henry  had  gathered  together 
much  gold  and  silver,  yet  did  he  no  good  for  his  soul's 
sake  with  the  same.  When  king  Stephen  came  to  Eng- 
land, he  held  an  assembly  at  Oxford ;  and  there  he 
seized  Roger  bishop  of  Salisbury,  and  Alexander  bishop  of 
Lincoln,  and  Roger  the  chancellor,  his  nephew,  and  he  kept 
them  all  in  prison  till  they  gave  up  their  castles.  When  the 
traitors  perceived  that  he  was  a  mild  man,  and  a  soft,  and  a 
good,  and  that  he  did  not  enforce  justice,  they  did  all  wonder. 
They  had  done  homage  to  him,  and  sworn  oath^,  but  they  no 
faith  kept;  all  became  forsworn,  and  broke  their  allegi- 
ance, for  every  rich  man  built  his  castles,  and  defended  them 
against  him,  and  they  filed  the  land  full  of  castles.     Thejf 

AT..  1137.    THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.  201 

greatly  oppressed  the  wretched  people  by  making  them  work 
at  these  castles,  and  when  the  castles  were  finished  they  filled 
them  with  devils  and  evil  men.  Then  they  took  those  wliom 
they  suspected  to  have  any  goods,  by  night  and  by  day,  seizing 
both  men  and  women,  and  they  put  them  in  prison  for  their  gold 
and  silver,  and  tortured  them  with  pains  unspeakable,  for  never 
were  any  martyrs  tormented  as  these  were.  They  hung  some 
up  by  their  feet,  and  smoked  them  with  foul  smoke ;  some  by 
tlieir  thumbs,  or  by  the  head,  and  they  hung  burning  things  on 
their  feet.  They  put  a  knotted  string  about  their  heads,  and 
twisted  it  till  it  went  into  the  brain.  They  put  them  into  dun- 
geons wherein  were  adders  and  snakes  and  toads,  and  thus  wore 
them  out.  Some  they  put  into  a  crucet-house,  that  is,  into 
a  chest  that  was  short  and  narrow,  and  not  deep,  and  they 
put  sharp  stones  in  it,  and  crushed  the  man  therein  so  that 
they  broke  all  his  limbs.  There  were  hateful  and  grim 
things  called  Sachenteges  in  many  of  the  castles,  and  Avhich 
two  or  three  men  had  enough  to  do  to  carry.  The  Sachen- 
tege  was  made  thus :  it  was  fastened  to  a  beam,  having  a 
sharp  iron  to  go  round  a  man's  throat  and  neck,  so  that  he 
might  no  ways  sit,  nor  lie,  nor  sleep,  but  that  he  must  bear 
all  the  iron.  Many  thousands  they  exhausted  with  hunger. 
I  cannot  and  I  may  not  tell  of  all  the  wounds,  and  all  the 
tortures  that  they  inflicted  upon  the  wretched  men  of  this 
land ;  and  this  state  of  things  lasted  the  nineteen  years  that 
vStephen  was  king,  and  ever  grew  worse  and  worse.  They  were 
continually  levying  an  exaction  from  the  towns,  which  they 
called  Tenserie,*  and  when  the  miserable  inhabitants  had  no 
more  to  give,  then  plundered  they,  and  burnt  all  the  towns, 
so  that  well  mightest  thou  walk  a  whole  day's  journey  nor 
ever  shouldest  thou  find  a  man  seated  in  a  town,  or  its  lands 

Then  was  corn  dear,  and  flesh,  and  cheese,  and  butter,  for 
there  was  none  in  the  land — wretched  men  starved  with 
hunger — some  lived  on  alms  who  had  been  erewhile  rich : 
some  fled  the  country — never  was  there  more  misery,  and 
never  acted  heathens  worse  than  these.  At  length  they 
spared  neither  church  nor  churchyard,  but  they  took  all  that 
was  valuable  therein,  and  then  burned  the  church  and  all  to- 
gether.  Neither  did  they  spare  the  lands  of  bishops,  nor  oi 
*  A  payment  to  the  superior  lord  for  protection. 

202         THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.    a.d.  1137. 

abbats,  nor  of  priests ;  but  they  robbed  the  monka  and  tlie 
clergy,  and  every  man  plundered  his  neighbour  as  much  as 
lie  could.  If  two  or  three  men  came  riding  to  a  town,  all 
the  township  fled  before  them,  and  thought  that  they  were 
robbers.  The  bishops  and  clergy  were  ever  cursing  them, 
but  this  to  them  was  nothing,  for  they  were  all  accursed,  and 
foi  sworn,  and  reprobate.  The  earth  bare  no  corn,  you 
might  as  well  have  tilled  the  sea,  for  the  land  was  all  ruined 
by  such  deeds,  and  it  was  said  openly  that  Christ  and  his 
saints  slept.  These  things,  and  more  than  we  can  say, 
did  we  suifer  during  nineteen  years  because  of  our  sins. 
Through  all  this  evil  time  the  abbat  Martin  held  his  abbacy 
for  twenty  years  and  a  half  and  eight  days,  with  many  diffi- 
culties: and  he  provided  the  monks  and  guests  with  all 
necessaries,  and  kept  up  much  alms  in  the  house ;  and  withal 
he  wrought  upon  the  church,  and  annexed  thereto  lands  and 
rents,  and  enriched  it  greatly,  and  furnished  it  with  robes : 
and  he  brought  the  monks  into  the  new  monastery  on  St. 
Peter's  day  with  much  pomp.  This  was  in  the  year  1140 
of  our  Lord's  incarnation,  the  twenty-third  year  after  the 
fire.  And  he  went  to  Rome  and  was  well  received  there  by 
pope  Eugenius,  from  whom  he  obtained  sundry  privileges,  to 
wit,  one  for  all  the  abbey  lands,  and  another  for  the  lands 
that  adjoin  the  monastery,  and  had  he  lived  longer  he  meant 
to  have  done  as  much  for  the  treasurer's  house.  And  he  re- 
gained certain  lands  that  powerful  men  possessed  by  force ; 
he  won  Cotingham  and  Easton  from  William  Malduit,  who 
held  Rockingham  castle,  and  from  Hugh  of  Walteville  he 
won  Hirtlingbery,  and  Stanwick,  and  sixty  shillings  yearly 
out  of  Oldwinkle.  And  he  increased  the  number  of  monks, 
and  planted  a  vineyard,  and  made  many  works,  and  im- 
proved the  town  ;  and  he  was  a  good  monk  and  a  good  man, 
and  therefore  God  and  good  men  loved  him.  Now  will  we 
relate  some  part  of  what  befell  in  king  Stephen's  time.  In 
his  reign  the  Jews  of  Norwich  bought  a  Christian  child 
before  Easter,  and  tortured  him  with  all  the  torments  where- 
with our  Lord  was  tortured,  and  they  crucified  him  on  Good 
Friday  for  the  love  of  our  Lord,  and  afterwards  buried  him. 
They  believed  that  this  would  be  kipt  secret,  but  our  Lord 
made  manifest  that  he  was  a  holy  martyr,  and  the  monks  took 
him  and  buried  him  honourably  in  the  m:)nastery  and  he 

A.D.  1138.1140.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.    203 

performed  manifold  and  wonderful  miracles  tla-ough  the 
power  of  our  Lord,  anc  he  is  called  St.  William. 

A-  1138.  This  year  David  king  of  Scotland  entered  this 
Land  with  an  immense  army  resolving  to  conquer  it,  and 
William  earl  of  Albemarle,  to  whose  charge  the  king  had 
committed  York,  and  other  trusty  men,  came  against  him 
with  few  troops,  and  fought  with  him,  and  they  put  the  king 
to  flight  at  the  Standard,  and  slew  a  great  pai't  of  his 

A.  1140.  This  year  Stephen  attempted  to  take  Robert 
earl  of  Gloucester  the  son  of  king  Henry,  but  failed,  for 
Robert  was  aware  of  his  purpose.  After  this,  in  Lent,  the 
sun  and  the  day  were  darkened  about  noon,  when  men  eat, 
so  that  they  lighted  candles  to  eat  by.  This  was  on  the  13th 
before  the  Kalends  of  April,  and  the  people  were  greatly  as- 
tonished. After  tliis  William  archbishop  of  Canterbury 
died,  and  the  king  made  Theobald,  abbat  of  Bee,  archbishoj). 
Then  there  arose  a  very  great  war  between  the  king  and 
Randolph  earl  of  Chester,  not  because  the  king  did  not  give 
him  all  that  he  could  ask,  even  as  In.  did  to  all  others,  but 
that  the  more  he  gave  them,  the  wor?e  they  always  carried 
themselves  to  him.  The  earl  held  Lincoln  against  the  king, 
and  seized  all  that  belonged  to  the  king  there,  and  the  king 
went  tliither,  and  besieged  him  and  his  brother  William  de 
Romare  in  the  castle  :  and  the  earl  stole  out  and  went  for 
Robert  earl  of  Gloucester,  and  brought  him  thither  with  a 
large  army  ;  and  they  fought  furiously  against  their  lord  on 
Candlemas-day,  and  they  took  him  captive,  for  his  men  be- 
trayed him  and  fled,  and  they  led  him  to  Bristol,  and  there 
they  put  him  into  prison  and  close  confinement.  Now  was 
all  England  more  disturbed  than  before,  and  all  evil  was  in 
the  land.  After  this,  king  Henry's  daughter,  who  had  been 
empress  of  Germany,  and  was  now  countess  of  Anjou,  ar- 
rived, and  she  came  to  London,  and  the  citizens  would  ha\  e 
seized  her,  but  she  fled  with  much  loss.  Then  Henry  bishop 
of  Winchester,  king  Stephen's  brother,  spake  with  earl 
Robert  and  with  the  empress,  and  swore  them  oatlis  that  he 
never  more  would  hold  with  the  king  his  brother,  and  lie 
cursed  all  those  that  did  hold  with  him,  and  he  said  that  Le 
would  give  up  Winchester  to  them,  and  he  made  them  come 
thither.     But  when  they  were  la  that  place  Stephen's  queen 

204         THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE,    a.d.  ii4o. 

brought  up  her  strength  and  besieged  them,  till  there  was  so 
great  a  famine  in  the  town,  they  could  endure  it  no  longer 
Then  stole  they  out  and  lied,  and  the  besiegers  were  aware 
of  them,  and  followed  them,  and  they  took  Robert  earl  of 
Gloucester  and  led  him  to  Rochester,  and  imprisoned  him 
there  :  and  the  empress  fled  into  a  monastery.     Then  wise 
men,  friends  of  the  king  and  of  the  earl,  interfered  between 
them,  and  they  settled  tliat  the  king  should  be  let  out  of  pri- 
Boa  for  the  earl,  and  the  earl  for  the  king  ;   and  this  was 
done.     After  this  the  king  and  earl  Randolph  were  recon- 
ciled at  Stamford,   and  they  took  oaths  and  pledged  their 
troth,  that  neither  would  betray  the  other  :  but  this  promise 
"»ra.'5  set  at  nought,  for  the  king  afterwards  seized  the  earl  in 
Northampton  through  wicked  counsel,  and  put  him  in  prison, 
but  he  set  him  free  soon  after,  through  worse,  on  condition 
that  he  should  swear  on  the  cross,  and  find  hostages  that  he 
would  give  up  all  his  castles.     Some  he  did  deliver  up,  and 
others  not ;  and  he  did  worse  than  he  should  have  done  in 
this  country.     Now  was  England   much  divided,  some  held 
with  the  king  and  some  with  the  empress,  for  when  the  king 
was  in  prison  the  earls  and  the  great  men  thought  that  he 
would  never  more  come  out,  and  they  treated  with  the  em- 
press, and  brought  her  to  Oxford,  and  gave  her  the  town. 
When  the  king  was  out  of  prison  he  heard  this,  and  he  took 
his  army  and  besieged  her  in  the  tower,  and  they  let  her 
down  from  the  tower  by  night  with  ropes,  and   she  stole 
away,  and  she  fled  :  and  she  went  on  foot  to  Wallingford. 
After  this  she  went  over  sea,  and  all  the  Normans  turned 
from  the  king  to  the  earl  of  Anjou,  some  willingly,  and  some 
against  their  will ;  for  he  besieged  them  till  they  gave  up 
their  castles,  and  they  had  no  help  from  the  king.     Then  the 
king's  son  Eustace  went  to  France,  and  took  to  wife  tlie  sis- 
ter of  the  king  of  France  :    he  thought  to  obtain  Normandy 
through  this  marriage,  but  little  he  sped,  and  that  of  right, 
for  he  was  an  evil  man,  and  did  more  harm  than  good  wher- 
ever he  went :  he  spoiled  the  lands,  and  laid  thereon  heavy 
taxes  :  he  brought  his  wife  to  England,  and  put  her  into  tho 

castle  of ;*  she  was  a  good  woman  but  she  had  little 

bliss  with  him,  and  it  was  not  the  will  of  Christ  that  h« 

*  "The  MS.  is  here  deficient  j  bat   ....  b  for  *  byrig'  is  discemibltt." 

A.D.ii40.iir,4.   THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.    205 

should  bear  rule  long,  and  he  died,  and  his  m«  tlier  al-^o. 
And  the  earl  of  Anjou  died,  and  Iiis  son  Henry  succeed.  5 1 
him  ;  and  the  queen  of  France  was  divorced  from  the  kin  % 
and  she  went  to  the  young  earl  Henry  and  he  took  her  to 
wife,  and  received  all  Poitou  with  her.  Then  he  came  into 
England  with  a  great  anny  and  won  castles  ;  and  the  king 
marched  against  him  with  a  much  larger  army,  howheit  they 
did  not  fight,  but  the  archbishop  and  wise  men  went  between 
them  and  made  a  treaty  on  these  terms  :  that  the  king  sliould 
be  lord  and  king  while  he  lived,  and  that  Henry  should  be 
king  after  his  death,  and  that  he  should  consider  him  as  his 
father,  and  the  king  him  as  his  son,  and  that  peace  and  con- 
cord should  be  between  them,  and  in  all  England.  The  king, 
and  the  earl,  and  the  bishop,  and  the  earls,  and  all  the  great 
men  swore  to  observe  these  and  the  other  conditions  that 
were  then  made.  The  earl  was  received  with  much  honour 
at  Winchester'  and  at  London,  and  all  did  homage  to  him,  and 
^-wore  to  keep  the  peace,  and  it  soon  became  a  very  good 
peace,  such  as  never  was  in  this  land.  Then  the  king  was 
more  powerful  here  than  ever  he  was  ;  and  the  earl  went 
over  sea,  and  all  the  people  loved  him,  because  he  did  good 
justice,  and  made  peace. 

A.  1154.  This  year  king  Stephen  died,  and  he  was  buried 
with  his  wife  and  his  son  at  Faversham  ;  they  had  built  that 
monastery.  When  the  king  died  the  earl  was  beyond  sea, 
and  no  man  durst  do  other  than  good  for  very  dread  of  him. 
When  he  came  to  England  he  was  received  with  much  hon- 
our, and  was  consecrated  king  at  London  on  the  Sunday  be- 
fore Christmas,  and  he  held  a  great  court  there  :  and  on  the 
same  day  that  Martin  abbat  of  Peterborough  should  have 
gone  thither  he  sickened,  and  he  died  on  the  4th  before  the 
Nones  of  January.  And  that  day  the  monks  chose  another 
abbat  from  among  themselves.  He  is  named  William  de 
Walteville,  a  good  clerk,  and  a  good  man,  and  well  beloved 
of  the  king  and  of  all  good  people  :  and  they  buried  the 
abbat  honourably  in  the  church,  and  soon  afterwards  the 
abbat  elect  and  the  monks  went  to  the  king  at  Oxford,  and 
the  king  gave  him  the  abbacy,  and  he  departed  soon  after- 
wards to  Peterborough,  where  he  remained  with  the  abbat 
before  he  came  home.     And  the  king  was  received  at  Peter- 

206         THE  ANGLO-SAXON  CHRONICLE.    a.d.  1154. 

borough  with  great  respect,  and  in  full  procession  ;  so  he 
was  also  at  Ramsey,  at  Tliorney,  and  at  ....  and  Spalding, 
&nd  .  .  . .* 

*  The  MS.  is  defective.  Ramsey  and  Thomey  are  elicited  from  some 
faint  traces  in  the  Laud  MS.  which  seem  to  have  escaped  the  penetration 
of  Gibson.  The  last  paragraph,  if  Gibson's  reading  be  correct,  appears  to 
relate  to  some  building  which  the  abbat  and  monks  of  Peterborough  had 
begun  about  this  time.  See  Gunton's  History  of  Peterborough  Minster, 
and  Cont.  Hug.  Candid,  ap.  Sparke,  pp.  92,  93. 



A1x)n,  ealdorraan,  22 

Acca,  bisliDp  of  Hexham,  31,  33 

Acley,  synod  of,  40 

Adrian,  emperor  of  Rome,  5 

Ailriau,  le,t,'ate,  in  England,  26 

Adrian,  pope,  39,  40 

Adrian,  abbat.    See  Hadrian 

J-'-lla,  king  of  the  Sonth  Saxons,  8 

JFA\a,  usurper  of  Northumbria,  49 

^t'.sc,  king  of  Kent,  8 

Agelric,  bishop  of  Selsey,  133 

Agilbert,  bishop,  18,  23 

Aidan,  bishop  of  Lindisfarne,  IS 

Albinus,  abbat  of  St.  Augustine's,  xlii 

Alhau  (St.),  5 

Albau's  (St.)  monastery,  183 

AlCTed,  king  of  Northumbria,  37 

Alcuin.    See  Albinus 

Aldhelm,  bishop  of  Sherborne,  31 

Aldred,  bishop,  118, 123, 126, 129, 132, 134, 

Aldulf,  archbishop  of  York,  80,  81,  88,  94 
Aldwulf ,  bishop  of  Rochester,  82,  33 
Alexander,  bishop  of  Lincoln,  190 
Alexander,  king  of  Scotland,  180,  191 
Alfric,  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  89-06 
Alfric,  ealdorman,  87 
Alfred,  king  of  England,  47-64 
Aifrid,  king  of  Deira,  27,  30 
Alfuu,  bishop  of  Dunwich,  42 
Alfwold,  bishop  of  Sherborne,  85 
Alf  wold,  king  of  Northumbria,  3-S,  39 
Alhmund,  bishop  of  Hexham,  37,  '6ii 
Alia,  king  of  Northumbria,  10,  12 
Alric  killed,  42 
Alwy,  bishop  of  London,  103 
Alwyn,  bishop  of  Winchester,  111,  116, 118 
Anlaf  Curran,  77 

Anlaf,  king  of  Northumbria,  74-76 
Anlaf,  son  of  Sihtric,  76 
Anna,  king  of  the  East  Angles,  18 
Anselm,  archbishop  of  Canterbuiy,  148, 

166,  171,  172,  175-177,  180 
Anselm,  abbat  of  Bury  St.  Edmund's,  183 
Anwind,  a  Danish  king,  53 
ABser,  bishop  of  Sherborne,  66 
Athelard,  archbp.  of  Canterbury,  40-43 
Athelred^  archbp.  of  Canterbury,  50,  57 
Athelstan,  bishop  orf  Hereford,  132 
Athelstan,  king  of  Kent,  45,  46 
Athelstan,  king  of  Mereia,  72-75 
Attila,  king  of  the  Huns,  6 
Athulf,  bishop,  81 
Augustine,    archbishop  of   Canterbury, 

12,  13 

Baccancelde  (Beckenham)  council,  29 

Bagsac,  a  Danish  king,  killed,  51 

Baldred,  king  of  Kent,  44 

Baldulf,  bishop  of  Wliitherne,  40 

Baldwin  V.,  earl  of  Flanders,  120,  1.36 

Baldwin  VI.,  earl  of  Flanders,  1.50 

Baldwin  VII.,  eari  of  Flanders,  182-186 

Banihrough  (Bebha),  a  royal  city,  10,  170 

Bassianus,  son  of  Severus,  5 

Bass,  mass-priest,  24 

Battle  Abbey  founded,  159,  168 

Bede  (Venerable),  33 

Benedict  (Sit.),  8,  9,  1.59 

Beonna,  abbat  of  Peterborough,  38 

Beori^,  earl,  117,  121-123 

Beornmod,  bishop  of  Rochester,  42 

Beort,  ealdorman,  27,  30 

Bernard,  bishop  of  St.  David's,  189 

Berm-ed,  king  of  Mereia,  36 

Bernulf,  king  of  Mereia,  44 

Berthwald,  archbishop  ot  Canterbury,  29j 

32,  38 
Berthwulf,  king  of  Mereia.  defeated,  46 
Bertric,  king  of  Wessex,  39,  42 
Bieda  arrives  in  Britain,  9 
Birinus,  bishop,  16-18 
Blecca,  governor  of  Lincoln,  16 
Bosa,  bishop  of  York,  27,  28 
Bregowin,  archbp.  of  Canterbury,  36,  37 
Brihtege,  bishop  of  Worcester,  111,  112 
Brinstan,  bishop  of  Winchester,  73 
Britain,  1,  2-6 

Brithmar,  bishop  of  Lichfield,  113 
Birthwin,  bishop  of  Sherborne,  109,  115, 

Britnoth,  abbat  of  Ely,  79 
Brocmail,  13 

Burhred,  king  of  Mereia,  47-52 
Burton  abbey,  141 

Cadwalla,  king  of  the  West  Britons,  16 
Caedwalla,  king  of  Wessex,  27,  28 
Cajsar's,  Julius,  invasion,  2 
Canterbury'  cathedral,  197 
Canute,  king  of  England,  102-113 
Canute,  king  of  Denmark,  156,  161 
Canute,  prince  of  Denmark,  153 
Ceawlin  or  Celin,  king  of  Wessex,  10,  12 
Cenbert,  father  of  Cajdwalki,  28 
Ceol,  king  of  Wessex,  12 
Ceolnoth,  archbp.  of  Canterbury,  45,  50 
Cedlred,  king  of  Mereia,  31 
Ceolwulf,  bishop  of  Lindsey,  40,  41 
Ceolwulf,  king  of  Northumbria,  32,  33, 



Ceolwulf,  kinc?  of  Wessex,  12,  13 

Oeowirlf,  king  of  Mercia,  43,  44 

Cerdio,  king  of  Wessex,  9 

Chad,  bishop  of  Lichfield,  23 

Ohalk-hythe  synod,  39 

Cniarles,  earl  of  Flanders,  186,  194 

Charles  (the  Fat),  56,  57 

Chertsey  monastery,  181 

Chester  bishopric,  188 

Chiche  (St.  Osythe)  monastery,  188 

Cissa,  king  of  the  South  Saxons,  8 

Claudius  invades  Britain,  3 

Cloveshoo  synod,  34,  44 

Coenred,  or  Kenred,  king  of  Mercia,  3Q, 

Coinwalch.    See  Kenwalk. 
Colburga,  abbess  of  Berkeley,  43 
Coldingham  monastery,  27 
Ojlumba,  abljat  of  lona,  11 
Conwulf ,  or  Cynewulf,  bishop  of  Lindis- 

farne,  33,  38,  39 
Crida,  king  of  Mercia,  12 
Cuichelm,   king   of    the   West    Saxons, 

Cutha,  11,  12 
Cuthbald,  abbat,  25,  26 
Cuthbert,  abp.  of  Canterbury,  34,  36 
Cuthred,  king,  17,  18,  23 
Cuthred,  king  of  Kent,  43 
Cuthred,  king  of  Wessex,  33,  34 
Cuthwine  defeats  the  Britons,  12 
Cynegils,  king  of  Wessex,  13-17 
Cyneward,  bishop  of  Wells,  82,  83 
Cynewulf,  king  of  Wessex,  34-39 
Cynric,  king  of  Wessex,  9,  10 

Danes  arrive  in  England,  39 
Daniel,  bishop  of  Winchester,  31-34 
David,  king  of  Scotland,  191, 193,  200,  203 
Degsastaii,  13 

Denewulf ,  bishop  of  Winchester,  66 
Beusdedit,  archbp.  of  Canterbury,  19-23 
Doomsday  book  compiled,  157 
Dudoc,  bishop  of  Wells,  117,  134 
Dunstan  (St.),  archbishop  of  Canterbury, 
nt,  76,  87 

E;ul>)ald,  king  of  Kent,  14-17 
Eudljcrt,  king  of  Kent,  32,  34 
Eadbert,  king  of  Northumbria,  33-30,  37 
Eaai)ert  Pren,  kin?  of  Kent,  40,  41 
E.-idburga,  married  to  Bertric,  39 
Eadhed,  bishop  of  Sidnacester,  27 
Eaduoth,  bishop  of  Dorchester,  117,  121 
Eadsine,  archbp.  of  Canterbury,  112-122 
Eafy,  high  steward,  murdered,  94 
Ealliard,  bishop  of  Dorchester,  63 
Ealstan,  bishop  of  Sherborne,  44,  46,  49 
Eaubald  I.,  archbishop  of  York,  38,  41 
Eanbald  II.,  archbishop  of  York,  41,  42 
Eanliert,  bishop  of  Hexham,  43 
EaniJed,  daughter  of  king  Edwin,  15,  15 
Eaiifrid,  king  of  Bernicia,  15,  16 

Eanwulf,  earl  of  Somerton,  46 
Eappa,  priest,  22,  23 
Earconbert,  king  of  Kent,  17,  23 
Earcongota,  daughter  of  king  Earcon- 
bert, 17 
Eardulf,  king  of  Northumbria,  41,  43 
Eata,  bishop  of  Lindisfarne,  27 
Ebb,  the  Frisian,  slain,  63 
Edgar,  king  of  Mercia,  78-84 
Edgar,  etheling,  139-144,  151-179 
Edgar,  king  of  Scotland,  173,  180 
Edgitha,  Edward's  queen,  115 
Edmund,  St.,  king  of  East  Auglia,  50 
Edmund,  the  son  of  Edgar,  82 
Edmund  Ironside,  104-107 
Ednoth,  bishop  of  Dorchester,  101,  106 
Edred,  king,  77,  78,  82 
Edric,  ealdorman  of  Mercia,  97,  104,  lu7 
Edward  (the  elder),  king,  64-73 
Edward  (the  martyr),  60-86 
Edward  (the  confessor),  103,  113-140 
Edward,  son  of  Ednmnd,  dies,  132-133 
Edwin,  abbat  of  Abingdon,  87 
Edwin,  etheling,  drowned,  73 
Edwin,  king  of  Northumbria,  13,  15,  16 
Edwy,  etheling,  banished  by  Canute,  lo7 
Edwy,  king  of  Wessex,  78 
Egljald,  abbat  of  Peterlx)rough,  2b 
Egliert,  king  of  Kent,  23,  24 
Egbert,  king  of  Wessex,  42-45 
Egbert,  bishop  of  York,  33,  37 
Egbert^  abbat  of  lona,  31,  32 
Egbert  II.,  bishop  of  Lindisfarne,  43 
Egelric,  bp.  of  Durham,  114,  132,  145, 151 
Egelwine,  bishop  of  Durham,  32,  51 
Egfert,  king  of  Mercia,  39,  40 
Egfrid,  king  of  Northumbria,  24-23 
Eleutherius,  bishop  of  Rome,  5 
Eleutherius,  bishop  of  Winchester,  24 
Elfgar,  bishop  of  Elmham,  IDS 
Elfhun,  bishop  of  London,  101,  102 
Elfric,  archbishop  of  York,  109,  110,  J    ) 
Elfric,  bishop  of  Elmham,  112 
Elfric,  ealdorman,  87,  88,  95 
Elfrida,  Edgar's  queen,  82 
Elfstan,  bishop  of  London,  81,  88 
Elfstan,  bishop  of  Wiltshire,  86 
Elfsy,  al)bat  of  Peterboroii-ih,  81 
Elfsy,  bishop  of  Winchester,  109,  111 
Elfward,  bishop  of  London,  116 
Elfwin,  brother  to  king  Egfrid,  27 
Elfwina,  queen  of  Mercia,  69 
Elgar,  earl  of  Mercia,  129-133 
Elmund,  king  of  Kent,  39 
Elphege,  bishop  of  Winchester,  73,  77 
Elphege  II.,  arclibishop  of  Canterbury, 

87,  89,  96-101 
Elstan,  bishop  of  London,  64 
Elswitha,  Alfred's  queen,  65 
Ely  monastery,  24,  79 
Emma  Elgive,  94,  102,  107,  112,  115,  127 
Eorpwald,  king  of  East  Anglia,  16 
Eric,  king  of  Northumbria,  77 



Eric,  earl  of  Northurabria,  105,  107 
Ermenred,  son  of  Eadhald,  17 
Eriioat,  bishop  of  JUtchester,  145 
Eniulf,  bishop  of  Rochester,  1S3,  191 
Escwia,  king  of  Wessex,  24,  26 
Escwy,  bishop  of  Dorchester,  8S 
Ethehird,  king  of  VVessex,  32,  33 
EthelbaUl,  king  of  Mercia,  31-36 
EtholbaUl,  king  of  Wessex,  46,  43 
Ethelberga,  daughter  of  king  Ethelbert, 

Ethelbert,  archbishop  of  York,  37,  S8 
Ethelbert.  bishop  of  Whitberne,  38,  42 
Ethelbert,  king  of  Kent,  10-14 
Echtiibeit  il.,  Kuig  ol  Kent,  34,  86 
Ethelbert,  king  of  East  Anglia,  40 
Ethelbert,  k.  of  Kent,  Essex,  Ac,  48,  49 
Ethelburga,  Ina's  queen,  32 
Etheldrida,  daughter  of  king  Anna,  24, 

27,  79 
Ethelfled,  lady  of  Mercia,  66-72 
Etlielfrid,  king  of  Northurabria,  12-15 
Ethelgar,  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  82, 

S6,  87 
Ethelnoth,   archbishop  of   Canterbury, 

IDS,  112 
Ethelred,  king  of  Mercia,  19-31 
Ethelred,  son  of  Moll,  37-40 
Ethelred  [Ethered],  king  of  Wessex,  49-52 
Ethelred;  king  of  England,  85-105 
Ethelric,  king  of  Northumbria,  12 
Ethelric,  bishop  of  Selsey,  112 
Ethelswitli,  queen  of  Mercia,  57 
Ethehvalch,  king  of  the  South  Saxons,  23 
Ethelwald,  prince,  64,  65 
Ethelwald,  bishop  of  Lindisfarne,  33 
Ethelwald,  bishop  of  Lichfield,  45 
Ethelward,  king  uf  Wessex,  32,  33 
Ethelwerd,  high-steward,  slain,  93 
Ethelwold,  bishop  of  Winchester,  55,  79, 

82,  84,  87 
Fthelwulf,  king  of  Wessex,  45-48 
'  ;ihered,  ealdorman  of  Mercia,  57,  60,  66 
"'Iheric,  bishop  of  Dorchester,  111 
Eustace  II. ,  earl  of  Boulogne,  119,  164 

Felix,  bishop  of  Dunwich,  17 

Fiugale  synod,  39 

Forthhere,  31,  33 

Frithbert,  bishop  of  Hexham,  37 

Frithstan,  bishop  of  Winchester,  66,  73 

Frithwald,  bishop  of  Whitherne,  37 

Gebmund,  bishop  of  Rochester,  29 

Gerard,  archbishop  of  York,  ISO 

Geta,  son  of  Severus,  5 

Giso,  bishop  of  Wells,  134 

Glastonbury  minster,  28,  155 

Godfrey,  bishop  of  Bath,  190 

Godwin,  earl,  111-129 

Godwin  III.,  bishop  of  Rochester,  100 

Gosfrith,  bishop,  162 

Gotltrun,  a  Danish  king,  53,  54,  57 

Qratian,  emperor,  6 
Gregory  I.,  pope,  12 
Griffln,  Welsh  king.  116-135 
Grinketel,  bishop  of  .Selsey,  113,  117 
Gundulph,  l)ishop  of  Rochester,  145 
Gunnilde,  bauLshed,  116 
Guthfrith,  king  of  Northurabria,  73 

Hadrian,  abbat  of  St.  Augustine's,  89 

Halfdene,  a  Danish  king,  51-53,  66 

Hardecanute,  109,  114 

Harold  Harfager  killed,  138 

Harold  I.,  king  of  England,  111-113 

Harold  II.,  119-141 

Hasten  invades  England,  58-60 

Heahmund,  bishop  of  Sherborne,  52 

Heandred,  bishop  of  Hexham,  42 

Heathfield  (Hatfield),  27 

Heca,  bishop  of  Selsey,  116-118,  133 

Hedda,  bishop,  26,  30 

Hengist,  a  Saxon  chieftain,  7,  8 

Henry  de  Blois,  bishop  of  Winchester, 

197,  203 
Henry  I.,  157,  159,  169,  174,  200 
Herbert  Losange,  bishop  of  Thetford,  168 
Herefrith,  bishop  of  Sebey,  45 
Hereward  plunders  Peterborough,   149, 

Herman,  bishop  of  Sherborne,  115,  122, 

123,  124 
Higbald,  bishop  of  Lindisfarne,  39,  43 
Higbert,  bishop  of  Dorchester,  39 
Hilda,  abbess,  'i7 
Hingwar  and  Hubba,  50 
Honorius,  archbp.  of  Canterbury,  16,  18 
Honorius,  pope,  16 
Horsa,  a  Saxon  chieftain,  7 
Howel,  king  of  West  Wales  (Cornwall),  73 

Ida,  king  of  Northumbria,  10 

Ina,  king  of  Wessex,  28-42 

Ingild,  brother  of  Ina,  31 

lona  monastery,  11 

Ithamar,  bishop  of  Rochester,  20,  22 

Jaruman,  bishop  of  Repton,  20,  22 
John  (St.),  of  Beverley,  28,  32 
Justus,  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  13 

Kenebert,  bishop  of  Winchester,  42 
Kenred,  king  of  Mercia.    See  Coeured. 
Keutwin,  king  of  Wessex,  26,  27 
Kenulf,  king  of  Mercia,  41,  43 
Kenuif,  bishop  of  Winchester,  81,  88,  98 
Kenwaik,  king  of  Wessex,  17-18 
Kineward,  bishop  of  Winchester,  34 
Kyueburg,  sister  of  Wulfliere,  19-22 
Kyneswith,  sister  of  Wulfhere,  19-22 
Kynsey,  archbishop  of  York,  29-34 

Lambert,  archbp.  of  Canterbury,  37-40 
Lanfranc,  abp.  of  Canterbury,  145-148,164 
Laureutius,  archbp.  of  Canterbury,  14, 15 



Leofgar,  bishop  of  Hereford,  132 
Leofric,  bishop  of  Devon,  115 
Leofric,  earl,  115-133 
Leofric,  bishop  of  Exeter,  118 
Leofsy,  bishop  of  Worcester,  111 
Leofwine,  bishop  of  Lichfield,  130 
Leo  III.,  pope,  142,  143 
Living,  archbp.  of  Canterbury,  101, 108 
Living,  bishop  of  Worcester  and  Glou- 
cester, 113,  115-118 
Lothen  and  Irling  arrive,  116 
Lothere,  king  of  Kent,  23 
Lucius,  king  of  the  Britons,  5 
Ludecan,  king  of  ilercia,  44 

Margaret,  daughter  of  Edward,  142,  167 
Malcolm  IIL,  king  of  Scotland,  142,  151, 

Maud,  daughter  of  Malcolm,  175 
Maurice,  bishop  of  London,  146,  175,  180 
Maximian,  emperor,  6 
Mellitus,  archbp.  of  Canterbury,  13-15 
Merewith,  bishop  of  Somerset,  111 
Milred,  bishop  of  Worcester,  37 
Moll  Ethelwald,  king  of  Northumbria,  36 
Morcar,  earl  of  Northumbria,  135-150 
Mull,  brother  of  Csedwalla,  27-29 

Nero,  emperor  of  Rome,  4 

Ninias,  bishop,  converts  the  Picts,  11 

Nothelm,  archbp.  of  Canterbury,  33,  34 

Odda,  earl  of  Devon,  120,  127 

Odo,  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  78,  79 

Odo,  bishop  of  Bayeux,  155,  160-164 

Offa,  son  of  king  Si.','here,  31 

Oflfa,  king  of  Mercia,  36-40,  42 

Olave,  king  of  Norway,  invades  England, 

88,  89,  110 
Osbern,  bishop  of  Exeter,  145 
Osbert,  king  of  Northumbria,  49 
Oskytel,  a  Danish  king,  53 
Oskytel,  archbishop  of  York,  82 
Oslac,  ealdorman,  81-84 
Osred,  king  of  Northumbria,  31 
Osred  II.,  king  of  Northumbria,  3D,  40 
Osric  I.,  king  of  Deira,  16 
Osric  11. ,  king  of  Northumbria,  31,  32 
Ostritha,  queen  of  Mercia,  30 
Oswald,  archbishop  of  York,  81,  87 
Oswald,  king  of  Northumbria,  16,  17,  66 
Oswiu,  king  of  Deira,  17,  18 
Oswin,  prince,  37 

Oswy  (Oswiu),  king  of  Northumbria,  17, 24 
Oswulph,  king  of  Northumbria,  36 

Palladius,  his  mission  to  Ireland,  6 
Paulinus,  archbishop  of  York,  13-17 
Paul's  (St.)  rathedral  burnt,  79,  158 
Peada,  ealdorman,  18 
Peada,  king  of  Mercia,  18,  19 
Penda.  king  of  Mercia,  15-13 
Pelagius,  6 

Peter,  bishop  of  Lichfield,  145 
Peterborough  monastery,  18-26,  38,  50, 

80,  128,  142,  150,  195,  198 
Petrouilla  (St.),  153 
Petwine,  bishop  of  Whitherne,  37 
Piegmund,  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  xiv, 

59,  72 
Port  arrives  in  England,  9 

Ralph,  archbp.  of  Canterbury,  182,  187 
Ranulf,  bp.  of  Durham,  173,  175,  176,  196 
Reculver  monastery,  24 
Redwald,  king  of  East  Anglia,  15 
Rees,  the  Welshman,  125 
Reginald,  king  of  Northumbria,  72,  76 
Poheims,  synod  at,  117 
Rol^ert,  abp.  of  Canterbury,  119,  122,  123 
Robert  Bloet,  bishop  of  Lincoln,  166,  188 
Robert,  bishop  of  Lichtield,  183 
Robert  de  Belesme,  173,  170-182 
Robert  de  Limesey,  bishop  of  Lichfield, 

Robert  II.,  earl  of  Flanders,  172,  175-182 
Robert  II.,  earl  of  Northumbria,  169-171 
Robert,  son  of  William  I.,  1.54,  162-193 
Pwoger,  bishop  of  Salisbury,  188,  192 
Pi.omanus,  bishop  of  Rochester,  14 
Romescot,  171 

Sabert,  king  of  the  East  Saxons,  13 
Saxon  Chronicle,  its  compilers,  v-xix,  1 
Sebbi,  king  of  the  East  Saxons,  22 
Selred,  king  of  Essex,  slain,  34 
Severus,  emperor,  5 
Sexberga,  eldest  daughter  of  king  Anna, 

17,  24 
Sexwulf,  bishop  of  Lichfield,  19-26,  31 
Sideman,  bishop  of  Crediton,  85 
Sigebert,  king  of  Wessex,  34,  35 
Sighard,  son  of  king  Sebbi,  22 
Sihtric,  king  of  Northumbria,  73 
Siric,  king  of  the  East  Angles,  42 
Siric  or  Sigic,  archbishop  of  Canterbury, 

Siward,  abp.  of  Canterbury,  115,  118, 123 
Siward,  bishop  of  Rochester,  134 
Siward,  earl,  115,  126,  129-132 
Sparhafoc,  bishop  of  London,  119,  122 
Stephen,  king,  200-205 
Stigand,  bishop  of  Elmham,    114,   115  ; 

trans,    to    Winchester,    116,    118 ;    to 

Canterbury,  128,  129 
Stuff,  lord  of  Isle  of  Wight,  9,  10 
Suebhard,  king  of  Kent,  29 
Sweyn,  earl,  116-126 
Sweyn,     king     of     Denmark,     invades 

England,  89,  95,  101-103 
Sweyn  III.,  king  of  Denmark,   invades 

England,  148-153 
Swithulf,  bishop  of  Rochester,  63 
Swithun,  bishop  of  Wincliester,  49 

Tatwine,  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  33 



Theobald,  archl>ishop  of  Canterlmry,  203 
Theologild,  archl)p.  of  Canterbury,  45 
Theodore,  archbp.  of  Canterbury,  22-28 
Thedosius  the  Vouuger,  6 
Thomas,  abp.  of  York,  145,  175,  180,  182 
Thored,  Gunner's  sou,  82,  88 
Thurkiil,  9S,  102,  109 
Thurkytel,  a  Danish  earl,  63 
Thurkytel,  sou  of  Nafan,  105 
Till>ert,  bishop  of  Hexham,  38 
Thurstan,  archl)p.  of  York,  182,  18C,  180 
Tidfrith,  bishop  of  Dunwich,  42 
Tobias,  bishop  of  Rochester,  xiii,  29,  32 
Tosty,  8on  of  tiodwin,  123-141 
Tremerin,  bishop  of  St.  David's,  131 
Trumwine,  bishop  of  the  Picts,  27 
Tuda,  bishop  of  Lindisfarne,  20-23 
Tumbert,  bishop  of  Hexham,  27 

Ulf,  bishop  of  Dorchester,  121,  123 
ITlfkytel,  earl  of  East  Anglia,  95,  99 
Utred,  earl  of  Northumbria,  101,  105 

Valentinian,  emperor,  6 
Vespasian,  emperor,  4 
Vortigern,  king,  7 

Walcher,  bishop  of  Durham,  154 
Waleram,  earl  of  Mellent,  190-196 
Walkelin,  bishop  of  Winchester,  173 
Waltheof,  earl  of  Northumbria,  144,  148, 

152,  153 
Werburh,  Geolred's  queen,  39 
Westminster  Abbey,  136 
Whitgar,  lord  of  Isle  of  Wight,  9,  10 
Whitherne  bishopric,  11 
Wigbert,  bishop  of  Sherborne,  13 

Wighard,  bishop-elect,  24 
Wight,  Isle  of,  7,  9,  23,  63,  04 
Wigthun,  bishop  of  Wiuchester,  45 
Wilfrid,  archl)i8hop  of  York,  20-31 
Wilfrid  II.,  archbishop  of  York,  28 
Wilfrid,  bishop  of  ^V'orcester,  34 
William,  bishop  of  Durham,  146,  162 
William,  bishop  of  Elmham,  146 
William  Curlioil,  archbishop  of  Canter- 
bury, 188,  196,  203 
William,  earl  of  Moreton,  73 
William,  earl  of  Normandy,  178 
William  Giffard,  bishop  ot  Winchester, 

175,  177,  189,  197 
William  I.  (the  Conqueror),  110,  138-161 
William,  prince,  son  of  Henry  I.,  183, 

185,  186 
William  Rufus,  146,  161-174 
Winchester  cathedral,  17 
Wini,  bishop,  20 
Withlaf,  king  of  Mercia,  44,  45 
Withred,  king  of  Kent,  29-32 
Wulfgar,  abbat  of  Abinirdon,  87-107 
Wulfgar,  bishop  of  Wiltshire,  16 
Wulfhelm,  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  73 
Wulfhere,  king  of  Mercia,  19-26 
Wulfnoth,  child,  97,  98 
Wulfred,  archbp.  of  Canterbury,  43-45 
Wulfric,  abbat  of  St.  Augustine's,  115 
Wulfstan,  archbishop  of  York,  76-78 
Wulfstan,  deacon,  dies,  79 
Wulfsy,  bishop  of  Lichfield,  129 
Wulfwy,  bishop  of  Dorchester,  129,  142 
Wulstan,  bishop  of  London,  92 
Wulstan,  bishop  of  Worcester,  162 
Wulstan  II.,  archbishop  of  York,  lOS 

York  minster,  15 

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LONDON:    G.    BELL    AND    SONS,   LTD. 



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THE    ANGLO-SAXON     KINGS.      Translated    by    the    late 

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"  Notwithstanding  the  number  of  histories  of  this  period  which  have  been 
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KINGS  OF  ENGLAND,  from  the  Earliest  Period  to  the  Reign 
of  King  Stephen.  Translated  by  Rev.  J.  Sharpe.  Edited  by 
J.  A.  Giles,  D.C.L.     With  Frontispiece.     Small  post  8vo.,  ^s. 

taining his  Topography  of  Ireland,  and  History  of  the  Conquest  of 
Ireland.  Translated  by  Th.  Forester,  M.A.  Itinerary  through 
Wales,  and  Description  of  Wales,  translated  by  Sir  R.  Colt  Hoare. 
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post  SVO.,    <fS. 

LONDON:    G.    BELL   AND   SONS,    LTD. 

Date  Due 

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3  5002  00143  4625 

The  Anglo-Saxon  chronicle; 

DA  150  .A6  1914  | 

Anglo-Saxon  chronicle. 
The  Anglo-Saxon  chronicle